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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 23-Oct-2014
IARU Sustainability Science Congress
New policymaking tool for shift to renewable energy
Multiple pathways exist to a low greenhouse gas future, all involving increased efficiency and a dramatic shift in energy supply away from fossil fuels. A new tool 'SWITCH' enables policymakers and planners to assess the economic and environmental implications of different energy scenarios. It is presented today at the congress Global Challenges: Achieving Sustainability, hosted by the University of Copenhagen.

Contact: Elisabeth Wulffeld
elisabethw@snm.ku.dk
45-21-17-91-40
Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen

Public Release: 23-Oct-2014
Child Development
Children in high-quality early childhood education are buffered from changes in family income
A new Norwegian study shows that while losses in family income ought to predict increases in behavior problems for many children, attending high-quality early childhood centers offered protection against economic decline. The study looked at 75,000 children from birth through age 3, in addition to their families. In Norway, publicly subsidized high-quality early childhood education and care is available to all children, from low-income to affluent, starting at age 1.
Norwegian Ministry of Health, NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, Research Council of Norway.

Contact: Hannah Klein
hklein@srcd.org
202-289-0320
Society for Research in Child Development

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
Ecology
Seaweed engineers build crustacean homes; old forests store new nitrogen
In this month's issue of Ecology, invasive seaweed shelters native crustaceans, mature forests store nitrogen in soil, and stream invertebrates aren't eating what we thought they were eating.

Contact: Liza Lester
llester@esa.org
202-833-8773 x211
Ecological Society of America

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
NIST's Cloud Computing Roadmap details research requirements and action plans
NIST has published the final version of the US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Volumes I and II. The roadmap focuses on strategic and tactical objectives to support the federal government's accelerated adoption of cloud computing.

Contact: Evelyn Brown
evelyn.brown@nist.gov
301-975-5661
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
Baker Institute paper: Data indicate there is no immigration crisis
Is there an 'immigration crisis' on the US-Mexico border? Not according to an examination of historical immigration data, according to a new paper from Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
American Journal of Public Health
Indiana Project screenings show need for more mental health services in youth detention
Indiana is at the forefront of providing mental health screening and services to juvenile offenders, but more efforts are needed to improve the services provided to detained youths, according to Indiana University School of Medicine research findings published in the October issue of the American Journal of Public Health.

Contact: Mary Hardin
mhardin@iu.edu
317-274-5456
Indiana University

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
Global consumption an increasingly significant driver of tropical deforestation
International trade with agricultural and wood products is an increasingly important driver of tropical deforestation. More than a third of recent deforestation can be tied to production of beef, soy, palm oil and timber. 'The trend is clear, the drivers of deforestation have been globalized and commercialized,' says assistant professor Martin Persson, Chalmers University of Technology.

Contact: Christian Borg
christian.borg@chalmers.se
46-317-723-395
Chalmers University of Technology

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
Nature
Recently discovered microbe is key player in climate change
Scientists have discovered how an invisible menagerie of microbes in permafrost soils acts as global drivers of Earth processes such as climate via gas exchange between soils and the atmosphere. These findings will help climate modelers more accurately predict Earth's future climate.
Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research, UA Technology and Research Initiative Fund

Contact: Daniel Stolte
stolte@email.arizona.edu
520-626-4402
University of Arizona

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
Neuron
Brain simulation raises questions
What does it mean to simulate the human brain? Why is it important to do so? And is it even possible to simulate the brain separately from the body it exists in? These questions are discussed in a new paper published in the scientific journal Neuron today.

Contact: Kathinka Evers
kathinka.evers@crb.uu.se
46-184-716-243
Uppsala University

Public Release: 22-Oct-2014
New England Journal of Medicine
100 days in Michigan: U-M team releases new analysis of state's Medicaid expansion
Right out of the starting gate, Michigan's expansion of health coverage for the poor and near-poor holds lessons for other states that are still on the fence about expanding their own Medicaid programs under the Affordable Care Act, a new analysis shows.

Contact: Kara Gavin
kegavin@umich.edu
734-764-2220
University of Michigan Health System

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice
Criminologists try to solve murder mystery: Who will become a killer?
In a study of 1,354 youths charged with serious crimes, the youths charged with homicide had lower IQs and more exposure to violence.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, National Institute of Justice, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, William T. Grant Foundation, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, William Penn Foundation

Contact: Brittany Hoover
brittany.hoover@utdallas.edu
972-883-4357
University of Texas at Dallas

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
NOAA team discovers 2 vessels from WWII convoy battle off North Carolina
A team of researchers led by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries have discovered two significant vessels from World War II's Battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boat 576 and the freighter Bluefields were found approximately 30 miles off the coast of North Carolina. Lost for more than 70 years, the discovery of the two vessels, in an area known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, is a rare window into a historic military battle and the underwater battlefield landscape of WWII.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, UNC-Coastal Studies Institute, National Park Service

Contact: Lauren Heesemann
lauren.heesemann@noaa.gov
252-475-5495
NOAA Headquarters

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Frontiers in Zoology
'Shrinking goats' another indicator that climate change affects animal size
Alpine goats appear to be shrinking in size as they react to changes in climate, according to new research from Durham University.
Natural Environment Research Council

Contact: Leighton Kitson
leighton.kitson@durham.ac.uk
44-191-334-6075
Durham University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
European Physical Journal D
Quantum holograms as atomic scale memory keepsake
A theoretical model of quantum memory for light, adapting the concept of a hologram to a quantum system has been published in EPJD. The authors demonstrate that it is theoretically possible to retrieve, on demand, a given portion of the stored quantized light signal of a holographic image -- set in a given direction in a given position in time sequence. This is done by shaping the control field both in space and time.

