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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Astrophysical Journal
Best evidence yet for coronal heating theory detected by NASA sounding rocket
Scientists have recently gathered some of the strongest evidence to date to explain what makes the sun's outer atmosphere so much hotter than its surface. The new observations of the small-scale extremely hot temperatures are consistent with only one current theory: something called nanoflares -- a constant peppering of impulsive bursts of heating, none of which can be individually detected -- provide the mysterious extra heat

Contact: Susan Hendrix
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
On-chip topological light
First came the concept of topological light. Then came images of topological light moving around a microchip. Now full measurements of the transmission of light around and through the chip.
European Research Council, US Army, National Science Foundation

Contact: Phillip F. Schewe
Joint Quantum Institute

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Cordilleran terrane collage
In the August 2014 issue of LITHOSPHERE, Steve Israel of the Yukon Geological Survey and colleagues provide conclusions regarding the North American Cordillera that they say 'are provocative in that they blur the definition of tectonic terranes, showing that many observations of early geologists can be attributed to evolving geologic processes rather than disparate geologic histories.'

Contact: Kea Giles
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Mapping the optimal route between two quantum states
As a quantum state collapses from a quantum superposition to a classical state or a different superposition, it will follow a path known as a quantum trajectory. For each start and end state there is an optimal or 'most likely' path, but it is not as easy to predict the path or track it experimentally as a straight-line between two points would be in our everyday, classical world. In a new paper featured on the July 30 cover of Nature, scientists from the Institute for Quantum Studies at Chapman University, the University of Rochester, University of California at Berkeley, and Washington University in St. Louis have shown that it is possible to track these quantum trajectories and compare them to a recently developed theory for predicting the most likely path a system will take between two states.

Contact: Sheri Ledbetter
Chapman University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
History of culture visualized through art history, physics, complexity
Schich and his fellow researchers reconstructed the migration and mobility patterns of more than 150,000 notable individuals over a time span of 2,000 years. By connecting the birth and death locations of each individual, and drawing and animating lines between the two locations, Schich and his team have made progress in our understanding of large-scale cultural dynamics.
German Research Foundation, European Research Council, University of Texas - Dallas

Contact: Annette Gallagher
University of Miami

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Applied Physics Letters
'Active' surfaces control what's on them
Researchers at MIT and in Saudi Arabia have developed a new way of making surfaces that can actively control how fluids or particles move across them. The work might enable new kinds of biomedical or microfluidic devices, or solar panels that could automatically clean themselves of dust and grit.

Contact: Andrew Carleen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
NUS study shows effectiveness of common anti-malarial drug in controlling asthma
Associate professor Fred Wong from the Department of Pharmacology at the NUS Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine led a team to discover that artesunate, a common herbal-based anti-malarial drug, can be used to control asthma, with better treatment outcomes than other drugs currently available.

Contact: Carolyn Fong
National University of Singapore

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
European Urology
Taking the guesswork out of cancer therapy
Researchers and doctors at A*STAR's Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore General Hospital and National Cancer Centre Singapore have co-developed the first molecular test kit that can predict treatment and survival outcomes in kidney cancer patients. This breakthrough was recently reported in European Urology, the world's top urology journal.
Agency for Science, Technology and Research

Contact: Hiroshi Limmell
Biomedical Sciences Institutes (BMSI)

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Nature Communications
'Wetting' a battery's appetite for renewable energy storage
A new liquid metal alloy material enables sodium-beta batteries to operate at lower temperatures, which could help the batteries store more renewable energy and strengthen the power grid.
US Department of Energy

Contact: Franny White
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
'Fracking' in the dark: Biological fallout of shale-gas production still largely unknown
Eight conservation biologists from various organizations and institutions, including Princeton University, found that shale-gas extraction in the United States has vastly outpaced scientists' understanding of the industry's environmental impact. With shale-gas production projected to surge during the next 30 years, determining and minimizing the industry's effects on nature and wildlife must become a top priority for scientists, industry and policymakers, the researchers said.

Contact: Morgan Kelly
Princeton University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
Light pulses control graphene's electrical behavior
Finding could allow ultrafast switching of conduction, and possibly lead to new broadband light sensors.

