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Key: Meeting Journal Funder
Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Brain's dynamic duel underlies win-win choices
People choosing between two or more equally positive outcomes experience paradoxical feelings of pleasure and anxiety, feelings associated with activity in different regions of the brain, according to research led by Amitai Shenhav, an associate research scholar at the Princeton Neuroscience Institute at Princeton University. In the study, participants made choices between paired products with different or similar values. Choosing between two items of high value evoked the most positive feelings and the greatest anxiety.

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Computers in Human Behavior
Study shows role of media in sharing life events
To share is human. And the means to share personal news -- good and bad -- have exploded over the last decade, particularly social media and texting. But until now, all research about what is known as 'social sharing,' or the act of telling others about the important events in our lives, has been restricted to face-to-face interactions.

Contact: Catalina Toma
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Journal of Consumer Psychology
'Experiential products' provide same happiness boost as experiences, study finds
'Experiential products,' items such as books or musical instruments that are designed to create or enhance an experience, can make shoppers just as happy as life experiences, according to a new study from San Francisco State University psychologist Ryan Howell. While life experiences help consumers feel closer to others, experiential products fulfill their users' need for 'competence' by utilizing their skills and knowledge. Both effects provide the same happiness boost, Howell found.

Contact: Jonathan Morales
San Francisco State University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
Election surprises tend to erode trust in government
When asked who is going to win an election, people tend to predict their own candidate will come out on top. When that doesn't happen, according to a new study from the University of Georgia, these 'surprised losers' often have less trust in government and democracy.

Contact: Barry Hollander
University of Georgia

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Pattern Recognition Letters
Artificial intelligence identifies the musical progression of the Beatles
Computer scientists at Lawrence Technological University have developed an artificial intelligence algorithm that can analyze and compare musical styles, which they have used to study the musical progression of the Beatles.

Contact: Lior Shamir
Lawrence Technological University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Rutgers study explores attitudes, preferences toward post-Sandy rebuilding
A yearlong Rutgers study found that individual property owners in Sandy-affected towns are skeptical about the likelihood of community-based rebuilding solutions. 45 percent of 400-plus respondents are pessimistic their towns would be rebuilt better than they were before Sandy.
New Jersey Recovery Fund

Contact: Steve Manas
Rutgers University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Early warning sign for babies at risk of autism
Researchers at the University of Miami find that early joint attention -- such as making eye contact to communicate about a toy, without smiling -- predicts later autism symptoms. The findings help identify children that can benefit from early interventions

Contact: Annette Gallagher
University of Miami

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
American Journal of Epidemiology
Joblessness could kill you, but recessions could be good for your health
While previous studies of individuals have shown that employees who lose their jobs have a higher mortality rate, more comprehensive studies have shown, unexpectedly, that population mortality actually declines as unemployment rates increase. Researchers from Drexel University and the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor set out to better understand these seemingly contradictory findings.
NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Contact: Alex McKechnie
Drexel University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Psychological Science
Cultural stereotypes may evolve from sharing social information
Cultural stereotypes may be an unintended but inevitable consequence of sharing social information, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Information about people that is initially complex and difficult to remember evolves into a simple system of category stereotypes that can be learned easily as it is shared from person to person.
Economic and Social Research Council

Contact: Anna Mikulak
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Teens pay high psychiatric toll when raised in conditions of political conflict
A new study by Professor Michelle Slone of Tel Aviv University finds that Israeli youths exposed to protracted conflict suffer far higher levels of anxiety, phobia, fear, depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and paranoia than their counterparts in the US. The largest cross-sectional empirical study of its kind, the research assessed youths exposed to terrorism, missile attacks, war, forced residential relocations, and military operations.

Contact: George Hunka
American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
CDC reports annual financial cost of COPD to be $36 billion in the United States
American College of Chest Physicians announced today the online first publication of 'Total and state-specific medical and absenteeism costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged ≥18 years in the United States for 2010 and projections through 2020.'

Contact: Kristi Bruno
American College of Chest Physicians

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Warning: Birthdays can be bad for your health
New research has found that birthday-related drinking is associated with upsurges in hospital admissions among young people. This study of drinking behavior in Ontario, Canada was published online in the scientific journal Addiction.

Contact: Nicole Weingartner

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
New research: When it hurts to think we were made for each other
Psychologists observe that people talk and think about love in limitless ways but underlying such diversity are some common themes that frame how we think about relationships. For example, one popular frame considers love as perfect unity; in another frame, love is a journey. These two ways of thinking about relationships are particularly interesting because, according to a new study, they have the power to highlight or downplay the damaging effect of conflicts on relationship evaluation.
Drs. Richard Charles and Esther Yewpick Lee Charitable Foundation

Contact: Ken McGuffin
University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks
Wireless home automation systems reveal more than you would think about user behavior
Home automation systems that control domestic lighting, heating, window blinds or door locks offer opportunities for third parties to intrude on the privacy of the inhabitants and gain considerable insight into their behavioral patterns. This is the conclusion reached by IT security expert Christoph Sorge and his research team at Saarland University. Even data transmitted from encrypted systems can provide information useful to potential burglars.

