UCSB neuroscientist Kenneth Kosik stands up for basic cell biology research.
A high-throughput look at how human cells respond to the stress hormone cortisol has revealed a more complex system than previously thought. The study found that when the cortisol-binding glucocorticoid receptor latches on to DNA to signal a stress response, it binds not alone but in clusters of sites that work together to tune the response. Those clusters then allow the stress hormone to drive a wider variety of stress responses than previously realized.
Experiments reveal the crucial contribution of stem cells to the origins of cancer in different organs.
Using a new, lightning-fast camera paired with an electron microscope, Columbia University Medical Center scientists have captured images of one of the smallest proteins in our cells to be 'seen' with a microscope.
One approach to HIV vaccine development relies on broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), highly evolved and unusual antibodies that protect against different circulating HIV strains. A study published on Aug. 25 in PLOS Pathogens reports on a rational approach to identify the essential features of bnAbs, simplify them to be more suitable leads for HIV vaccine design, and then use analysis of the simplified bnAbs to guide design of vaccine proteins to elicit similar antibodies.
Especially in late summer, apprehension about wasp stings increases among allergy sufferers. So-called hyposensibilization therapy can help, but it is linked to a heavy burden on patients and health insurers. Researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technical University Munich have now presented a method in the journal Allergy, which facilitates a personalized procedure.
Atomic level analysis has revealed how two classes of calcium channel blockers, widely prescribed for heart disease patients, produce separate therapeutic effects by acting at different sites on the calcium channel molecule. The study looked at the anti-arrhythmia drug verapamil, and the hypertension and angina drug amlodipine. The study was conducted on bacterial calcium channels, which respond to these cardiovascular medicines. The findings could inform the design of better, safer calcium channel blockers for heart beat irregularities, chest pain, and high blood pressure.
In a very severe, genetic form of microcephaly, stem cells in the brain fail to divide, according to a new Columbia University Medical Center study that may provide important clues to understanding how the Zika virus affects the developing brain.
Bacteria that cause tuberculosis, leprosy and other diseases, survive by switching between two different types of metabolism. EPFL scientists have now discovered that this switch is controlled by a mechanism that constantly adapts to meet the bacterium's survival needs, like a home's thermostat reacting to changes in temperature.
Melatonin, a hormone produced in the human brain, appears to suppress the growth of breast cancer tumors. Researchers at Michigan State University published this finding in the current issue of Genes and Cancer. While treatments based on this key discovery are still years away, the results give scientists a key foundation on which to build future research.