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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 16-Dec-2014
Learning and Individual Differences
Personality outsmarts intelligence at school
Recent research at Griffith University has found that personality is more important than intelligence when it comes to success in education and this needs to take this into account when guiding students and teachers. Furthermore these personality traits for academic success can be developed.

Contact: Helen Wright
Griffith University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2014
US children are safer, better-educated, and fatter
If you think American kids are faring worse and worse, a new report from Duke University may hold surprises. The 2014 National Child and Youth Well-Being Index Report finds that overall, US kids are safer and better-educated than they have been in 20 years. Stubborn problems remain, including high rates of child poverty and a still-raging obesity epidemic. But by many measures, life for US kids has been improving in the past two decades.
Foundation for Child Development

Contact: Alison Jones
Duke University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2014
The Journal of Primary Prevention
Teen contraband smokers more likely to use illicit drugs: Study
A University of Alberta economics professor has discovered a link between contraband cigarette use and illicit drug use among Canadian teens.

Contact: Angelique Rodrigues
University of Alberta

Public Release: 16-Dec-2014
Use of alcohol, cigarettes, number of illicit drugs declines among US teens
A national survey of students in US middle schools and high schools shows some important improvements in levels of substance use.

Contact: Jared Wadley
University of Michigan

Public Release: 16-Dec-2014
Frontiers in Psychology
How music class can spark language development
Music training has well-known benefits for the developing brain, especially for at-risk children. But youngsters who sit passively in a music class may be missing out, according to new Northwestern University research. In a study designed to test whether the level of engagement matters, researchers found that children who regularly attended music classes and actively participated showed larger improvements in how the brain processes speech and reading scores than their less-involved peers after two years.

Contact: Julie Deardorff
Northwestern University

Public Release: 15-Dec-2014
Medical Decision Making
Patients don't understand risks of unnecessary antibiotics, GW study shows
A recent study conducted by David Broniatowski, professor at the George Washington University, indicates communication material is not effective in educating patients on proper antibiotic use.

Contact: Emily Grebenstein
George Washington University

Public Release: 15-Dec-2014
Population and Development Review
Adolescent childbearing in Iraq rose due to earlier marriages among less-educated women
A new study has shown that soon after the beginning of the eight-year Iraq War, adolescent fertility in Iraq rose by more than 30 percent, reaching over 95 births per 1,000 girls in 2010. Before the war adolescent fertility in Iraq was stable at just below 70 births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19. The study appears in the December 2014 issue of Population and Development Review, a peer-reviewed journal published by the Population Council.

Contact: Gina Duclayan
Population Council

Public Release: 15-Dec-2014
Journal of Comparative Psychology
Show us how you play and it may tell us who you are
The way in which toys are handled and combined with one another during object play can tell use a lot about the cognitive underpinnings of the actors. An international team of scientists around Alice Auersperg from the Department of Cognitive Biology at the University of Vienna presented parrot species as well as crow species with the same set of toys and found out that the birds willingly brought objects into complex spatial relationships: behaviors that occur in only a few species of primates.

Contact: Alice Auersperg
University of Vienna

Public Release: 12-Dec-2014
Expected stay rates of US and foreign doctoral graduates diverge with time
A new National Science Foundation report reveals the number of US citizen doctoral graduates in science, engineering and health fields, who remain in the United States, tracks closely with their intent to stay in the United States at the time of graduation. However, there are noticeable differences for doctoral graduates who were temporary visa holders at the time of graduation.

Contact: Bobbie Mixon
National Science Foundation

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Tooth loss in birds occurred about 116 million years ago
A question that has intrigued biologists is: Were teeth lost in the common ancestor of all living birds or convergently in two or more independent lineages of birds? A research team led by biologists at the University of California, Riverside and Montclair State University, NJ, used the degraded remnants of tooth genes in birds to determine that teeth were lost in the common ancestor of all living birds more than 100 million years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
Crowdfunding 101
According to University of California - Santa Barbara researchers, everything you know about crowdfunding is wrong.

Contact: Julie Cohen
University of California - Santa Barbara

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
Anyone who is good at German learns English better
Your literacy skills in your first language heavily influence the learning of a foreign language. Thus, anyone who reads and writes German well is likely to transfer this advantage to English -- regardless of the age of onset of foreign language learning. Foreign language lessons at an early age, however, pay off less than was previously assumed. In fact, they can even have a negative impact on the first language in the short run.