Contact: Andrew Carleen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Scientists warn time to stop drilling in the dark
The co-authors of a new study, including two Simon Fraser University research associates, cite new reasons why scientists, industry representatives and policymakers must collaborate closely on minimizing damage to the natural world from shale gas development. Viorel Popescu and Maureen Ryan, David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellows in SFU's Biological Sciences department, are among eight international co-authors of the newly published research in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Contact: Carol Thorbes
Simon Fraser University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Nature Communications
Chemists develop MRI technique for peeking inside battery-like devices
A team of chemists from NYU and the University of Cambridge has developed a method for examining the inner workings of battery-like devices called supercapacitors, which can be charged up extremely quickly and can deliver high electrical power.
Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage, US Department of Energy, NYSTAR

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers uncover clues to flu's mechanisms
Scientists calculate the transformation of a protein associated with influenza and discover details of intermediate states that may be treated with new drugs.
National Science Foundation, Welch Foundation, National Institutes for Health, Gillson-Longenbaugh Foundation, Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas

Contact: Jeff Falk
Rice University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Study finds physical link to strange electronic behavior
Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have revealed the first evidence of physical properties that correspond with a directionally dependent electronic phase in the iron-based high-temperature superconductor barium iron nickel arsenide. The evidence is presented online this week in Science Express.
Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Robert A. Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Hubble shows farthest lensing galaxy yields clues to early universe
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have unexpectedly discovered the most distant galaxy that acts as a cosmic magnifying glass. Seen here as it looked 9.6 billion years ago, this monster elliptical galaxy breaks the previous record-holder by 200 million years.

Contact: Ray Villard
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
NASA's Fermi space telescope reveals new source of gamma rays
Observations by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope of several stellar eruptions, called novae, firmly establish these relatively common outbursts almost always produce gamma rays, the most energetic form of light.
NASA, Naval Research Lab

Contact: Francis Reddy
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Invasive lionfish likely safe to eat after all
Scientists from University of Hawaii have learned that recent fears of invasive lionfish causing fish poisoning may be unfounded. If so, current efforts to control lionfish by fishing derbies and targeted fisheries may remain the best way to control the invasion. And there's a simple way to know for sure whether a lionfish is toxic: test it after it's been cooked.

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
University of Hawaii ‑ SOEST

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Corrosion Science
NIST corrosion lab tests suggest need for underground gas tank retrofits
A hidden hazard lurks beneath many of the roughly 156,000 gas stations across the United States.The hazard is corrosion in parts of underground gas storage tanks -- corrosion that could result in failures, leaks and contamination of groundwater, a source of drinking water. In recent years, field inspectors in nine states have reported many rapidly corroding gas storage tank components such as sump pumps.

Contact: Laura Ost
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Carnegie Mellon chemists create nanofibers using unprecedented new method
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University have developed a novel method for creating self-assembled protein/polymer nanostructures that are reminiscent of fibers found in living cells. The work offers a promising new way to fabricate materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Carnegie Mellon's Controlled Radical Polymerization, Oregon State University

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Fermi satellite detects gamma-rays from exploding novae
ASU professor Sumner Starrfield is part of a team that used the Large Area Telescope onboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite to discover very high energy gamma rays being emitted by an exploding star. The surprising discovery dispels the long-held idea that classical nova explosions are not powerful enough to produce such high-energy radiation.

Contact: Nikki Cassis
Arizona State University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
National Science Review
Privileged strategies for direct transformations of inert aliphatic carbon-hydrogen bonds
Direct carbon-hydrogen transformations, which could be used to perform synthetic chemistry in a greener and more atom-economical way, is highly appealing. The importance and challenges of this field, including aliphatic C-H bond transformations, will make it one of the 'holy grails' of chemistry.
National Basic Research Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Zhang-Jie Shi
Science China Press

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Science Translational Medicine
Hope for the overweight
The body has different types of adipose tissue that perform various metabolic tasks: white, beige and brown. For the first time, researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen and Harvard Medical School have successfully identified specific surface proteins that can help distinguish between the three types. This discovery makes it possible to develop new treatment options for adiposity. The work has been published in Science Translational Medicine.

Contact: Dr. Siegfried Ussar
Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Engineering a protein to prevent brain damage from toxic agents
New research may help prevent brain damage for those exposed to pesticides and chemical weapons. The work centers on proteins called phosphotriesterases, which are able to degrade chemicals known as organophosphates -- found in everything from industrial pesticides to sarin gas. They permanently bond to neurotransmitters in the brain, interfering with their ability to function and causing irreversible damage. The researchers re-engineered the protein to make it sufficiently stable to be used therapeutically.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Chemistry & Biology
Molecule enhances copper's lethal punch against microbes
Harnessing a natural process in the body that pumps lethal doses of copper to fungi and bacteria shows promise as a new way to kill infectious microbes, a team of scientists at Duke University report.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sarah Avery
Duke University Medical Center