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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Invasive lionfish likely safe to eat after all
Scientists from University of Hawaii have learned that recent fears of invasive lionfish causing fish poisoning may be unfounded. If so, current efforts to control lionfish by fishing derbies and targeted fisheries may remain the best way to control the invasion. And there's a simple way to know for sure whether a lionfish is toxic: test it after it's been cooked.

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
University of Hawaii ‑ SOEST

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Study of bigeye tuna in Northwest Atlantic uses new tracking methods
This NOAA-funded research, which used a new approach to study one of the most important commercial tuna species in the Atlantic, provides the longest available fishery-independent record of bigeye tuna movements to date. Data should help researchers to further characterize habitat use and assess the need for more monitoring in high-catch areas.

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Study of twins discovers gene mutation linked to short sleep duration
Researchers who studied 100 twin pairs have identified a gene mutation that may allow the carrier to function normally on less than six hours of sleep per night. The genetic variant also appears to provide greater resistance to the effects of sleep deprivation.
NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Institutional Development Fund from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Contact: Lynn Celmer
American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres
Stanford professor finds that wildfires and other burns play bigger role in climate change
Research demonstrates that it isn't just the CO2 from biomass burning that's the problem. Black carbon and brown carbon maximize the thermal impacts of such fires. They essentially allow biomass burning to cause much more global warming per unit weight than other human-associated carbon sources.

Contact: Tom Abate
Stanford School of Engineering

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Nursing Research
NYU research looks to combat US Latina immigrant obesity
NYU College of Nursing student researcher sought to identify the factors that contribute to this problem by compiling a systematic review of qualitative studies that focused on food patterns in Latina women recently published in Nursing Research.

Contact: Christopher James
New York University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Certain Arctic lakes store more greenhouse gases than they release
New research, supported by the National Science Foundation, counters a widely-held scientific view that thawing permafrost uniformly accelerates atmospheric warming, indicating instead that certain Arctic lakes store more greenhouse gases than they emit into the atmosphere.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter West
National Science Foundation

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
UF study advances 'DNA revolution,' tells butterflies' evolutionary history
By tracing nearly 3,000 genes to the earliest common ancestor of butterflies and moths, University of Florida scientists have created an extensive 'Tree of Lepidoptera' in the first study to use large-scale, next-generation DNA sequencing.

Contact: Akito Kawahara
University of Florida

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Corrosion Science
NIST corrosion lab tests suggest need for underground gas tank retrofits
A hidden hazard lurks beneath many of the roughly 156,000 gas stations across the United States.The hazard is corrosion in parts of underground gas storage tanks -- corrosion that could result in failures, leaks and contamination of groundwater, a source of drinking water. In recent years, field inspectors in nine states have reported many rapidly corroding gas storage tank components such as sump pumps.

Contact: Laura Ost
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Study finds benefits to burning Flint Hills prairie in fall and winter
A new study looks at 20 years of data concerning the consequences of burning Flint Hills prairie at different times of the year. It finds that burning outside of the current late spring time frame has no measurable negative consequences for the prairie, and in fact, may have multiple benefits.

Contact: Joseph Craine
Kansas State University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Scientists find growing consensus: Political attitudes derive from body and mind
Neither conscious decision-making or parental upbringing fully explain why some people lean left and others lean right, researchers say. A mix of deep-seated psychology and physiological responses are at the core of political differences.

Contact: John Hibbing
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Infection and Immunity
C. difficile vaccine proves safe, 100 percent effective in animal models
An experimental vaccine protected 100 percent of animal models against the highly infectious and virulent bacterium, Clostridium difficile, which causes an intestinal disease that kills approximately 30,000 Americans annually. The research is published ahead of print in Infection and Immunity.

Contact: Jim Sliwa
American Society for Microbiology

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Strict genomic partitioning by biological clock separates key metabolic functions
Much of the liver's metabolic function is governed by circadian rhythms -- our own body clock -- and UC Irvine researchers have now found two independent mechanisms by which this occurs.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Surgeons report significant migraine relief from cosmetic eyelid surgery technique
Dr. Oren Tessler, Assistant Professor of Clinical Surgery at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Medicine, is part of a team of plastic and reconstructive surgeons who report a high success rate using a method to screen and select patients for a specific surgical migraine treatment technique. More than 90 percent of the patients who underwent this surgery to decompress the nerves that trigger migraines experienced relief and also got a bonus cosmetic eyelid surgery.

Contact: Leslie Capo
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Researchers uncover cause of gum disease related to type 2 diabetes
Going to the dentist isn't fun for anyone, but for those with periodontal disease related to type 2 diabetes, a new research discovery published in the August 2014 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology may have them smiling.

