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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Environment plays bigger role than genetics in food allergic disease eosinophilic esophagitis
Researchers have found that environment has a much stronger role than genetics in eosinophilic esophagitis, a severe, often painful food allergy that renders children unable to eat a wide variety of foods.
Frank C. Woodside, Cincinnati Children's Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Cincinnati Research Council, Campaign Urging Research for Eosinophilic Disease

Contact: Jim Feuer
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
The accelerator of molecular motors
Peroxisomes are vital cell components that degrade cellular toxins and long-chain fatty acids. Their malfunction may result in severe, often lethal disorders. RUB researchers -- Medical Faculty -- have been studying the precise working mechanisms of peroxisomes for 25 years. In collaboration with Dortmund-based institutes at Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften, they have successfully identified the 'molecular accelerator' that activates the peroxisomal processes.

Contact: Dr. Harald Platta
Ruhr-University Bochum

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Polar Biology
Arctic sea ice helps remove CO2 from the atmosphere
Climate change is a fact, and most of the warming is caused by human activity. The Arctic is now so warm that the extent of sea ice has decreased by about 30 percent in summer and in winter, sea ice is getting thinner. New research has shown that sea ice removes CO2 from the atmosphere. If Arctic sea ice is reduced, we may therefore be facing an increase of atmospheric concentration of CO2, researchers warn.

Contact: Birgitte Svennevig
University of Southern Denmark

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Research evaluates neurodevelomental and medical outcomes in single family room NICU
Researchers have found that a single-family room neonatal intensive care unit provides for appropriate levels of maternal involvement, developmental support, and staff involvement, which are essential to provide the kind of care that can optimize the medical and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants and lead to the development of preventive interventions to reduce later impairment.

Contact: Amy Blustein
Women & Infants Hospital

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
American Journal of Epidemiology
Mothers of children with autism less likely to have taken iron supplements
Mothers of children with autism are significantly less likely to report taking iron supplements before and during their pregnancies than the mothers of children who are developing normally, a study by researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute has found.
National Institutes of Health, US Environmental Protection Agency Science to Achieve Results

Contact: Phyllis Brown
University of California - Davis Health System

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Applied Energy
Fracking's environmental impacts scrutinized
Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of shale gas would be comparable to conventional natural gas, but the controversial energy source actually faired better than renewables on some environmental impacts, according to new research.

Contact: Aeron Haworth
University of Manchester

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Nature Chemical Biology
Stanford researchers create 'evolved' protein that may stop cancer from spreading
Stanford researchers have created a decoy protein designed to interrupt the signaling pathway that triggers the breakaway of cancerous cells; in other words the signal that initiates metastasis. Preliminary tests showed this strategy effective in mice models; infusion with this decoy protein greatly reduced metastasis in mice with aggressive breast and ovarian cancers when compared to a control group. Years of tests lie ahead but it's a promising start for an alternative to chemotherapy.

Contact: Tm Abate
Stanford School of Engineering

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Nature Nanotechnology
Engineered proteins stick like glue -- even in water
MIT researchers find new adhesives based on mussel proteins could be useful for naval or medical applications.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Nature Medicine
Immune system of newborn babies is stronger than previously thought
Contrary to what was previously thought, newborn immune T cells may have the ability to trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria, according to a new study led by King's College London. Although their immune system works very differently to that of adults, babies may still be able to mount a strong immune defense, finds the study published in the journal Nature Medicine.

Contact: Jenny Gimpel
King's College London

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Nature Biotechnology
Battling superbugs
Two new technologies from researchers at MIT could enable novel strategies for combating drug-resistant bacteria.
National Institutes of Health, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, US Army Research Laboratory, US Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research, The Ellison Foundation

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Earth System Science Data
CO2 emissions set to reach new 40 billion ton record high in 2014
New research shows CO2 emissions are set to reach a new 40 billion ton record high in 2014. The research also shows that the world's remaining CO2 emission 'quota' may be used up in one generation and that more than half of all fossil fuel reserves may need to be left untapped -- for a likely (66 percent) chance of keeping average global warming under a target 2°C (since pre-industrial times).