Contact: Laura Zimmermann
laura.zimmermann@springer.com
49-622-148-78414
Springer

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Study shows how texas campus police tackle stalking
One out of every five female students experience stalking victimization during their college career, but many of those cases are not reported to police, according to a study by the Crime Victims' Institute at Sam Houston State University.
Crime Victims' Institute

Contact: Beth Kuhles
kuhles@shsu.edu
936-294-4425
Sam Houston State University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Conservation Biology
A legal trade in horn would improve rhino protection and help sustainable development
The extinction in the wild of the southern white rhino population could be prevented by letting local communities take responsibility of the animals and giving them permission to harvest horns in a controlled manner through a legal trade. Rhino horn is made of the same material as human hair and fingernails and grows back in two to three years.

Contact: Enrico Di Minin
enrico.di.minin@helsinki.fi
358-503-185-717
University of Helsinki

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
What Americans fear most -- new poll from Chapman University
The Chapman Survey on American Fears included 1,500 participants from across the nation and all walks of life. Underscoring Chapman's growth and emergence in the sciences, the research team leading this effort pared the information down into four basic categories: personal fears, crime, natural disasters and fear factors.

Contact: Sheri Ledbetter
sledbett@chapman.edu
714-289-3143
Chapman University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
PLOS Medicine
Most published medical research is false; Here's how to improve
In 2005, in a landmark paper viewed well over a million times, John Ioannidis explained in PLOS Medicine why most published research findings are false. To coincide with PLOS Medicine's 10th anniversary he responds to the challenge of this situation by suggesting how the research enterprise could be improved.
Laura and John Arnold Foundation

Contact: Maya Sandler
medicinepress@plos.org
PLOS

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
Bar attendance supports heavy drinking by young adults in the US-Mexico border region
Mexico is a nearby destination where younger US residents can legally drink heavily. However, high levels of drinking on the US side are not always linked to recent travel to Mexico. New findings show that higher levels of drinking among US-Mexico border youth are closely linked to their patterns of bar attendance, but not to how they think about drinking.
NIH/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Contact: Britain A. Mills
britain.mills@utsouthwestern.edu
817-677-8557
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research

Public Release: 21-Oct-2014
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
Understanding drinking behaviors among women with unwanted pregnancies
Most women reduce or stop drinking alcohol upon discovery of pregnancy. A new study looks at changes in alcohol use, and factors contributing to these changes, among women with unwanted pregnancies. Findings indicate that most women with unwanted pregnancies quit or reduce alcohol consumption once they discover their pregnancies, and that some may be substituting alcohol for drugs once they discover their pregnancies.
Wallace Alexander Gerbode Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, NIH/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Contact: Laura Kurtzman
laura.kurtzman@ucsf.edu
415-476-3163
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Misreporting diet information could impact nutrition recommendations for Hispanics
A new paper takes a critical look at how faulty self-reporting of the food we eat can lead to incorrect conclusions about whether we are meeting dietary recommendations for certain essential nutrients.

Contact: Talia S Ogliore
togliore@hawaii.edu
808-956-4531
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Journal of Hazardous Materials
New study charts the fate of chemicals affecting health and the environment
In a new study, Rolf Halden, PhD, a researcher at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute, examines the trajectory of chemicals appearing as emergent threats to human or environmental health. Halden's meta-analysis of 143,000 peer-reviewed research papers tracks the progress of these chemicals of emerging concern, revealing patters of emergence from obscurity to peak concern and eventual decline, over a span of 30 years.

Contact: RICHARD HARTH
richard.harth@asu.edu
Arizona State University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Geophysical Research Letters
Massive debris pile reveals risk of huge tsunamis in Hawaii
A mass of marine debris discovered in a giant sinkhole in the Hawaiian islands provides evidence that at least one mammoth tsunami, larger than any in Hawaii's recorded history, has struck the islands, and that a similar disaster could happen again, new research finds. Scientists are reporting that a wall of water up to nine meters (30 feet) high surged onto Hawaiian shores about 500 years ago. A 9.0-magnitude earthquake off the coast of the Aleutian Islands triggered the mighty wave, which left behind up to nine shipping containers worth of ocean sediment in a sinkhole on the island of Kauai.

Contact: Nanci Bompey
nbompey@agu.org
202-777-7524
American Geophysical Union

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
Nature Communications
Mediterranean, semi-arid ecosystems prove resistant to climate change
Climate change predictions for the Middle East, like other arid regions of the world, are alarming. But in testing these dire predictions, Tel Aviv University ecologists found that, contrary to expectations, no measurable changes in annual vegetation could be seen. None of the crucial vegetation characteristics -- neither species richness and composition, nor density and biomass -- had changed appreciably in the course of the rainfall manipulations.

Contact: George Hunka
ghunka@aftau.org
212-742-9070
American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2014
International Studies Quarterly
Why sign rights treaties?
Since World War II, more than 45 international human-rights treaties have been signed by many of the world's roughly 200 countries. But why do some states sign such accords, especially if they lack a strong human-rights commitment in the first place?

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology