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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
UEG Week 2014
Expert highlights research innovation and is optimistic about the future of IBS treatment
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may at last be able to hope for a brighter future as innovative new treatments emerge and researchers clarify the role of current therapies.

Contact: Samantha Forster
samantha@spinkhealth.com
44-144-481-1099
Spink Health

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Molecular Psychiatry
UCSF researchers identify key factor in transition from moderate to problem drinking
A team of UC San Francisco researchers has found that a tiny segment of genetic material known as a microRNA plays a central role in the transition from moderate drinking to binge drinking and other alcohol use disorders.
NIH/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, State of California

Contact: Pete Farley
peter.farley@ucsf.edu
415-502-6397
University of California - San Francisco

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
mBio
Once CD8 T cells take on one virus, they'll fight others too
CD8 T cells are known for becoming attuned to fight a specific pathogen ('adaptive immunity'), but a new study shows that in that process they also become first-responders that can fend off a variety of other invaders ('innate immunity'). The findings suggest that innate immunity changes with the body's experience and that the T cells are more versatile than thought.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Behavioral Ecology
Built-in billboards: Male bluefin killifish signal different things with different fins
They help fish swim, but fins also advertise a fish's social standing and health. In a new study, researchers report that for the male bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei), each colorful fin presents its own messages to other fish.
National Science Foundation Division of Environmental Biology

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Tarantula toxin is used to report on electrical activity in live cells
A novel probe that reports on the electrical activity of cells, made by fusing tarantula toxin with a fluorescent compound, is described in a paper today by scientists from the University of California, Davis; the Neurobiology course at the Marine Biological Laboratory; and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Milton L. Shifman Endowed Scholarship for MBL Neurobiology Course

Contact: Diana Kenney
dkenney@mbl.edu
508-289-7139
Marine Biological Laboratory

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Study suggests altering gut bacteria might mitigate lupus
Lactobacillus species, commonly seen in yogurt cultures, correlate, in the guts of mouse models, with mitigation of lupus symptoms, while Lachnospiraceae, a type of Clostridia, correlate with worsening, according to research published ahead of print in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 'Our results suggest that the same investigation should be performed in human subjects with lupus,' says principal investigator Xin Luo of Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.

Contact: Garth Hogan
ghogan@asmusa.org
American Society for Microbiology

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
eLife
Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies
Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears. By demonstrating the importance of the protein, called NT3, in maintaining communication between the ears and brain, these new findings pave the way for research in humans that could improve treatment of hearing loss caused by noise exposure and normal aging.
NIH/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Hearing Health Foundation

Contact: Kara Gavin
kegavin@umich.edu
734-764-2220
University of Michigan Health System

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Pharmaceuticals and the water-fish-osprey food web
Ospreys do not carry significant amounts of human pharmaceutical chemicals, despite widespread occurrence of these chemicals in water, a recent U.S. Geological Survey and Baylor University study finds. These research findings, published by Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management is the first published study that examines the bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in the water-fish-osprey food web.

Contact: Jen Lynch
jen.lynch@setac.org
850-469-150-0109
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Findings point to an 'off switch' for drug resistance in cancer
Like a colony of bacteria or species of animals, cancer cells within a tumor must evolve to survive. A dose of chemotherapy may kill hundreds of thousands of cancer cells, for example, but a single cell with a unique mutation can survive and quickly generate a new batch of drug-resistant cells, making cancer hard to combat. Scientists at the Salk Institute have uncovered details about how cancer is able to become drug resistant over time.

Contact: Salk Communications
press@salk.edu
Salk Institute

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
PLOS ONE
Supercomputers link proteins to drug side effects
New medications created by pharmaceutical companies have helped millions of Americans alleviate pain and suffering from their medical conditions. However, the drug creation process often misses many side effects that kill at least 100,000 patients a year.

Contact: Ken Ma
ma28@llnl.gov
925-423-7602
DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Environmental Science & Technology
New tracers can identify frac fluids in the environment
Scientists have developed new geochemical tracers that can identify hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids that have been spilled or released into the environment.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cheryl Dybas
cdybas@nsf.gov
703-292-7734
National Science Foundation

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Fires in the Egypt River Delta
A NASA satellite has detected a fire in the Egyptian River Delta.
NASA

Contact: Rob Gutro
robert.j.gutro@nasa.gov
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Nature Communications
See-through, one-atom-thick, carbon electrodes powerful tool to study brain disorders
A graphene, one-atom-thick microelectrode now solves a major problem for investigators looking at brain circuitry. Pinning down the details of how individual neural circuits operate in epilepsy and other brain disorders requires real-time observation of their locations, firing patterns, and other factors.
National Institutes of Health, Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy, Mirowski Family Foundation

Contact: Karen Kreeger
karen.kreeger@uphs.upenn.edu
215-349-5658
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Journal of Hazardous Materials
New study charts the fate of chemicals affecting health and the environment
In a new study, Rolf Halden, PhD, a researcher at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute, examines the trajectory of chemicals appearing as emergent threats to human or environmental health. Halden's meta-analysis of 143,000 peer-reviewed research papers tracks the progress of these chemicals of emerging concern, revealing patters of emergence from obscurity to peak concern and eventual decline, over a span of 30 years.

