Tiny algae, called diatoms, living in water could be key to providing a definitive and clear measure of whether streams, rivers and lakes have damaging levels of nutrients in them.
Toxic arsenic initially accumulates in the nuclei of plants' cells. This has been revealed by an X-ray examination of the aquatic plant rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) using DESY's X-ray source PETRA III. Even at comparatively low concentrations, the arsenic also floods the vacuole, a liquid-filled cavity which takes up most of the cell. The scientists report their findings in the Journal of Experimental Botany.
Weizmann Institute scientists engineer bacteria to create sugar from the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
Potent doses of broccoli sprout extract activate a 'detoxification' gene and may help prevent cancer recurrence in survivors of head and neck cancer, according to a 'green chemoprevention' trial by the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, partner with UPMC CancerCenter. It is the first study demonstrating that the extract protects against oral cancer, with the results of human, animal and laboratory tests reported today.
Exercise and fasting do not change the location of a key enzyme involved in energy production, a study in Experimental Physiology found.
New wearable technology is helping to provide novel weight loss tools. One way is by providing bite count feedback, which allows users to keep track of the number of bites during a meal. Researchers at Clemson University wanted to analyze how providing bite count feedback might influence eaters in different situations and determine its efficacy in the presence of environmental cues linked to overeating. The study found that people who received bite count feedback ate less and reduced their overall intake during a meal.
In a large study conducted by at Brigham and Women's Hospital, researchers found an association between women who maintain a healthy diet and a reduction in the risk of developing impaired physical function as they age.
Broccoli and related vegetables in the Brassica family are loaded with health-promoting compounds known as phenolics. Researchers have identified a large number of candidate genes controlling phenolic compound accumulation in broccoli. These genes will be used in future breeding programs to pack even more phenolic compounds into broccoli and other Brassica vegetables.
A recent meta-analysis in Scientific Reports supports a link between EPA and DHA omega-3 intake and a reduced risk of death by any cause. The meta-analysis included 11 studies involving 371,965 participants and 31,185 death events, with a subset of the studies being used for different analyses.
Wine enthusiasts concerned with potential environmental and health effects of synthetic pesticides prefer to buy "organic" pinots, chardonnays and other varietals. Now scientists are onto a new practice that could help meet that demand. They report that shining short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C) on grapes right before harvest boosts levels of the fruits' own disease-fighting compounds, which could reduce the need for pesticides. The study appears in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.