Contact: Christoph Sorge
Saarland University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Rhode Island Medical Journal
Miriam Hospital physician advocates awareness, collaboration to combat peaking hep C virus
Lynn E. Taylor, M.D., director of The Miriam Hospital's HIV/Viral Hepatitis Coinfection program, states in a commentary in the July, 2014 Rhode Island Medical Journal special edition, 'RI Defeats Hep C' that eliminating hepatitis C virus infection is feasible, can provide economic benefits, enhance capacity to address other health challenges, and improve health care disparities.

Contact: Elena Falcone-Relvas

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Food Policy
Farmers market vouchers may boost produce consumption in low-income families
Vouchers to buy fresh fruits and vegetables at farmers markets increase the amount of produce in the diets of some families on food assistance, according to research led by New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.
Wholesome Wave

Contact: Rachel Harrison
New York University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
American Sociological Review
Wives with more education than their husbands no longer at increased risk of divorce
For decades, couples in which a wife had more education than her husband faced a higher risk of divorce than those in which a husband had more education, but a new study finds this is no longer the case.

Contact: Daniel Fowler
American Sociological Association

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Global wildlife decline driving slave labor, organized crime
Global decline of wildlife populations is driving increases in violent conflicts, organized crime and child labor around the world, according to a policy paper led by UC Berkeley researchers. The authors call for biologists to join forces with experts such as economists, political scientists, criminologists, public health officials and international development specialists to collectively tackle a complex challenge.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Mechanism found for development of protective HIV antibodies
Scientists at Duke Medicine have found an immunologic mechanism that makes broadly neutralizing antibodies in people who are HIV-1 infected.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sarah Avery
Duke University Medical Center

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Journal of Communication
Using media as a stress reducer can lead to feelings of guilt and failure
After a long day at work, sometimes you just want to turn on the TV or play a video game to relax. This is supposed to make you feel better. But, a recent study published in the Journal of Communication, by researchers at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany, found that people who had high stress levels after work and engaged in television viewing or video game play didn't feel relaxed or recovered, but had high levels of guilt and feelings of failure.

Contact: John Paul Gutierrez
International Communication Association

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Child Development
Community service programs that include reflection found to be more beneficial to youth
Using meta-analysis to asses 49 studies from around the world, researchers have found that community service that includes reflection is more beneficial for adolescents than community service that does not. The studies analyzed were conducted from 1980 to 2012 and involved 24,477 adolescent participants. Community service had a positive effect on academic, social, and civic outcomes. This effect was found to be substantial only in programs that included reflection. Positive outcomes were stronger when community service was performed more often.
Utrecht University

Contact: Hannah Klein
Society for Research in Child Development

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Child Development
Stronger early reading skills predict higher intelligence later
A study of 1,890 identical twins has found that strong early reading skill might positively affect later intelligence. The twins, who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study in the United Kingdom, share all their genes as well as a home environment. Differences shown in intellectual ability came from experiences they didn't share. The twin with stronger early reading skills was found to have higher overall intellectual ability by age 7.
UK Medical Research Council, NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, European Research Council

Contact: Hannah Klein
Society for Research in Child Development

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Child Development
Stress tied to change in children's gene expression related to emotion regulation, physical health
In a new study, researchers found that maltreatment affects the way children's genes are activated, which has implications for their long-term development and health. The researchers examined DNA methylation, a biomechanical mechanism that helps cells control which genes are turned on or off, in the blood of 56 children ages 11 to 14. Disruptions in this system affect emotional behavior, stress levels, and the immune system. These findings echo those of earlier studies of rodents.
NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, Waisman Center at the University of Wisconsin, NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Contact: Hannah Klein
Society for Research in Child Development

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Cell Reports
Mutated gene linked to both autism and intellectual disability
Autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability often occur together and may even share similar genetic causes. Researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Cell Reports have now linked mutations in a particular gene to the two disorders in humans. By revealing these genetic changes and their potential impact on common brain processes, researchers may uncover treatment approaches that could benefit a variety of patients.

Contact: Mary Beth O'Leary
Cell Press

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Choice bias: A quirky byproduct of learning from reward
Many people value rewards they choose themselves more than rewards they merely receive, even when the rewards are actually equivalent. A new study in Neuron provides evidence that this long-observed quirk of behavior is a byproduct of how the brain reinforces learning from reward.
NIH/National Institute of Mental Health

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University