EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS
Home About us
Advanced Search
23-Apr-2014 15:42
US Eastern Time

Username:

Password:

Register

Forgot Password?

Press Releases

Breaking News

Science Business

Grants, Awards, Books

Meetings

Multimedia

Science Agencies
on EurekAlert!

US Department of Energy

US National Institutes of Health

US National Science Foundation

Calendar

Submit a Calendar Item

Subscribe/Sponsor

Links & Resources

Portals

RSS Feeds

Accessibility Option On

News By Subject
Search this subject:
Agriculture
Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 23-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Too many chefs: Smaller groups exhibit more accurate decision-making
The trope that the likelihood of an accurate group decision increases with the abundance of brains involved might not hold up when a group faces a variety of factors, Princeton University researchers report. Instead, smaller groups actually tend to make more accurate decisions while larger assemblies may become excessively focused on only certain pieces of information.

Contact: Morgan Kelly
mgnkelly@princeton.edu
609-258-5729
Princeton University

Public Release: 23-Apr-2014
Biology Letters
Scientists identify source of mysterious sound in the Southern Ocean
Scientists have conclusive evidence that the source of a unique rhythmic sound, recorded for decades in the Southern Ocean and called the 'bio-duck,' is the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). First described and named by submarine personnel in the 1960s who thought it sounded like a duck, the bio-duck sound has been recorded at various locations in the Southern Ocean, but its source has remained a mystery, until now.
NOAA Fisheries, NSF/Office of Polar Programs, US Navy Environmental Readiness Division

Contact: Shelley Dawicki
shelley.dawicki@noaa.gov
508-495-2378
NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center

Public Release: 23-Apr-2014
Fires in the Primorsky Province of Russia
The uncontrolled method of managing agricultural areas each year turns the entire southern tip of Primorsky Province into an enormous firebed, enveloping up to 40 percent of the entire territory.
NASA

Contact: Rob Gutro
robert.j.gutro@nasa.gov
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Eating Behaviors
Biting vs. chewing
There's a new secret to get your child to behave at the dinner table -- cut up their food! This new Cornell study found that when 6- to 10-year-old children ate food that they had to bite with their front teeth, chicken on the bone, they were rowdier than when the food had been cut into bite-sized pieces.

Contact: Sandra Cuellar
foodandbrandlab@cornell.edu
607-254-4960
Cornell Food & Brand Lab

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New research focuses on streamwater chemistry, landscape variation
Winsor Lowe, interim director of the University of Montana's Wildlife Biology Program, co-wrote a research paper on how streamwater chemistry varies across a headwater stream network.

Contact: Winsor Lowe
winsor.lowe@umontana.edu
406-243-4375
The University of Montana

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Acta Biomaterialia
Mantis shrimp stronger than airplanes
Inspired by the fist-like club of a mantis shrimp, a team of researchers led by University of California, Riverside, in collaboration with University of Southern California and Purdue University, have developed a design structure for composite materials that is more impact resistant and tougher than the standard used in airplanes.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sean Nealon
sean.nealon@ucr.edu
951-827-1287
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
New electric fish genus and species discovered in Brazil's Rio Negro
Discovery of a new species of electric knife fish in the Amazon Basin in Brazil is leading to a new interpretation of classifications and interrelationships among closely related groups. As the diversity of electric fishes becomes more thoroughly documented, researchers will be able to explore possible causes of this group's adaptive radiation over evolutionary time.

Contact: Janet Lathrop
jlathrop@admin.umass.edu
413-545-0444
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Methods in Ecology and Evolution
UV-radiation data to help ecological research
Researchers at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research have processed existing data on global UV-B radiation in such a way that scientists can use them to find answers to many ecological questions. According to the paper published in Methods in Ecology and Evolution, an online journal of the British Ecological Society, this data set allows drawing new conclusions about the global distribution of animal and plant species.

Contact: Michael Beckmann
michael.beckmann@ufz.de
49-034-123-51946
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Nature Communications
International team sequences rainbow trout genome
Using fish bred at Washington State University, an international team of researchers has mapped the genetic profile of the rainbow trout, a versatile salmonid whose relatively recent genetic history opens a window into how vertebrates evolve. The 30-person team, led by Yann Guiguen of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research, reports its findings this week in Nature Communications.

Contact: Gary Thorgaard
gary.thorgaard@wsu.edu
509-335-7438
Washington State University

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
Molecular Biology and Evolution
Getting at the root of the mountain pine beetle's rapid habitat expansion and forest
The mountain pine beetle has wreaked havoc in North America, across forests from the American Southwest to British Columbia and Alberta, with the potential to spread all the way to the Atlantic coast. Using a newly sequenced beetle genome, authors Janes, et.al. examined how the pine beetle could undergo such rapid habitat range expansion.

Contact: Joe Caspermeyer
joseph.caspermeyer@asu.edu
480-258-8972
Molecular Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press)

Public Release: 22-Apr-2014
mBio
Cow manure harbors diverse new antibiotic resistance genes
Manure from dairy cows, which is commonly used as a farm soil fertilizer, contains a surprising number of newly identified antibiotic resistance genes from the cows' gut bacteria. The findings, reported in mBio the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, hints that cow manure is a potential source of new types of antibiotic resistance genes that transfer to bacteria in the soils where food is grown.

