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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Lifestyle choices may affect the long-term heart health of childhood cancer survivors
A new study has found that following a healthy lifestyle may lower childhood cancer survivors' risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.

Contact: Evelyn Martinez

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Hepatitis C virus genotype 1 is most prevalent worldwide
In one of the largest prevalence studies to date, researchers from the UK provide national, regional, and global genotype prevalence estimates for the hepatitis C virus. Findings published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, indicate that genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, with over 83 million patients infected of which one-third reside in East Asia.

Contact: Dawn Peters

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Toxicology in Vitro
Nicotine found to inhibit DNA-strand break caused by a certain carcinogen in smoke
A new in vitro study has revealed that nicotine and cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, can potentially inhibit DNA damage caused by a certain carcinogen in smoke. The carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone or NNK is produced during the curing of tobacco leaves and ultimately ends up in the tobacco smoke.
British American Tobacco

Contact: Marina Murphy
R&D at British American Tobacco

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
Nature Genetics
NIH scientists find 6 new genetic risk factors for Parkinson's
Using data from over 18,000 patients, scientists have identified more than two dozen genetic risk factors involved in Parkinson's disease, including six that had not been previously reported. The study, published in Nature Genetics, was partially funded by the National Institutes of Health and led by scientists working in NIH laboratories.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH/National Institute on Aging, NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Contact: Barbara McMakin
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
2014 ACS NSQIP National Conference
Surgical safety program greatly reduces surgical site infections for heart operations
A common postoperative complication after open heart operations -- infection at the surgical site -- has been reduced by 77 percent at a Canadian hospital through its participation in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP), according to a new case study presented at the 2014 ACS NSQIP National Conference.

Contact: Sally Garneski
American College of Surgeons

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
Nature Methods
New tools help neuroscientists analyze 'big data'
New technologies for monitoring brain activity are generating unprecedented quantities of information. That data may hold new insights into how the brain works -- but only if researchers can interpret it. To help make sense of the data, neuroscientists can now harness the power of distributed computing with Thunder, a library of tools developed at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Research Campus.

Contact: Jim Keeley
Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
Kidney transplant drug halves the early risk of rejection and allows less toxic treatment
Oxford University scientists have shown that a powerful drug given at the time of a kidney transplant operation not only halves the early risk of rejection, but that it also allows a less toxic regimen of anti-rejection drugs to be used after the operation.
National Health Service Blood and Transplant, Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK, Pfizer

Contact: Andrew Trehearne
University of Oxford

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
Nature Medicine
Drugs used to treat lung disease work with the body clock
Scientists from The University of Manchester have discovered why medication to treat asthma and pneumonia can become ineffective. Findings, published in Nature Medicine, show that drugs widely used to treat lung diseases work with the body clock.

Contact: Ali Barbuti
University of Manchester

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
New drug target can break down cancer's barrier against treatment
Scientists have found that a molecule -- focal adhesion kinase -- signals the body to repair itself after chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which kill cancer cells by damaging DNA.
Cancer Research UK

Contact: Greg Jones
Cancer Research UK

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
The Lancet: New oral drug regimens cure hardest-to-treat hepatitis C
Two new pill-only antiviral drug regimens could provide shorter, more effective treatment options with fewer side effects for the majority of patients infected with hepatitis C, even those most difficult to treat, according to the results of two studies published in The Lancet.

Contact: Professor Michael P Manns
The Lancet

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
The Lancet: 1 in 3000 blood donors in England infected with hepatitis E
The first systematic analysis of hepatitis E virus transmission by blood components indicates that about 1 in 3000 donors in England have hepatitis E in their plasma. The findings, published in The Lancet, suggest that around 1200 hepatitis E-containing blood components are likely to be transfused every year in England.
Public Health England, British National Health Service Blood and Transplant

Contact: Professor Richard Tedder
The Lancet

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
Scientists discover new, noncommittal mechanism of drug resistance
Microorganisms like bacteria and fungi can evade treatment by acquiring mutations in the genes targeted by antibiotics or antifungal drugs. These permanent mutations were once thought to be the only way for drug resistant strains to evolve. Now a new study has shown that microorganisms can use a temporary silencing of drug targets -- known as epimutations -- to gain the benefits of drug resistance without the commitment.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: David Jarmul
Duke University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2014
British Journal of General Practice
Online information most cost-effective means of increasing MMR uptake, research finds
Giving parents access to a website containing information about the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is the most cost-effective way of increasing its uptake, new University of Leeds research has found.
British National Institute for Health Research

Contact: Ben Jones
University of Leeds

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Slow walking speed and memory complaints can predict dementia
A study involving nearly 27,000 older adults on five continents found that nearly one in 10 met criteria for pre-dementia based on a simple test that measures how fast people walk and whether they have cognitive complaints. People who tested positive for pre-dementia were twice as likely as others to develop dementia within 12 years. The study, led by scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, was published online in Neurology.

