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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Nature
Witnessing the early growth of a giant
Astronomers have uncovered for the first time the earliest stages of a massive galaxy forming in the young Universe. The discovery was made possible through combining observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii. The growing galaxy core is blazing with the light of millions of newborn stars that are forming at a ferocious rate.

Contact: Georgia Bladon
gbladon@partner.eso.org
44-781-629-1261
ESA/Hubble Information Centre

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Marijuana compound may offer treatment for Alzheimer's disease
Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a recent study from neuroscientists at the University of South Florida shows.

Contact: Anne DeLotto Baier
abaier@health.usf.edu
813-974-3303
University of South Florida (USF Health)

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
AGU: Yellowstone supereruption would send ash across North America
In the unlikely event of a volcanic supereruption at Yellowstone National Park, the northern Rocky Mountains would be blanketed in meters of ash, and millimeters would be deposited as far away as New York City, Los Angeles and Miami, according to a new study.

Contact: Nanci Bompey
nbompey@agu.org
202-777-7524
American Geophysical Union

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Geology
Pacific plate shrinking as it cools
The Pacific tectonic plate is not as rigid as scientists believe, according to new calculations by researchers at Rice University and the University of Nevada, Reno.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
ACS Chemical Neuroscience
New study throws into question long-held belief about depression
New evidence puts into doubt the long-standing belief that a deficiency in serotonin -- a chemical messenger in the brain -- plays a central role in depression. In the journal ACS Chemical Neuroscience, scientists report that mice lacking the ability to make serotonin in their brains (and thus should have been 'depressed' by conventional wisdom) did not show depression-like symptoms.

Contact: Michael Bernstein
m_bernstein@acs.org
202-872-6042
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
How to prevent organic food fraud
A growing number of consumers are willing to pay a premium for fruits, vegetables and other foods labelled 'organic,' but whether they're getting what the label claims is another matter. Now scientists studying conventional and organic tomatoes are devising a new way to make sure farms are labeling their produce appropriately. Their report, which appears in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, could help prevent organic food fraud.

Contact: Michael Bernstein
m_bernstein@acs.org
202-872-6042
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
ACS Chemical Biology
Potential therapy for the Sudan strain of Ebola could help contain some future outbreaks
Ebola is a rare, but deadly disease that exists as five strains, none of which have approved therapies. One of the most lethal strains is the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Although not the strain currently devastating West Africa, SUDV has caused widespread illness, even as recently as 2012. In a new study appearing in the journal ACS Chemical Biology, researchers now report a possible therapy that could someday help treat patients infected with SUDV.

Contact: Michael Bernstein
m_bernstein@acs.org
202-872-6042
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
Measurement at Big Bang conditions confirms lithium problem
The field of astrophysics has a stubborn problem and it's called lithium. The quantities of lithium predicted to have resulted from the Big Bang are not actually present in stars. But the calculations are correct -- a fact which has now been confirmed for the first time in experiments conducted at the underground laboratory in the Gran Sasso mountain in Italy. As part of an international team, researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf studied how much lithium forms under Big Bang conditions.
German Research Foundation

Contact: Christine Bohnet
c.bohnet@hzdr.de
49-351-260-2450
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Chemosphere
Leading scientists call for a stop to non-essential use of fluorochemicals
A number of leading international researchers, amongst others from the National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, recommend that fluorochemicals are only used where they are absolutely essential, until better methods exist to measure the chemicals and more is known about their potentially harmful effects. The recommendation appears in the Helsingør Statement following an international conference.

Contact: Xenia Trier
xttr@food.dtu.dk
45-35-88-74-71
Technical University of Denmark

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Nature Methods
DTU researchers film protein quake for the first time
One of nature's mysteries is how plants survive impact by the huge amounts of energy contained in the sun's rays, while using this energy for photosynthesis. The hypothesis is that the light-absorbing proteins in the plant's blades quickly dissipate the energy throughout the entire protein molecule through so-called protein quakes. Researchers at DTU Physics have now managed to successfully 'film' this process.

Contact: Tim Brandt van Driel
tidr@fysik.dtu.dk
45-45-25-31-82
Technical University of Denmark

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
ACS Nano
The thunder god vine, assisted by nanotechnology, could shake up future cancer treatment
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. The collaboration between the Institute of Basic Science/Seoul National University and National Cancer Center Singapore represents an auspicious therapeutic approach about HCC.
Institute for Basic Science, SingHealth Foundation, National Medical Research Council, Biomedical Research Council of Singapore, Millennium Foundation

Contact: Han Bin Oh
ohanvin@ibs.re.kr
82-428-788-182
Institute for Basic Science

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Nature
Breaking benzene
In research published in Nature, Zhaomin Hou and colleagues from the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science in Japan have demonstrated a way to use a metallic complex, trinuclear titanium hydride, to accomplish the task of activating benzene by breaking the aromatic carbon-carbon bonds at relatively mild temperatures and in a highly selective way.

