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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Memory relies on astrocytes, the brain's lesser known cells
Salk scientists show that the little-known supportive cells are vital in cognitive function.

Contact: Chris Emery
press@salk.edu
Salk Institute

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Contraception
Strategies identified to improve oral contraceptive success with obese women
The findings of a new study suggest two ways to effectively address the problem that birth control pills may not work as well in obese women, compared to women of a normal body mass index. Either a higher-dose pill or skipping the 'one week off' regimen might work.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Ganesh Cherala
ganesh.cherala@oregonstate.edu
503-418-0447
Oregon State University

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Green spaces found to increase birth weight -- Ben-Gurion U. researcher
'We found that that overall, an increase of surrounding greenery near the home was associated with a significant increase of birth weight and decreased risk for low birth weight,' says professor Michael Friger, of BGU's Department of Public Health. 'This was the first study outside of the United States and Europe demonstrating associations between greenery and birth weight, as well as the first to report the association with low birth weight.'
Israel Environment and Health Fund

Contact: Andrew Lavin
andrewlavin@alavin.com
516-353-2505
American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Wait, wait -- don't tell me the good news yet
New research from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business finds that the positive reaction one would have when succeeding is lessened if it doesn't follow the expected course.

Contact: Ethan Grove
ethan.grove@chicagobooth.edu
773-834-5161
University of Chicago Booth School of Business

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
American Journal of Infection Control
Fist-bumping beats germ-spreading handshake, study reports
'Fist-bumping' transmits significantly fewer bacteria than either handshaking or high-fiving, while still addressing the cultural expectation of hand-to-hand contact between patients and clinicians, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.

Contact: Liz Garman
egarman@apic.org
202-454-2604
Elsevier Health Sciences

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
New England Journal of Medicine
Booming mobile health app market needs more FDA oversight for consumer safety, confidence
While the mobile health apps market offers tremendous potential, several health law experts say in a July 24 New England Journal of Medicine report that more oversight is needed by the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure consumer confidence and safety. Out of 100,000 mHealth apps on the market, only about 100 have been cleared by the FDA, which opponents see as a deterrent to innovation and profit. But it doesn't have to be.

Contact: Denise Gee
dgee@smu.edu
214-768-7658
Southern Methodist University

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Psychological Science
Preschoolers with special needs benefit from peers' strong language skills
A new study provides empirical evidence that peers really can have an impact on a child's language abilities, for better or worse. While peers with strong language skills can help boost their classmates' abilities, being surrounded by peers with weak skills may hinder kids' language development. The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Institute of Education Sciences

Contact: Anna Mikulak
amikulak@psychologicalscience.org
202-293-9300
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Psychological Science
Children with disabilities benefit from classroom inclusion
The secret to boosting the language skills of preschoolers with disabilities may be to put them in classrooms with typically developing peers, a new study finds.

Contact: Laura Justice
justice.57@osu.edu
614-292-1045
Ohio State University

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Facial features are the key to first impressions
A new study by researchers in the Department of Psychology at the University of York shows that it is possible to accurately predict first impressions using measurements of physical features in everyday images of faces, such as those found on social media.

Contact: David Garner
david.garner@york.ac.uk
44-019-043-22153
University of York

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
2014 World Transplant Congress
Henry Ford study: Burnout impacts transplant surgeons
Despite saving thousands of lives yearly, nearly half of organ transplant surgeons report a low sense of personal accomplishment and 40 percent feel emotionally exhausted, according to a new national study on transplant surgeon burnout. The findings will be presented at the 2014 World Transplant Congress on Wednesday in San Francisco.

Contact: Tammy Battaglia
Tammy.Battaglia@hfhs.org
248-881-0809
Henry Ford Health System

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Perspectives on Psychological Science
Motivation explains disconnect between testing and real-life functioning for seniors
A psychology researcher at North Carolina State University is proposing a new theory to explain why older adults show declining cognitive ability with age, but don't necessarily show declines in the workplace or daily life. One key appears to be how motivated older adults are to maintain focus on cognitive tasks.
NIH/National Institute on Aging

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Social Science & Medicine
Gender inequalities in health: A matter of policies
Gender inequalities in health vary in European countries according to their family policies model. Countries with traditional policies (central and southern Europe) and contradictory policies (eastern Europe), present higher inequalities in self-perceived health. These are especially remarkable in southern Europe countries, where women present a 27 percent higher risk of having poor health compared to men. Conversely, in the dual-earner (Nordic countries) and the market-oriented countries this difference decrease to a non-significant 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively.
European Community's 7th Framework Program

Contact: Esther Marin
info@sophie-project.eu
SOPHIE project

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
Mutations from Venus, mutations from Mars
Weizmann Institute researchers explain why genetic fertility problems can persist in a population.