Contact: Simone Pfenninger
University of Zurich

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
It doesn't add up: People who say they are good at math, but aren't
Thinking you're good at math and actually being good at it are not the same thing, new research has found. About one in five people who say they are bad at math in fact score in the top half of those taking an objective math test. But one-third of people who say they are good at math actually score in the bottom half.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ellen Peters
Ohio State University

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Multiple, short learning sessions strengthen memory formation in fragile X syndrome
A learning technique that maximizes the brain's ability to make and store memories may help overcome cognitive issues seen in fragile X syndrome, a leading form of intellectual disability, according to University of California Irvine neurobiologists.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, William & Nancy Thompson Family Foundation

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Even in our digital age, early parental writing support is key to children's literacy
Children of the Information Age are inundated with written words streaming across smartphone, tablet, and laptop screens. A new Tel Aviv University study says that preschoolers should be encouraged to write at a young age -- even before they make their first step into a classroom.

Contact: George Hunka
American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Psychological Science
Distraction, if consistent, does not hinder learning
A new study challenges the idea that distraction is necessarily a problem for learning. Researchers at Brown University found that if attention was as divided during recall of a motor task as it was during learning the task, people performed as if there were no distractions at either stage.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
No increase in patient deaths or readmissions following restrictions to residents' hours
In the first year after the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education reduced the number of continuous hours that residents can work, there was no change in the rate of death or readmission among hospitalized Medicare patients, according to a new study published in JAMA. The study was led by researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

Contact: Anna Duerr
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Emergency department resource use by supervised residents vs. attending physicians alone
In a sample of US emergency departments, compared to attending physicians alone, supervised visits -- involving both resident and attending physicians -- were associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission and use of advanced imaging and with longer emergency department stays, according to a study in the Dec. 10 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on medical education.

Contact: Janet Christenbury
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Number of medical schools with student-run free clinics has more than doubled
There has been a doubling during the last decade in the number of US medical schools that have student-run free clinics, with more than half of medical students involved with these clinics, according to a study in the Dec. 10 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on medical education.

Contact: Jacqueline Carr
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Languages of medical residency applicants compared to patients with limited English
An analysis of the non-English-language skills of US medical residency applicants finds that although they are linguistically diverse, most of their languages do not match the languages spoken by the US population with limited English proficiency, according to a study in the Dec. 10 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on medical education.

Contact: Courtney DeNicola Nowak
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Region of medical residency training may affect future spending patterns of physician
Among primary care physicians, the spending patterns in the regions in which their residency program was located were associated with expenditures for subsequent care they provided as practicing physicians, with those trained in lower-spending regions continuing to practice in a less costly manner, even when they moved to higher-spending regions, and vice versa, according to a study in the Dec. 10 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on medical education.

Contact: Kathy Fackelmann
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Study examines effect of resident duty hour reforms on general surgery patients
An examination of the effect of resident duty hour reforms in 2011 finds no significant change in outcomes for general surgery patients, according to a study in the Dec. 10 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on medical education.

Contact: Marla Paul
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Effect of medical resident duty hour reforms on patient outcomes
An examination of the effect of resident duty hour reforms in 2011 finds no significant change in mortality or readmission rates for hospitalized patients, according to a study in the Dec. 10 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on medical education.

Contact: Anna Duerr
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Study shows cognitive training can improve brain performance of students in poverty
The cognitive effects of poverty can be mitigated during middle school with a targeted intervention, according to researchers at the Center for BrainHealth at The University of Texas at Dallas. In a paper published today in the open-access journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, researchers for the first time examine the efficacy of cognitive training in a large and diverse group of 7th and 8th grade public middle school students as compared to typically developing students who received no specific training.
State of Texas, AT&T Foundation, Meadows Foundation, Pickens Foundation

Contact: Shelly Kirkland
Center for BrainHealth

Public Release: 9-Dec-2014
Doctors trained in higher expenditure regions spend more, may add to rising health care costs
A study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association shows that physicians who do residency training in regions of the country with higher health care spending patterns continue to practice in a more costly manner -- even when they move to a geographic area where health care spending is lower.

Contact: Kathy Fackelmann
George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health