Two new studies led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute advance efforts to produce HIV vaccine candidates, potentially suitable for large-scale production.
In a study published online the week of June 27, 2016 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Caltech and DOE Joint Genome Institute researchers utilized a recently refined technique to identify both individual active cells, and single clusters of active bacteria and archaea within microbial communities. The DOE is interested in learning how the planet's 'microbial dark matter' can be harnessed for energy and environmental challenges.
How do the cells in a human embryo know where they are located in the body and how they should develop? Why do certain cells form a finger while others do not? Freiburg biologists have explained the mechanisms that control these steps by showing why veins form at particular points in the wing of a fruit fly. The protein Pentagone spreads a particular signal in the wing that tells the cells how to behave.
The enzyme sirtuin 6, or SIRT6, serves many key biological functions in regulating genome stability, DNA repair, metabolism and longevity, but how its multiple enzyme activities relate to its various functions is poorly understood. A team of Cornell University researchers has devised a method for isolating one specific enzyme activity to determine its contribution and lead to better overall understanding of SIRT6.
The target pinpointed by the NIST scientists is where an approved anti-HIV drug latches to the enzyme already responsible for about 80 percent of the cholesterol elimination from the human brain. Obtained with a cutting-edge atom-substitution technology called hydrogen-deuterium exchange, the molecular roadmap shows how small amounts of the drug can kick the enzyme, called CYP46A1, into higher gear.
Biologists from Queen Mary University of London have discovered that the evolutionary history of a hormone responsible for sexual maturity in humans is written in the genes of the humble starfish.
Vaccination with the anthrax capsule -- a naturally occurring component of the bacterium that causes the disease -- completely protected monkeys from lethal anthrax infection, according to a study published online this week in the journal VACCINE. These results indicate that anthrax capsule is a highly effective vaccine component that should be considered for incorporation in future generation anthrax vaccines.
A University of Adelaide analysis of genetic mutations which cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease suggests a new focus for research into the causes of the disease.
In the male mouse, more than 2,300 genes are predominantly expressed in the testis, but their particular functions in reproduction are still a mystery. In a report published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from Baylor College of Medicine discovered that 54 of the mouse testis-enriched genes that are also expressed in humans are not necessary for male fertility.
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have identified a protein that launches cancer growth and appears to contribute to higher mortality in breast cancer patients. The new findings suggest that future therapies might target this protein, called GlyRS, to halt cancer growth.