Contact: Jens Wilkinson
jens.wilkinson@riken.jp
81-048-462-1225
RIKEN

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Nature
Evolution used similar molecular toolkits to shape flies, worms, and humans
Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive Yale-led analysis of genomic data. Two related studies led by scientists at Harvard and Stanford, also published Aug. 28 in the same issue of the journal Nature, tell a similar story: even though humans, worms, and flies bear little obvious similarity to each other, evolution used remarkably similar molecular toolkits to shape them.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Bill Hathaway
william.hathaway@yale.edu
203-432-1322
Yale University

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Nature
Detecting neutrinos, physicists look into the heart of the sun
Using one of the most sensitive neutrino detectors on the planet, an international team of physicists including Andrea Pocar, Laura Cadonati and doctoral student Keith Otis at the University of Massachusetts Amherst report in the current issue of Nature that for the first time they have directly detected neutrinos created by the 'keystone' proton-proton fusion process going on at the sun's core.
National Science Foundation, Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

Contact: Edward Blaguszewski
edblag@admin.umass.edu
413-545-0444
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Nature
Scientists map the 'editing marks' on fly, worm, human genomes
In the Aug. 28 issue of the journal Nature a multi-institution research network called modENCODE (the Model Organism ENCylopedia Of DNA Elements) published three major papers that map and compare the genomes and epigenomes of humans and two model organisms, the fly, D. melanogaster, and the worm, C. elegans, in unprecedented detail. The fly and worm could serve as model organisms for screening drugs and micronutrients that might alter the epigenome, which is implicated in many diseases.

Contact: Diana Lutz
dlutz@wustl.edu
314-935-5272
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 27-Aug-2014
Astrophysical Journal Letters
What lit up the universe?
New research from UCL shows we will soon uncover the origin of the ultraviolet light that bathes the cosmos, helping scientists understand how galaxies were built. The study published today in the Astrophysical Journal Letters by UCL cosmologists Dr. Andrew Pontzen and Dr. Hiranya Peiris, together with collaborators at Princeton and Barcelona universities, shows how forthcoming astronomical surveys will reveal what lit up the cosmos.
Royal Society, National Science Foundation, Science and Technology Facilities Council, European Research Council

Contact: Rebecca Caygill
r.caygill@ucl.ac.uk
020-310-83846
University College London

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Advanced Materials
A glucose meter of a different color provides continuous monitoring
University of Illinois engineers are bringing a touch of color to glucose monitoring. The researchers developed a new continuous glucose monitoring material that changes color as glucose levels fluctuate, and the wavelength shift is so precise that doctors and patients may be able to use it for automatic insulin dosing -- something not possible using current point measurements like test strips.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency

Contact: Liz Ahlberg
eahlberg@illinois.edu
217-244-1073
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Nature Nanotechnology
Competition for graphene
Berkeley Lab reports the first experimental observation of ultrafast charge transfer in photo-excited MX2 materials, the graphene-like two-dimensional semiconductors. Charge transfer time clocked in at under 50 femtoseconds, comparable to the fastest times recorded for organic photovoltaics.

Contact: Lynn Yarris
lcyarris@lbl.gov
510-486-5375
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Best view yet of merging galaxies in distant universe
Using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and many other telescopes, an international team of astronomers has obtained the best view yet of a collision that took place between two galaxies when the Universe was half its current age. They enlisted the help of a galaxy-sized magnifying glass to reveal otherwise invisible detail. These new studies of the galaxy H-ATLAS J142935.3-002836 have shown that this distant object looks like the local galaxy collision, the Antennae Galaxies.

Contact: Georgia Bladon
gbladon@partner.eso.org
44-781-629-1261
ESA/Hubble Information Centre

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Best view yet of merging galaxies in distant universe
An international team of astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array -- among other telescopes -- has obtained the best view yet of a collision between two galaxies when the Universe was only half its current age.

Contact: Charles Blue
cblue@nrao.edu
434-296-0314
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Scientific Reports
Symphony of nanoplasmonic and optical resonators produces laser-like light emission
By combining plasmonics and optical microresonators, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have created a new optical amplifier (or laser) design, paving the way for power-on-a-chip applications.

Contact: Gary Eden
jgeden@illinois.edu
217-333-4157
University of Illinois College of Engineering

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
The Cryosphere
A high-resolution bedrock map for the Antarctic Peninsula
A high-resolution map of antarctic bedrock allows for better estimates of ice mass.

Contact: F. Ossing
49-331-288-1040
GFZ GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Helmholtz Centre

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Environmental Science & Technology
Study: Earth can sustain more terrestrial plant growth than previously thought
A new analysis suggests the planet can produce much more land-plant biomass -- the total material in leaves, stems, roots, fruits, grains and other terrestrial plant parts -- than previously thought.
Energy Biosciences Institute

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Journal of Applied Physiology
Key to speed? Elite sprinters are unlike other athletes -- deliver forceful punch to ground
The world's fastest sprinters have a distinctive ability unlike other runners to attack the ground and attain faster speeds, according to new research from Southern Methodist University, Dallas. The new findings indicate that sprinters use a combined limb motion and foot-strike mechanism that enhances speed by elevating foot-ground impact forces. 'The sprinters we tested all used the same mechanism for maximizing force application and sprinting performance,' said lead author of the study Ken Clark.
US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Simmons School of Education and Human Development, Southern Methodist University

Contact: Margaret Allen
mallen@smu.edu
214-768-7664
Southern Methodist University

Public Release: 26-Aug-2014
Best view yet of merging galaxies in distant universe
Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, and other telescopes, an international team of astronomers has obtained the best view yet of a collision that took place between two galaxies when the Universe was half its current age. They enlisted the help of a galaxy-sized magnifying glass to reveal otherwise invisible detail. These studies of the galaxy H-ATLAS J142935.3-002836 have shown that this complex distant object looks like the local galaxy collision, the Antennae Galaxies.

Contact: Richard Hook
rhook@eso.org
49-893-200-6655
ESO