A new study led by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln reports the first in vivo evidence that strains of chimpanzee-carried simian immunodeficiency viruses can infect human cells.
In a new paper in PLOS Genetics, University of Pennsylvania professor Joshua Plotkin, along with postdoctoral researcher Jakub Otwinowski and Princeton University research scholar Armita Nourmohammad, mathematically modeled the coevolutionary processes that describe how antibodies and viruses interact and adapt to one another over the course of a chronic infection, such as HIV/AIDS.
A better understanding of HIV latency is the key to eradicating the virus researchers at the University of North Carolina and partner institutions write in a perspective in the journal Science.
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to an undetectable level in most chronically infected people, it cannot eliminate reservoirs of HIV that persist in latently infected immune cells. Recent findings suggest that combining ART with an immune-enhancing treatment may destabilize viral reservoirs in macaques infected with SIV, the monkey equivalent of HIV. The work was funded by NIAID, and presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016).
In West Africa, men who have sex with men are exposed to a high risk of HIV infection and could benefit from stronger prevention including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This is what is suggested by the first data from ANRS CohMSM, a study led by Christian Laurent, Institut de recherche pour le développement, unité TransVIHMI, and his colleagues, the first results of which will be presented at AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa July 18 to 22.
Health facilities in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia could extend life-sustaining antiretroviral therapy to hundreds of thousands of people living with HIV if facilities improved the efficiency of service delivery. This is one of the main findings from a paper published today in BMC Medicine, co-authored by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and collaborators from Action Africa Help-International in Kenya, the Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration in Uganda, and the University of Zambia in Zambia.
Programs to reduce the high risk of HIV infection among transgender people are urgently needed--but efforts are hindered by a lack of accurate information on HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, and specific risk factors facing this key population. A special supplement to JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes presents essential information to meet the challenges of HIV prevention in the transgender population. The journal is published by Wolters Kluwer.
HPTN announced key results from HPTN 073 at AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa. The study, which assessed uptake and adherence of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the US, demonstrated consistency between self-report and biological markers of adherence. The new findings confirm the prior study report at CROI 2016 that showed high uptake and self-report of adherence of oral PrEP by participants in this study.
Results from ANRS 12249 TasP show that there is good take-up of the offer of repeated HIV screening at home in a rural South African population strongly affected by HIV infection. Immediate implementation of antiretroviral treatment of people managed in the health-care system, following discovery of seropositivity, controls the infection. However, entry into the health-care system of people diagnosed as HIV seropositive is too infrequent and slow to reduce HIV transmission in the population.
The last phase of ANRS IPERGAY has confirmed that 'on-demand' pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective method of reducing the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men and who report high-risk behavior. These results will be presented at AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa. From late 2016, a vast research program, ANRS PREVENIR, will assess PrEP on a large scale in Paris and its suburbs.