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Atmospheric Science
Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Science
Researchers find 3-million-year-old landscape beneath Greenland ice sheet
Glaciers and ice sheets are commonly thought to work like a belt sander. As they move over the land they scrape off everything -- vegetation, soil and even the top layer of bedrock. So a team of university scientists and a NASA colleague were greatly surprised to discover an ancient tundra landscape preserved under the Greenland ice sheet, below two miles of ice.
NASA, University of Vermont

Contact: Maria-Jose Vinas-Garcia
maria-jose.vinasgarcia@nasa.gov
301-614-5883
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Soil Science Society of America Journal
Researchers question published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates
For the past 20 years, researchers have published soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Many of the research findings have suggested that soil organic carbon can be sequestered by simply switching from moldboard or conventional tillage systems to no-till systems. However, there is a growing body of research with evidence that no-till systems in corn and soybean rotations without cover crops, small grains, and forages may not be increasing soil organic carbon stocks at the published rates.

Contact: Debra Levey Larson
dlarson@illinois.edu
217-244-2880
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
New Phytologist
Plants with dormant seeds give rise to more species
Seeds that sprout as soon as they're planted may be good news for a garden. But in the wild, a plant whose seeds sprouted at the first warm spell or rainy day would risk disaster. More than just an insurance policy against late frosts or unexpected dry spells, it turns out that seed dormancy has long-term advantages too: plants whose seeds put off sprouting until conditions are more certain give rise to more species.

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
rsmith@nescent.org
919-668-4544
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 18-Apr-2014
Science
Frozen in time: 3-million-year-old landscape still exists beneath the Greenland ice sheet
Some of the landscape underlying the massive Greenland ice sheet may have been undisturbed for almost 3 million years, ever since the island became completely ice-covered, according to researchers funded by the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
joshua.e.brown@uvm.edu
802-656-3039
National Science Foundation

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Nature Photonics
'Dressed' laser aimed at clouds may be key to inducing rain, lightning
The adage 'Everyone complains about the weather but nobody does anything about it,' may one day be obsolete if researchers at the University of Central Florida's College of Optics & Photonics and the University of Arizona further develop a new technique to aim a high-energy laser beam into clouds to make it rain or trigger lightning. Other possible uses of this technique could be used in long-distance sensors and spectrometers to identify chemical makeup.
US Department of Defense

Contact: Gene Kruckemyer
gene.kruckemyer@ucf.edu
407-823-1637
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Science
Lab researcher discovers the green in Greenland
An international team of researchers, including a scientist from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has discovered that ancient dirt in Greenland was cryogenically frozen for millions of years under nearly two miles of ice.

Contact: Anne Stark
stark8@llnl.gov
925-422-9799
DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Vitamin B3 might have been made in space, delivered to Earth by meteorites
Ancient Earth might have had an extraterrestrial supply of vitamin B3 delivered by carbon-rich meteorites, according to a new analysis by NASA-funded researchers. The result supports a theory that the origin of life may have been assisted by a supply of key molecules created in space and brought to Earth by comet and meteor impacts.
NASA

Contact: Bill Steigerwald
william.a.steigerwald@nasa.gov
301-286-5017
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Geophysical Research Letters
AGU: More, bigger wildfires burning western US, study shows
Wildfires across the western United States have been getting bigger and more frequent over the last 30 years.

Contact: Alexandra Branscombe
abranscombe@agu.org
202-777-7516
American Geophysical Union

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Environmental Health Perspectives
Fish consumption advisories fail to cover all types of contaminants
A new UTSC study suggests that fish consumption advisories for expecting mothers are ineffective in reducing infant exposure to contaminants like persistent organic pollutants.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Contact: Don Campbell
dcampbell@utsc.utoronto.ca
416-208-2938
University of Toronto

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Drought and fire in the Amazon lead to sharp increases in forest tree mortality
Ongoing deforestation and fragmentation of forests in the Amazon help create tinderbox conditions for wildfires in remnant forests, contributing to rapid and widespread forest loss during drought years, according to a team of researchers.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Packard Foundation, Max Planck Institute of Biogeochemistry

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Wireless power transfer achieved at 5-meter distance
Chun T. Rim, a professor of Nuclear & Quantum Engineering at KAIST, and his team showcased, on April 16, 2014 at the KAIST campus, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, a great improvement in the distance that electric power can travel wirelessly. They developed the 'Dipole Coil Resonant System' for an extended range of inductive power transfer, up to 5 meters between transmitter and receiver coils.

Contact: Lan Yoon
hlyoon@kaist.ac.kr
82-423-502-294
The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Science
ASU researchers urge alternative identification methods for threatened species
With global climate change and rapidly disappearing habitat critical to the survival of endangered species, there is a sense of urgency to confirm the return of animals thought to be extinct, or to confirm the presence of newly discovered species. Researchers at Arizona State University and Plymouth University want to change how biologists think about collecting 'voucher' specimens for species identification, suggesting current specimen collection practices pose a risk to vulnerable animal populations nearing extinction.

Contact: Sandra Leander
sandra.leander@asu.edu
480-965-9865
Arizona State University

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Nature Geoscience
Methane climate change risk suggested by proof of redox cycling of humic substances
Disruption of natural methane-binding process may worsen climate change.

