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Earth Science
Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature Communications
Warm US West, cold East: A 4,000-year pattern
Last winter's curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A University of Utah-led study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, and suggests it may worsen as Earth's climate warms.
National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and others

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 15-Apr-2014
Journal of Climate
Study: Deforestation could intensify climate change in Congo Basin by half
By 2050, deforestation could cause temperatures in the Congo Basin to increase by 0.7 °C. The increase would intensify warming caused by greenhouse gases by half, according to a study by researchers at the University of Leuven, Belgium.

Contact: Wim Thiery
KU Leuven

Public Release: 10-Apr-2014
NASA simulation portrays ozone intrusions from aloft
Outdoor enthusiasts in Colorado's Front Range are occasionally rewarded with remarkable visibility brought about by dry, clear air and wind. But it's what people in the mountainous US West can't see in conditions like this -- ozone plunging down to the ground from high in the stratosphere, the second layer of the atmosphere -- that has attracted the interest of NASA scientists, university scientists and air quality managers.

Contact: Kathryn Hansen
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 10-Apr-2014
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Appearance of night-shining clouds has increased
First spotted in 1885, silvery blue clouds sometimes hover in the night sky near the poles, appearing to give off their own glowing light. Known as noctilucent clouds, this phenomenon began to be sighted at lower and lower latitudes -- between the 40th and 50th parallel -- during the 20th century, causing scientists to wonder if the region these clouds inhabit had indeed changed -- information that would tie in with understanding the weather and climate of all Earth.

Contact: Susan Hendrix
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 10-Apr-2014
Camels emit less methane than cows or sheep
When digesting ruminants exhale methane. Their contribution to this global greenhouse gas is considerable. So far the assumption had been that camels with similar digestion produce the same amount of the climate-damaging gas. However, researchers at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have now shown camels release less methane than ruminants.

Contact: Marcus Clauss
University of Zurich

Public Release: 9-Apr-2014
New climate pragmatism framework prioritizes energy access to drive innovation/development
Expanding access to reliable energy offers better route to address global challenges, climate and energy scholars say in new report.

Contact: Jason Lloyd
Arizona State University

Public Release: 8-Apr-2014
Association of American Geographers' Annual Meeting
UC geographers develop a system to track the dynamics of drought
Detecting drought before it causes more catastrophe: the news could go down like a cool drink of water for regions feeling the heat.

Contact: Dawn Fuller
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 7-Apr-2014
USGS Open-File Report
Southwestern bird and reptile distributions to shift as climate changes
Dramatic distribution losses and a few major distribution gains are forecasted for southwestern bird and reptile species as the climate changes, according to just-published research by scientists with the US Geological Survey, the University of New Mexico, and Northern Arizona University.
US Geological Survey/National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center

Contact: Catherine Puckett
United States Geological Survey

Public Release: 7-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists find missing piece of air particle equation hiding in the walls
A new study from UC Davis and California Institute of Technology showed that vapor losses to the walls of laboratory chambers can suppress the formation of secondary organic aerosol, which in turn has contributed to the underprediction of SOA in climate and air quality models.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, California Air Resources Board

Contact: Christopher Cappa
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 4-Apr-2014
GSA Bulletin
GSA Bulletin: Rock avalanches, ancient weather, astronomical clocks, anoxia, and volcanism
Highlights from GSA Bulletin articles published online on March 20-April 1, 2014, include a discussion of a catastrophic rock avalanche in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco 4,500 years ago and that village situated there now; evidence of rain and humidity in ancient soils in the western United States; a contribution to the on-going EarthTime initiative, which is working to refine and calibrate deep time geochronometers; and a call for intensive field studies in volcanic areas.

Contact: Kea Giles
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 3-Apr-2014
Geology spans the minute and gigantic, from skeletonized leaves in China to water on mars
New Geology studies include a mid-Cretaceous greenhouse world; the Vredefort meteoric impact event and the Vredefort dome, South Africa; shallow creeping faults in Italy; a global sink for immense amounts of water on Mars; the Funeral Mountains, USA; insect-mediated skeletonization of fern leaves in China; first-ever tectonic geomorphology study in Bhutan; the Ethiopian Large Igneous Province; the Central Andean Plateau; the Scandinavian Ice Sheet; the India-Asia collision zone; the Snake River Plain; and northeast Brazil.

Contact: Kea Giles
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 3-Apr-2014
A once-only cataclysmic event and other mysteries of earth's crust and upper mantle
The April 2014 Lithosphere is now available in print. Locations covered include the Acatlán Complex, Mexico; east Yilgarn craton, Australia; the eastern Paganzo basin, Argentina; the hotspot-related Yellowstone crescent, USA; and the western Alps. Locations investigated in four new papers published online on 2 April include the Banks Island assemblage in Alaska and British Columbia; The Diligencia basin of the Orocopia Mountains in California; a US post-Grenville large igneous province; and South Island, New Zealand.