Contact: Lisa Horton
University of East Anglia

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Nature Methods
Program predicts placement of chemical tags that control gene activity
Biochemists have developed a program that predicts the placement of chemical marks that control the activity of genes based on sequences of DNA. By comparing sequences with and without epigenomic modification, they identified DNA motifs associated with the changes. They call this novel analysis pipeline Epigram and have made both the program and the DNA motifs they identified openly available to other scientists.
NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Contact: Susan Brown
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 20-Sep-2014
University of Southern California researchers reveal how gene expression affects facial expressions
A person's face is the first thing that others see, and much remains unknown about how it forms -- or malforms -- during early development. Recently, Chong Pyo Choe, a senior postdoctoral fellow working in the lab of University of Southern California stem cell researcher Gage Crump, has begun to unwind these mysteries.
NIH/National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine

Contact: Cristy Lytal
University of Southern California - Health Sciences

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Genes & Development
Scientists discover an on-off switch for aging cells
Scientists at the Salk Institute have discovered an on-and-off 'switch' in cells that may hold the key to healthy aging. This switch points to a way to encourage healthy cells to keep dividing and generating, for example, new lung or liver tissue, even in old age.
National Institutes of Health, Fritz B. Burns Foundation, Rose Hills Foundation

Contact: Salk Communications
Salk Institute

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Dwindling wind may tip predator-prey balance
Rising temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns may get the lion's share of our climate change attention, but predators may want to give some thought to wind, according to a University of Wisconsin Madison zoologist's study, which is among the first to demonstrate the way 'global stilling' may alter predator-prey relationships.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brandon Barton
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Soft Robotics
Soft robotics 'toolkit' features everything a robot-maker needs
A new resource unveiled today by researchers from several Harvard University labs in collaboration with Trinity College Dublin provides both experienced and aspiring researchers with the intellectual raw materials needed to design, build, and operate robots made from soft, flexible materials.

Contact: Paul Karoff
Harvard University

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Researchers discover new gene responsible for traits involved in diabetes
A collaborative research team led by Medical College of Wisconsin scientists has identified a new gene associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in rats, mice and in humans. The findings are published in the September issue of Genetics.

Contact: Maureen Mack
Medical College of Wisconsin

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Acta Crystallographica Section D
A refined approach to proteins at low resolution
Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determination of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: IUCR Press Office
International Union of Crystallography

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
New hadrosaur noses into spotlight
Call it the Jimmy Durante of dinosaurs -- a newly discovered hadrosaur with a truly distinctive nasal profile. The new dinosaur, named Rhinorex condrupus by paleontologists from North Carolina State University and Brigham Young University, lived in what is now Utah approximately 75 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous period.

Contact: Mick Kulikowski
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Nature Communications
Long-distance communication from leaves to roots
Leguminous plants create symbiotic organs called nodules in their roots. Japanese researchers have shown that cytokinins, a kind of plant hormone, play an important role in preserving proper root nodule numbers using the model plant Lotus japonicus. The results of this work were published in the journal Nature Communications titled 'Shoot-derived cytokinins systemically regulate root nodulation.'

Contact: Office of Public Relations National Institute for Basic Biol
National Institutes of Natural Sciences

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Veterinary Microbiology
Lymphatic fluid used for first time to detect bovine paratuberculosis
Paratuberculosis is a bovine disease affecting up to 19 percent of dairy farms in Austria. The affected animals must be culled from the herd as quickly as possible. In order to recognize the disease before it manifests, researchers from the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, for the first time employed a rapid test of the lymphatic fluid of the animals and inform about it in the journal Veterinary Microbiology.

Contact: Johannes Lorenz Khol
University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Environmental Science & Technology
Environmental pollutants make worms susceptible to cold
Some pollutants are more harmful in a cold climate than in a hot, because they affect the temperature sensitivity of certain organisms. Now researchers from Danish universities have demonstrated how this happens, and it can help us better predict contamination risks, especially in the Arctic.

Contact: Birgitte Svennevig
University of Southern Denmark

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Journal of Neuroscience
Neurons express 'gloss' using three perceptual parameters
Japanese researchers found that brain uses 3 perceptual parameters, the contrast-of-highlight, sharpness-of-highlight, or brightness of the object, as parameters when the brain recognizes a variety of glosses. They also found that different parameters are represented by different populations of neurons. This was published in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Contact: Hidehiko Komatsu
National Institutes of Natural Sciences

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Nature Communications
For legume plants, a new route from shoot to root
A new study shows that legume plants regulate their symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria by using cytokinins -- signaling molecules -- that are transmitted through the plant structure from leaves into the roots to control the number of bacteria-holding nodules in the roots.

Contact: Jens Wilkinson

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Public Health Nutrition
Even without kids, couples eat frequent family meals
Couples and other adult family members living without minors in the house are just as likely as adults living with young children or adolescents to eat family meals at home on most days of the week, new research suggests.

Contact: Emily Caldwell
Ohio State University