Contact: Jim Sliwa
jsliwa@asmusa.org
202-942-9297
American Society for Microbiology

Public Release: 21-Apr-2014
Nature Climate Change
Earth Week: Bark beetles change Rocky Mountain stream flows, affect water quality
On Earth Week -- and in fact, every week now -- trees in mountains across the western United States are dying, thanks to an infestation of bark beetles that reproduce in the trees' inner bark.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cheryl Dybas
cdybas@nsf.gov
703-292-7734
National Science Foundation

Public Release: 21-Apr-2014
Avian Conservation and Ecology
Lack of breeding threatens blue-footed boobies' survival
Blue-footed Boobies are on the decline in the Galapagos. A new study appearing in the journal Avian Conservation and Ecology indicates numbers of the iconic birds, known for their bright blue feet and propensity to burst into dance to attract mates, have fallen more than 50 percent in less than 20 years.
Galápagos Conservancy, Swiss Friends of Galápagos, Galápagos Conservation Trust

Contact: Will Ferguson
ferguswg@wfu.edu
509-954-2912
Wake Forest University

Public Release: 21-Apr-2014
Journal of Food Science
Edible flowers may inhibit chronic diseases
A new study in the Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists, found that common edible flowers in China are rich in phenolics and have excellent antioxidant capacity.

Contact: Stephanie Callahan
scallahan@ift.org
312-604-0273
Institute of Food Technologists

Public Release: 21-Apr-2014
Nutrients
Ginseng can treat and prevent influenza and RSV, researcher finds
Ginseng can help treat and prevent influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, a respiratory virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages, according to research findings by a scientist in Georgia State University's new Institute for Biomedical Sciences.

Contact: LaTina Emerson
lemerson1@gsu.edu
404-413-1353
Georgia State University

Public Release: 21-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ecology team improves understanding of valley-wide stream chemistry
Understanding the chemistry of streams at a finer scale could help to identify factors impairing water quality and help protect aquatic ecosystems.
National Science Foundation, A.W. Mellon Foundation

Contact: Kevin McGuire
kevin.mcguire@vt.edu
540-231-6017
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 21-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Birthplace of the domesticated chili pepper identified in Mexico
Combining historical language and ecological information, as well as genetic and archaeological data, scientists have identified Central-east Mexico as the likely birthplace of the domesticated chili pepper.
Fulbright Program, University of California Institute for Mexico, United States

Contact: Keith Sterling
ksterling@ucdavis.edu
530-752-9841
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 20-Apr-2014
Nature Climate Change
Study casts doubt on climate benefit of biofuels from corn residue
Biofuels made from corn stover -- stalks, leaves and cobs that remain after harvest -- appear to emit more carbon dioxide over their life cycle than federal standards allow, according to research led by Adam Liska, assistant professor of biological engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
US Department of Energy

Contact: Adam Liska
aliska2@unl.edu
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
More questions than answers as mystery of domestication deepens
A recent interdisciplinary conference that led to the publication of a special issue of PNAS on domestication raised more questions than it answered. Washington University in St. Louis scientists Fiona Marshall and Ken Olsen, who participated in the conference and contributed to the special issue, discuss some of the key questions that have been raised about this pivotal event in human history.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Lutz
dlutz@wustl.edu
314-935-5272
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Nature
Stanford researchers rethink 'natural' habitat for wildlife
Protecting wildlife while feeding a world population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050 will require a holistic approach to conservation that considers human-altered landscapes such as farmland, according to Stanford researchers.

Contact: Rob Jordan
rjordan@stanford.edu
650-721-1881
Stanford University

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Soil Science Society of America Journal
Researchers question published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates
For the past 20 years, researchers have published soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Many of the research findings have suggested that soil organic carbon can be sequestered by simply switching from moldboard or conventional tillage systems to no-till systems. However, there is a growing body of research with evidence that no-till systems in corn and soybean rotations without cover crops, small grains, and forages may not be increasing soil organic carbon stocks at the published rates.

Contact: Debra Levey Larson
dlarson@illinois.edu
217-244-2880
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
New Phytologist
Plants with dormant seeds give rise to more species
Seeds that sprout as soon as they're planted may be good news for a garden. But in the wild, a plant whose seeds sprouted at the first warm spell or rainy day would risk disaster. More than just an insurance policy against late frosts or unexpected dry spells, it turns out that seed dormancy has long-term advantages too: plants whose seeds put off sprouting until conditions are more certain give rise to more species.

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
rsmith@nescent.org
919-668-4544
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Geology
Impact glass stores biodata for millions of years
Bits of plant life encapsulated in molten glass by asteroid and comet impacts millions of years ago give geologists information about climate and life forms on the ancient Earth. Scientists exploring large fields of impact glass in Argentina suggest that what happened on Earth might well have happened on Mars millions of years ago. Martian impact glass could hold traces of organic compounds.

Contact: Mark Nickel
mark_nickel@brown.edu
401-863-1638
Brown University

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Science
Frozen in time: 3-million-year-old landscape still exists beneath the Greenland ice sheet
Some of the landscape underlying the massive Greenland ice sheet may have been undisturbed for almost 3 million years, ever since the island became completely ice-covered, according to researchers funded by the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
joshua.e.brown@uvm.edu
802-656-3039
National Science Foundation

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Chickens to chili peppers
Suddenly there was a word for chili peppers. Information about archaeological remains of ancient chili peppers in Mexico along with a study of the appearance of words for chili peppers in ancient dialects helped researchers to understand where jalapenos were domesticated. Special issue of PNAS on plant and animal domestication.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth King
kingb@si.edu
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute