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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 31-Aug-2014
Metabolomics
Scientists develop 'electronic nose' for rapid detection of C. diff infection
Research from the University of Leicester sniffs out the smell of disease in feces.

Contact: Paul Monks
psm7@le.ac.uk
44-116-252-2141
University of Leicester

Public Release: 31-Aug-2014
Nature
Mixing in star-forming clouds explains why sibling stars look alike
The chemical uniformity of stars in the same cluster is the result of turbulent mixing in the clouds of gas where star formation occurs, according to a study by astrophysicists at UC Santa Cruz. Their results show that even stars that don't stay together in a cluster will share a chemical fingerprint with their siblings which can be used to trace them to the same birthplace.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Tim Stephens
stephens@ucsc.edu
831-459-2495
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 31-Aug-2014
Nature
Why sibling stars look alike: Early, fast mixing in star-birth clouds
Early, fast, turbulent mixing of gas within giant molecular clouds -- the birthplaces of stars -- means all stars formed from a single cloud bear the same unique chemical 'tag' or 'DNA fingerprint,' write astrophysicists at University of California, Santa Cruz, reporting on the results of computational simulations in the journal Nature, published online on Aug. 31, 2014. Could such chemical tags help astronomers identify our own Sun's long-lost sibling stars?
National Science Foundation, NASA, University of California High-Performance AstroComputing Center

Contact: Mark Krumholz
mkrumhol@ucsc.edu
510-761-2929
University of California High-Performance AstroComputing Center

Public Release: 31-Aug-2014
Nature Chemistry
A new synthetic amino acid for an emerging class of drugs
EPFL scientists have developed a new amino acid that can be used to modify the 3-D structure of therapeutic peptides. Insertion of the amino acid into bioactive peptides enhanced their binding affinity up to 40-fold. Peptides with the new amino acid could potentially become a new class of therapeutics.
National Centre of Competence in Research Chemical Biology, Swiss National Science Foundation, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Nature Materials
Argonne scientists pioneer strategy for creating new materials
Making something new is never easy. Scientists constantly theorize about new materials, but when the material is manufactured it doesn't always work as expected. To create a new strategy for designing materials, scientists at the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory combined two different approaches at two different facilities to synthesize new materials. This new strategy gives faster feedback on what growth schemes are best, thus shortening the timeframe to manufacture a new, stable material for energy transport and conversion applications.
US Department of Energy

Contact: Tona Kunz
tkunz@anl.gov
630-252-5560
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Bone
Revealing a novel mode of action for an osteoporosis drug
Raloxifene is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for decreasing fracture risk in osteoporosis. While raloxifene is as effective at reducing fracture risk as other current treatments, this works only partially by suppressing bone loss. X-ray studies revealed an additional mechanism underlying raloxifene action, providing an explanation for how this drug can achieve equivalent clinical benefit.
National Institutes of Health, US Department of Energy

Contact: Tona Kunz
tkunz@anl.gov
630-252-5560
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Science
Mysteries of space dust revealed
The first analysis of space dust collected by a special collector onboard NASA's Stardust mission and sent back to Earth for study in 2006 suggests the tiny specks open a door to studying the origins of the solar system and possibly the origin of life itself.
NASA, US Department of Energy, Klaus Tschira Foundation, Tawani Foundation, German Science Foundation, Funds for Scientific Research -- Flanders, Belgium

Contact: Tona Kunz
tkunz@anl.gov
630-252-5560
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Science
China's reform of R&D budget management doesn't go far enough
China's budget management is lagging behind countries which spend similar amounts on research and development, and recent reform has not gone far enough. That is the view of the University of Nottingham's Dr. Cong Cao, whose research is published on Aug. 29, 2014, in the prestigious academic journal, Science.
European Union's 7th Framework Program

Contact: Dr. Cong Cao
cong.cao@nottingham.ac.uk
44-115-846-7972
University of Nottingham

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
PLOS ONE
Mice study shows efficacy of new gene therapy approach for toxin exposures
New research led by Charles Shoemaker, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, shows that gene therapy may offer significant advantages in prevention and treatment of botulism exposure over current methods. The findings of the National Institutes of Health funded study appear in the Aug. 29 issue of PLOS ONE.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Contact: Rushmie A Nofsinger
rushmie.nofsinger@tufts.edu
508-839-7910
Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Nature Communications
Plug n' play protein crystals
Virus particles can be efficiently packed into crystalline assemblies according to scientists from Aalto University Finland.

Contact: Mauri Kostiainen
mauri.kostiainen@aalto.fi
358-503-627-070
Aalto University

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Nature
Astrophysicists report radioactive cobalt in supernova explosion
A group of Russian astrophysicists, including researchers from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, have detected the formation of radioactive cobalt during a supernova explosion, lending credence to a corresponding theory of supernova explosions.

Contact: Alexandra O. Borissova
borissova@phystech.edu
7-498-744-6526
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Neural Regeneration Research
Rapamycin or FK506, which is better for SCs migration and peripheral nerve repair
Rapamycin promoted the secretion of nerve growth factors and upregulated growth-associated protein 43 expression in Schwann cells, but did not significantly affect Schwann cell proliferation. Therefore, rapamycin has potential application in peripheral nerve regeneration therapy.

Contact: Meng Zhao
eic@nrren.org
86-138-049-98773
Neural Regeneration Research

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Current Biology
Ready for mating at the right time
Fish rely on pheromones to trigger social responses and to coordinate reproductive behavior in males and females. Scientists at the Marine Science Center at the University of the Algarve in Faro, Portugal, and at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now identified such a signal molecule in the urine of male Mozambique tilapia: this pheromone boosts hormone production and accelerates oocyte maturation in reproductive females.
Foundation for Science and Technology of Portugal, Max Planck Society

Contact: Dr. Bernd Schneider
schneider@ice.mpg.de
49-364-157-1600
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
GSA Bulletin
Snails tell of the rise and fall of the Tibetan Plateau
The rise of the Tibetan plateau -- the largest topographic anomaly above sea level on Earth -- is important for both its profound effect on climate and its reflection of continental dynamics. In this study published in GSA Bulletin, Katharine Huntington and colleagues employ a cutting-edge geochemical tool -- 'clumped' isotope thermometry -- using modern and fossil snail shells to investigate the uplift history of the Zhada basin in southwestern Tibet.

Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 29-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
Breakthrough in light sources for new quantum technology
One of the most promising technologies for future quantum circuits are photonic circuits, i.e. circuits based on light (photons) instead of electrons (electronic circuits). First, it is necessary to create a stream of single photons and control their direction. Researchers around the world have made all sorts of attempts to achieve this, but now scientists at the Niels Bohr Institute have succeeded in creating a steady stream of photons emitted one at a time and in a particular direction.

Contact: Gertie Skaarup
skaarup@nbi.dk
45-28-75-06-20
University of Copenhagen - Niels Bohr Institute

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
ACS Nano
Copper shines as flexible conductor
By turning instead to copper, both abundant and cheap, researchers at Monash University and the Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication have developed a way of making flexible conductors cost-effective enough for commercial application.

Contact: Glynis Smalley
glynis.smalley@monash.edu
61-408-027-848
Monash University

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Science
'K-to-M' histone mutations: How repressing the repressors may drive tissue-specific cancers
A paper from a laboratory at the Stowers Institute of Medical Research reports the first animal model created to assess the molecular effects of two different histone H3.3 mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila. The study from a team led by Investigator Ali Shilatifard, Ph.D. published in the Aug. 29, 2014, issue of Science, strongly suggests that these mutations actually could drive cancer and identifies interacting partners and pathways that could be targeted for the treatment of cancer.
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: Kim Bland, Ph.D.
ksb@stowers.org
816-926-4015
Stowers Institute for Medical Research

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics
Researchers use NASA and other data to look into the heart of a solar storm
Scientists found that the CME contained a rare piece of dense solar filament material. This filament coupled with an unusually fast speed led to the large amount of solar material observed.
NASA

Contact: Susan Hendrix
Susan.m.hendrix@nasa.gov
301-286-7745
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
European Physical Journal B
Inter-dependent networks stress test
Energy production systems are good examples of complex systems. Their infrastructure equipment requires ancillary sub-systems structured like a network -- including water for cooling, transport to supply fuel, and ICT systems for control and management. Every step in the network chain is interconnected with a wider network and they are all mutually dependent. Gaihua Fu and colleagues have studied various aspects of inter-network dependencies, not previously explored, and their findings have been published in EPJ B.

Contact: Laura Zimmermann
laura.zimmermann@springer.com
49-622-148-78414
Springer

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Synthesis produces new antibiotic
Scientists at Rice University synthesize a natural, fungus-derived antibiotic that could someday help wage the battle against resistant superbugs.
National Institutes of Health, Skaggs Institute of Research, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, Welch Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
New technique uses fraction of measurements to efficiently find quantum wave functions
Just two years ago, with the advent of a technique called direct measurement, scientists discovered they could reliably determine a system's wave function by 'weakly' measuring one of its variables (e.g. position) and 'strongly' measuring a complementary variable (momentum). Researchers at the University of Rochester have now taken this method one step forward by combining direct measurement with an efficient computational technique.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Information in a Photon program, US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Science Foundation, El Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Canadian Excellence Research Chair

Contact: Peter Iglinski
peter.iglinski@rochester.edu
585-273-4726
University of Rochester

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Molecular Cell
Research shows how premalignant cells can sense oncogenesis and halt growth
What happens inside cells when they detect the activation of a cancer-inducing gene? Sometimes, cells are able to signal internally to stop the cell cycle. Such cells are able to enter, at least for a time, a protective non-growth state. CSHL experiments now show how cells can respond to an activated RAS gene by entering a quiescent state called senescence.
National Institutes of Health, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cancer Center Support Grant, Fonds de Recherche de l'Institut de Cardiologie de Montréal; Heart and Stroke Foundation-Québec

Contact: Peter Tarr
tarr@cshl.edu
516-367-8455
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Canadians rank highly when it comes to public science knowledge, attitudes, and engagement
A new expert panel report, Science Culture: Where Canada Stands, released today by the Council of Canadian Academies, helps to paint the clearest picture of Canada's science culture and science culture support system in 25 years. The expert panel who conducted the assessment found Canadians excel in public science knowledge, attitudes, and engagement; however they also determined there is room for improvement in some areas, including skills development.

Contact: Cathleen Meechan
cathleen.meechan@scienceadvice.ca
613-567-5000 x228
Council of Canadian Academies

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Nature
Quantum physics enables revolutionary imaging method
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, and the University of Vienna have developed a fundamentally new quantum imaging technique with strikingly counter-intuitive features. For the first time, an image has been obtained without ever detecting the light that was used to illuminate the imaged object, while the light revealing the image never touches the imaged object.

Contact: Gabriela Barreto Lemos
gabriela.barreto.lemos@univie.ac.at
43-699-192-55014
University of Vienna

Public Release: 28-Aug-2014
Lab on a Chip
Nanoscale assembly line
ETH researchers have realized a long-held dream: inspired by an industrial assembly line, they have developed a nanoscale production line for the assembly of biological molecules.

Contact: Viola Vogel
viola.vogel@hest.ethz.ch
41-446-320-887
ETH Zurich