Contact: Cody Mooneyhan
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Angewandte Chemie
Breakthrough in understanding of important blood protein
New Danish research describes a previously unknown protein mechanism. This provides an exceptionally detailed understanding of how nature works, and it can also provide the ability to control nature -- in this case, it is about how coagulated blood can be dissolved, and this can lead to treatment of diseases carrying a risk of blood clots.

Contact: Birgitte Svennevig
University of Southern Denmark

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Science Translational Medicine
Hope for the overweight
The body has different types of adipose tissue that perform various metabolic tasks: white, beige and brown. For the first time, researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen and Harvard Medical School have successfully identified specific surface proteins that can help distinguish between the three types. This discovery makes it possible to develop new treatment options for adiposity. The work has been published in Science Translational Medicine.

Contact: Dr. Siegfried Ussar
Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
A mathematical theory proposed by Alan Turing in 1952 can explain the formation of fingers
Researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona, show that BMP and WNT proteins are the so-called 'Turing molecules' for creating embryonic fingers. Findings explain why polydactyly -- the development of extra fingers or toes -- is relatively common in humans, affecting up to one in 500 births, and confirms a fundamental theory first proposed by the founding father of computer science, Alan Turing, back in 1952.
Center for Genomic Regulation, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, MINECO Spain, Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia

Contact: Juan Manuel Sarasua
Center for Genomic Regulation

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
99th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
The Rim Fire 1 year later: A natural experiment in fire ecology and management
The 2013 California Rim Fire crossed management boundaries when it burned out of the Stanislaus National Forest and into to Yosemite National Park, providing a natural demonstration of the effects of a history of fire suppression on wildfire dynamics.

Contact: Liza Lester
202-833-8773 x211
Ecological Society of America

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
PLOS Genetics
Innovative 'genotype first' approach uncovers protective factor for heart disease
Extensive sequencing of DNA from thousands of individuals in Finland has unearthed scores of mutations that destroy gene function and are found at unusually high frequencies. Among these are two mutations in a gene called LPA that may reduce a person's risk of heart disease. These findings are an exciting proof-of-concept for a new 'genotype first' approach to identifying rare genetic variants associated with, or protecting from, disease followed by extensive medical review of carriers.
Academy of Finland, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Wellcome Trust, and others

Contact: Haley Bridger
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Scientific Reports
Boat noise impacts development and survival of sea hares
The development and survival of an important group of marine invertebrates known as sea hares is under threat from increasing boat noise in the world's oceans, according to a new study by researchers from the UK and France.

Contact: Hannah Johnson
University of Bristol

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Shrinking dinosaurs evolved into flying birds
A new study involving scientists from the University of Southampton has revealed how massive, meat-eating, ground-dwelling dinosaurs evolved into agile flying birds: they just kept shrinking and shrinking, for over 50 million years.

Contact: Glenn Harris
University of Southampton

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
New mapping approach lets scientists zoom in and out as the brain processes sound
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have mapped the sound-processing part of the mouse brain in a way that keeps both the proverbial forest and the trees in view. Their imaging technique allows zooming in and out on views of brain activity within mice, and it enabled the team to watch brain cells light up as mice 'called' to each other. The results represent a step toward better understanding how our own brains process language.
Robert J. Kleberg, Jr. and Helen C. Kleberg Foundation, NIH/National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH/Medical Scientist Training Program, NIH/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

Contact: Shawna Williams
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Cell Reports
Birthday matters for wiring-up the brain's vision centers
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have evidence suggesting that neurons in the developing brains of mice are guided by a simple but elegant birth order rule that allows them to find and form their proper connections.
NIH/National Eye Institute, E. Matilda Ziegler Foundation for the Blind Inc., Pew Charitable Trusts

Contact: Scott LaFee
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
See-through organs and bodies will accelerate biomedical discoveries
The ability to see through organs and even the entire body has been a long-time dream of biologists. A new study has now made that dream a reality, revealing simple methods for making opaque organs, bodies, and human tissue biopsies transparent, while keeping the cellular structures and connections intact. The protocols could pave the way for a better understanding of brain-body interactions, more accurate clinical diagnoses and disease monitoring, and a new generation of therapies.

Contact: Mary Beth O'Leary
Cell Press

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
American Journal of Human Genetics
Mosaicism: Study clarifies parents as source of new disease mutations
Scientists have long speculated that mosaicism -- a biological phenomenon, in which cells within the same person have a different genetic makeup -- plays a bigger role in the transmission of rare disease mutations than is currently known. A study conducted by an international team of scientists led by Baylor College of Medicine sheds new light on the frequency of mosaicism in genomic disorders and its influence on recurrence risk.

Contact: Glenna Picton
Baylor College of Medicine