Contact: Yivsam Azgad
news@weizmann.ac.il
972-893-43856
Weizmann Institute of Science

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Google searches hold key to future market crashes
A team of researchers from Warwick Business School and Boston University have developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market falls.

Contact: a.t.frew@warwick.ac.uk
A.T.Frew@warwick.ac.uk
44-024-765-75910
University of Warwick

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
The bit of your brain that signals how bad things could be
An evolutionarily ancient and tiny part of the brain tracks expectations about nasty events, finds new UCL research. The study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrates for the first time that the human habenula, half the size of a pea, tracks predictions about negative events, like painful electric shocks, suggesting a role in learning from bad experiences.
UK Medical Research Council

Contact: Harry Dayantis
h.dayantis@ucl.ac.uk
44-020-310-83844
University College London

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
JAMA Internal Medicine
Dementia patients more likely to get implanted pacemakers, says Pitt study
People with dementia are more likely to get implanted pacemakers for heart rhythm irregularities, such as atrial fibrillation, than people who don't have cognitive difficulties, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In a research letter published online in JAMA Internal Medicine, the researchers noted the finding runs counter to expectations that less aggressive interventions are the norm for patients with the incurable and disabling illness.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute on Aging

Contact: Anita Srikameswaran
SrikamAV@upmc.edu
412-578-9193
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
JAMA Pediatrics
Electronic screening tool to triage teenagers and risk of substance misuse
An electronic screening tool that starts with a single question to assess the frequency of substance misuse appears to be an easy way to screen teenagers who visited a physician for routine medical care.

Contact: Erin Tornatore
erin.tornatore@childrens.harvard.edu
617-919-3110
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
JAMA Internal Medicine
Research letter examines pacemaker use in patients with cognitive impairment
Patients with dementia were more likely to receive a pacemaker then patients without cognitive impairment.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute on Aging

Contact: Anita Srikameswaranat
srikamav@upmc.edu
412-578-9193
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Learning the smell of fear: Mothers teach babies their own fears via odor, research finds
Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor of their distressed mothers', new research suggests. And not just 'natural' fears: If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her baby will quickly learn to fear it too -- through the odor she gives off when she feels fear.
National Institutes of Health, Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, University of Michigan

Contact: Kara Gavin
kegavin@umich.edu
734-764-2220
University of Michigan Health System

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Scientific Reports
Industrial lead pollution beat explorers to the South Pole by 22 years and persists today
Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen became the first man to reach the South Pole in December of 1911. More than 100 years later, an international team of scientists led by Joe McConnell of Nevada's Desert Research Institute have proven that air pollution from industrial activities arrived long before.
NSF/Division of Polar Programs

Contact: Justin Broglio
justin.broglio@dri.edu
775-762-8320
Desert Research Institute

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Hepatology
Hepatitis C virus genotype 1 is most prevalent worldwide
In one of the largest prevalence studies to date, researchers from the UK provide national, regional, and global genotype prevalence estimates for the hepatitis C virus. Findings published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, indicate that genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, with over 83 million patients infected of which one-third reside in East Asia.

Contact: Dawn Peters
sciencenewsroom@wiley.com
781-388-8408
Wiley

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Endurance runners more likely to die of heat stroke than heart condition
Heat stroke is 10 times more likely than cardiac events to be life-threatening for runners during endurance races in warm climates, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The authors noted the findings may play a role in the ongoing debate over pre-participation ECG screenings for preventing sudden death in athletes by offering a new perspective on the greatest health risk for runners.

Contact: Nicole Napoli
nnapoli@acc.org
202-375-6523
American College of Cardiology

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Running reduces risk of death regardless of duration, speed
Running for only a few minutes a day or at slow speeds may significantly reduce a person's risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to someone who does not run, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Contact: Nicole Napoli
nnapoli@acc.org
202-375-6523
American College of Cardiology

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Gender disparities in cognition will not diminish
Improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities reduce the cognitive disparities between men and women or improve the gap in favor of women, according to new research by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the Karolinska Institutet.

Contact: Philippa Brooks
brooks@iiasa.ac.at
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Public Release: 28-Jul-2014
Toxicology in Vitro
Nicotine found to inhibit DNA-strand break caused by a certain carcinogen in smoke
A new in vitro study has revealed that nicotine and cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, can potentially inhibit DNA damage caused by a certain carcinogen in smoke. The carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone or NNK is produced during the curing of tobacco leaves and ultimately ends up in the tobacco smoke.
British American Tobacco

Contact: Marina Murphy
marina_murphy@bat.com
44-077-111-50135
R&D at British American Tobacco