Contact: RICHARD HARTH
richard.harth@asu.edu
Arizona State University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fish tale: New study evaluates antibiotic content in farm-raised fish
In a new study, Hansa Done, Ph.D. candidate, and Rolf Halden, Ph.D., researchers at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute, examine antibiotic use in the rapidly expanding world of global aquaculture.

Contact: Richard Harth
richard.harth@asu.edu
Arizona State University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
WSU researchers see how plants optimize their repair
Researchers led by a Washington State University biologist have found the optimal mechanism by which plants heal the botanical equivalent of a bad sunburn. Their work, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could lead to the development of crops that can repair the sun's damage more easily, improving yields and profitability.
Washington State Agricultural Research Center, National Science Foundation, United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund, Israel Science Foundation, Human Frontier Science Program Organization

Contact: Helmut Kirchhoff
kirchhh@wsu.edu
509-335-3304
Washington State University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
GSA 2014 Annual Meeting
Secrets of dinosaur ecology found in fragile amber
Ryan McKellar's research sounds like it was plucked from Jurassic Park: he studies pieces of amber found buried with dinosaur skeletons. But rather than re-creating dinosaurs, McKellar uses the tiny pieces of fossilized tree resin to study the world in which the now-extinct behemoths lived.

Contact: Christa Stratton
778-331-7625
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Geophysical Research Letters
Massive debris pile reveals risk of huge tsunamis in Hawaii
A mass of marine debris discovered in a giant sinkhole in the Hawaiian islands provides evidence that at least one mammoth tsunami, larger than any in Hawaii's recorded history, has struck the islands, and that a similar disaster could happen again, new research finds. Scientists are reporting that a wall of water up to nine meters (30 feet) high surged onto Hawaiian shores about 500 years ago. A 9.0-magnitude earthquake off the coast of the Aleutian Islands triggered the mighty wave, which left behind up to nine shipping containers worth of ocean sediment in a sinkhole on the island of Kauai.

Contact: Nanci Bompey
nbompey@agu.org
202-777-7524
American Geophysical Union

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Nature Communications
Mediterranean, semi-arid ecosystems prove resistant to climate change
Climate change predictions for the Middle East, like other arid regions of the world, are alarming. But in testing these dire predictions, Tel Aviv University ecologists found that, contrary to expectations, no measurable changes in annual vegetation could be seen. None of the crucial vegetation characteristics -- neither species richness and composition, nor density and biomass -- had changed appreciably in the course of the rainfall manipulations.

Contact: George Hunka
ghunka@aftau.org
212-742-9070
American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo
Frozen meal eaters have better intakes of key nutrients for fewer calories than QSR eaters
New data presented today at the 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo indicate that consumers of frozen meals had higher daily intakes of dietary fiber, potassium, calcium and protein, and lower daily intakes of calories and saturated fat than consumers of quick service restaurant (QSR) meals.
Nestlé USA

Contact: Allison Szeliga
allison.szeliga@interfusecomms.com
646-935-4161
Ketchum New York

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Ethology
University of Tennessee study finds fish just wanna have fun
Gordon Burghardt and his colleagues Vladimir Dinets, a psychology research assistant professor, and James Murphy of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC, are the first to document play with objects in a cichlid fish species

Contact: Whitney Heins
wheins@utk.edu
865-974-5460
University of Tennessee at Knoxville

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Interleukin-27: Can a cytokine with both pro & anti-inflammatory activity make a good drug target?
Interleukin-27, a member of the interleukin family of cytokines that help regulate the immune system, has a mainly anti-inflammatory role in the body, and its dysfunction has been implicated in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. More recently, IL-27's proinflammatory activity and role in chronic inflammatory diseases is becoming increasingly clear, and a new Review article that explores the potential to target a range of diseases that share common IL-27-activated mechanisms is presented in.

Contact: Kathryn Ryan
kryan@liebertpub.com
914-740-2100
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
ZooKeys
John Lennon commemorated by naming a new tarantula species from South America after him
A newly described tarantula species from Western Brazilian Amazonia was named Bumba lennoni in honor of John Lennon, a founder member of the legendary band the Beatles. The new species is part of the tarantula family Theraphosidae which comprises the largest sized spider species in the world. The study was published in the open access journal Zookeys.

Contact: Fernando Pérez-Miles
myga@fcien.edu.uy
Pensoft Publishers

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Journal of Ornithology
Later supper for blackbirds in the city
Artificial light increases foraging time in blackbirds. Birds in city centres are active not just considerably earlier, but also for longer than their relatives in darker parts of the city. That is the result of a study of around 200 blackbirds in Leipzig, Germany, which was carried out in the 'Loss of the Night' research project. The study showed that artificial light has a considerable influence on the activity times of blackbirds in the city.
Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Helmholtz Association

Contact: Tilo Arnhold
presse@ufz.de
49-341-235-1635
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
PLOS ONE
In between red light and blue light
Diatoms play an important role in water quality and in the global climate. They generate about one fourth of the oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere and perform around one-quarter of the global CO2 assimilation, i.e. they convert carbon dioxide into organic substances. Their light receptors are a crucial factor in this process. Researchers at Leipzig University and UFZ have now discovered that blue and red light sensing photoreceptors control the carbon flow in these algae.
German Research Foundation

Contact: Tilo Arnhold
presse@ufz.de
49-341-235-1635
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