Contact: Press Office
press@goldschmidt2013.org
European Association of Geochemistry

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Science
Science: There's something ancient in the icebox
Scientists were greatly surprised to discover an ancient tundra landscape preserved under the Greenland Ice Sheet, below two miles of ice. This finding, led by geologists at the University of Vermont, provides strong evidence that the ice sheet has persisted much longer than previously known, enduring through many past periods of global warming.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
joshua.e.brown@uvm.edu
802-656-3039
University of Vermont

Public Release: 17-Apr-2014
Science
Clean air: Fewer sources for self-cleaning
Up to now, nitrous acid, HONO, was considered one of the most important sources of hydroxyl radicals, OH, which is regarded as the detergent of the atmosphere, allowing the air to clean itself. Jülich scientists have put an end to this conception. The new hypothesis is based on air measurements recorded by a Zeppelin NT within the framework the EU PEGASOS project. The results have appeared in the peer-reviewed journal Science.
European Commission, Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Contact: Dr. Franz Rohrer
f.rohrer@fz-juelich.de
49-246-161-6511
Forschungszentrum Juelich

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature
Ancient sea-levels give new clues on ice ages
International researchers, led by the Australian National University (ANU), have developed a new way to determine sea-level changes and deep-sea temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years. The findings will help scientists better understand the climate surrounding ice ages over the past two million years, and could help determine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels, global temperatures and sea levels.

Contact: ANU Media Office
media@anu.edu.au
026-125-7979
Australian National University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Stanford biologists help solve fungal mysteries
A new genetic analysis revealing the previously unknown biodiversity and distribution of thousands of fungi in North America might also reveal a previously underappreciated contributor to climate change.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bjorn Carey, Stanford News Service
bccarey@stanford.edu
650-725-1944
Stanford University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Journal of Environmental Quality
Significant baseline levels of arsenic found in Ohio soils are due to natural processes
Geologic and soil processes are to blame for significant baseline levels of arsenic in soil throughout Ohio, according to a new study. The findings pose a challenge for regulators, who must determine what levels should trigger action when natural arsenic levels everywhere are above suggested screening standards.
Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, US Geological Survey

Contact: Tom Rickey
tom.rickey@pnnl.gov
509-375-3732
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Geology
Dartmouth-led study shows air temperature influenced African glacial movements
Changes in air temperature, not precipitation, drove the expansion and contraction of glaciers in Africa's Rwenzori Mountains at the height of the last ice age, according to a Dartmouth-led study funded by the National Geographic Society and the National Science Foundation.
National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
John.Cramer@Dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Geology
Scratching the surface: Microbial etchings in impact glass and the search for life on Mars
Haley M. Sapers and colleagues provide what may be the first report of biological activity preserved in impact glass. Recent research has suggested that impact events create novel within-rock microbial habitats. In their paper, 'Enigmatic tubular features in impact glass,' Sapers and colleagues analyze tubular features in hydrothermally altered impact glass from the Ries Impact Structure, Germany, that are remarkably similar to the bioalteration textures observed in volcanic glasses.

Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Environmental Science & Technology
Researchers question emergency water treatment guidelines
The Environmental Protection Agency's recommendations for treating water after a natural disaster or other emergencies call for more chlorine bleach than is necessary to kill disease-causing pathogens and are often impractical to carry out, a new study has found. The authors of the report, which appears in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology, suggest that the agency review and revise its guidelines.

Contact: Michael Bernstein
m_bernstein@acs.org
202-872-6042
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Aquatic Toxicology
Fish exposed to antidepressants exhibit altered behavioral changes
Fish exposed to the antidepressant Fluoxetine, an active ingredient in prescription drugs such as Prozac, exhibited a range of altered mating behaviours, repetitive behaviour and aggression towards female fish, according to new research published on in the latest special issue of Aquatic Toxicology: Antidepressants in the Aquatic Environment.

Contact: Kitty van Hensbergen
c.hensbergen@elsevier.com
31-204-852-291
Elsevier

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
International Journal of Modern Physics C
Researchers propose network-based evaluation tool to assess relief operations feasibility
A Singapore-based team of scientists from the Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR and The Logistics Institute-Asia Pacific has presented a model that looks into the logistics of disaster relief using open data and tools and measures developed in the field of network science.
Singapore Agency for Science, Technology and Research Complex Systems Programme, Agency for Science, Technology and Research Science and Engineering Research Center grant

Contact: Jason Lim Chongjin
cjlim@wspc.com.sg
65-646-65775 x247
World Scientific

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature Communications
Warm US West, cold East: A 4,000-year pattern
Last winter's curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A University of Utah-led study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, and suggests it may worsen as Earth's climate warms.
National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and others

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 15-Apr-2014
Journal of Climate
Study: Deforestation could intensify climate change in Congo Basin by half
By 2050, deforestation could cause temperatures in the Congo Basin to increase by 0.7 degrees C. The increase would intensify warming caused by greenhouse gases by half, according to a study by researchers at the University of Leuven, Belgium.

Contact: Wim Thiery
wim.thiery@ees.kuleuven.be
32-485-708-018
KU Leuven