Contact: Kea Giles
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 3-Apr-2014
Hot mantle drives elevation, volcanism along mid-ocean ridges
Using data from seismic waves, scientists have shown that temperature deep in Earth's mantle controls the elevation and volcanic activity along mid-ocean ridges, colossal mountain ranges that line the ocean floor. The findings, published this week in Science, bolster the idea that warm mantle plumes are responsible for 'hot spot' volcanism, and shed new light on how temperature in the depths of the mantle influences the contours of the Earth's crust.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 2-Apr-2014
Cold Regions Science and Technology
Finnish research improves the reliability of ice friction assessment
Sliding speed and ice temperature affect the surface friction of ice more than had previously been thought. The thermodynamic model developed by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland research scientists shows that under certain conditions ice warms and melts when an item of material slides across its surface.

Contact: Lasse Makkonen
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Public Release: 2-Apr-2014
Climate Research
Climate change forces flower festival forward a month since 1960s
Study shows flower festivals are being forced to adapt to increasingly early first blooming dates in spring owing to increasingly mild temperatures.

Contact: Alex Roache
Coventry University

Public Release: 1-Apr-2014
Environmental Research Letters
Warm North Atlantic Ocean promotes extreme winters in US and Europe
The extreme cold weather observed across Europe and the east coast of the US in recent winters could be partly down to natural, long-term variations in sea surface temperatures, according to a new study published today.

Contact: Michael Bishop
Institute of Physics

Public Release: 31-Mar-2014
Geophysical Research Letters
NSIDC, NASA say Arctic melt season lengthening, ocean rapidly warming
The length of the melt season for Arctic sea ice is growing by several days each decade, and an earlier start to the melt season is allowing the Arctic Ocean to absorb enough additional solar radiation in some places to melt as much as four feet of the Arctic ice cap's thickness, according to a new study by National Snow and Ice Data Center and NASA researchers.

Contact: Maria-Jose Vinas
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 31-Mar-2014
Climate Dynamics
Warming climate may spread drying to a third of earth, says study
A new study published this month in the journal Climate Dynamics estimates that 12 percent of land will be subject to drought by 2100 through rainfall changes alone; but the drying will spread to 30 percent of land if higher evaporation rates are considered. An increase in evaporative drying means that even regions expected to get more rain, including important wheat, corn and rice belts in the western United States and southeastern China, will be at risk of drought.
NOAA, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim Martineau
The Earth Institute at Columbia University

Public Release: 31-Mar-2014
Behind the scenes of the IPCC report, with Stanford scientists
Stanford's Chris Field has spent five years leading a large team of international scientists as they prepared a major United Nations report on the state and fate of the world's climate. The hours were long, the company was good and the science is crucial.

Contact: Rob Jordan
Stanford University

Public Release: 31-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Satellite shows high productivity from US corn belt
Data from satellite sensors show that during the Northern Hemisphere's growing season, the Midwest region of the United States boasts more photosynthetic activity than any other spot on Earth, according to NASA and university scientists.
NASA, Freie Universität Berlin

Contact: Kathryn Hansen
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 30-Mar-2014
Nature Communications
The Atlantic Ocean dances with the sun and volcanoes
Natural fluctuations in the ocean temperature in the North Atlantic have a significant impact on the climate in the northern hemisphere. These fluctuations are the result of a complex dance between the forces of nature, but researchers at Aarhus University can now show that solar activity and the impact of volcanic eruptions have led this dance during the last two centuries.

Contact: Mads Faurschou Knudsen, Aarhus University, Denmark
Aarhus University

Public Release: 30-Mar-2014
Nature Climate Change
Effect of important air pollutants may be absent from key precipitation observations
Pioneering new research from the University of Exeter could have a major impact on climate and environmental science by drastically transforming the perceived reliability of key observations of precipitation, which includes rain, sleet and snow.

Contact: Duncan Sandes
University of Exeter

Public Release: 30-Mar-2014
Climatic Change
Meeting climate targets may require reducing meat and dairy consumption
Greenhouse gas emissions from food production may threaten the United Nations climate target of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius, according to research at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

Contact: Fredrik Hedenus
Chalmers University of Technology

Public Release: 27-Mar-2014
Geophysical Research Letters
Seasonal Arctic summer ice extent still hard to forecast, study says
Scientists at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, University College London, University of New Hampshire and University of Washington analyzed 300 summer Arctic sea ice forecasts from 2008 to 2013 and found that forecasts are quite accurate when sea ice conditions are close to the downward trend that has been observed in Arctic sea ice for the last 30 years. However, forecasts are not so accurate when sea ice conditions are unusually higher or lower compared to this trend.

Contact: Siobhan Pipa
University College London

Public Release: 27-Mar-2014
A more potent greenhouse gas than CO2, methane emissions will leap as Earth warms
New research indicates that for each degree that the Earth's temperature rises, the amount of methane entering the atmosphere from microorganisms dwelling in lake sediment and freshwater wetlands -- the primary sources of the gas -- will increase several times.

Contact: Morgan Kelly
Princeton University