Contact: Kim Newman
Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Annals of Emergency Medicine
New EMS system in Arizona dramatically improves survival from cardiac arrest
A new emergency medicine system that sent patients to designated cardiac receiving centers dramatically increased the survival rate of victims of sudden cardiac arrest in Arizona, according to a study published online in Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Contact: Julie Lloyd
American College of Emergency Physicians

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Environmental Research Letters
Climate change increases risk of crop slowdown in next 20 years
The world faces a small but substantially increased risk over the next two decades of a major slowdown in the growth of global corn and wheat yields because of climate change, according to National Center for Atmospheric Research and Stanford University research. Such a slowdown would occur as global demand for crops rapidly increases.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy

Contact: David Hosansky, NCAR/UCAR Media Relations
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Anti-inflammatory drug can prevent neuron loss in Parkinson's model
An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Contact: Quinn Eastman
Emory Health Sciences

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Annals of Surgery
Test increases odds of correct surgery for thyroid cancer patients
The routine use of a molecular testing panel increases the likelihood of performing the correct initial surgery for thyroid cancer patients by 30 percent, the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, partner with University of Pittsburgh Medical Center CancerCenter, reports in the Annals of Surgery. The test is available at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center/University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Multidisciplinary Thyroid Center and other diagnostic testing agencies.
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Contact: Allison Hydzik
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Emergency Medicine Journal
Heart attack patients could be treated more quickly after Manchester research
Clinical judgement, combined with an electrocardiogram and blood test on arrival, is effective in reducing unnecessary hospital admissions for chest pain, a new study shows.
British National Institute for Health Research, Clinical Research Network

Contact: Alison Barbuti
University of Manchester

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Researchers uncover the secret lymphatic identity of the Schlemm's canal
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, two research groups reveal that Schlemm's canal -- a specialized structure in the eye responsible for fluid drainage-shares features of lymphatic vessels, which maintain interstitial fluid homeostasis.

Contact: Corinne Williams
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Annals of Oncology
Is Europe putting cancer research at risk?
The European Society for Medical Oncology has expressed concern that the proposed EU General Data Protection Regulation could make cancer research impossible and add a significant burden to both doctors and cancer patients.

Contact: ESMO Press Office
European Society for Medical Oncology

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Cancer Research
Total darkness at night is key to success of breast cancer therapy -- Tulane study
Exposure to light at night, which shuts off nighttime production of the hormone melatonin, renders breast cancer completely resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used breast cancer drug, says a new study by Tulane University School of Medicine cancer researchers.
National Institutes of Health, American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Edmond and Lily Safra Endowed Chair for Breast Cancer Research at Tulane Cancer Center

Contact: Arthur Nead
Tulane University

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Cancer Research
Exposure to dim light at night may make breast cancers resistant to tamoxifen
For rats bearing human breast tumors, exposure to dim light at night made the tumors resistant to the breast cancer drug tamoxifen, according to data published in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. The negative effects of dim light exposure on tamoxifen treatment were overcome by giving rats a melatonin supplement during the night.
National Institutes of Health, American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

Contact: Jeremy Moore
American Association for Cancer Research

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Informed consent: False positives not a worry in lung cancer study
A new study of participants in the National Lung Screening Trial finds that a false positive screen result -- a screening test in which initial findings of concern for cancer are later found not to be worrisome -- did not cause participants undue anxiety or reduced quality of life. Researchers hypothesize that clear and accurate consent forms prepared patients for these false positive diagnoses.
National Cancer Institute

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 25-Jul-2014
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Why do men prefer nice women?: Responsiveness and desire
Does responsiveness increase sexual desire in the other person? Do men perceive responsive women as more attractive, and does the same hold true for women's perceptions of men? A study published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin seeks to answer those questions.
Israel Science Foundation, Binational Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Santisi
Society for Personality and Social Psychology