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Public Release: 27-May-2016
Cancer Gene Therapy
Restoring chemotherapy sensitivity by boosting microRNA levels
By increasing the level of a specific microRNA (miRNA) molecule, researchers have for the first time restored chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro to a line of human pancreatic cancer cells that had developed resistance to a common treatment drug.
Deborah Nash Endowment, Mark Light Fellowship

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 27-May-2016
Cancer Cell
Skin cancer: A team synthesizes new drugs with surprising powers
Finding new, more effective and personalized treatments for cancer is the challenge of many researchers. A challenge that has been successfully met by a team from Inserm led by Stéphane Rocchi (Inserm Unit 1065, 'Mediterranean Center for Molecular Medicine'), which has just synthesized and developed new drugs for melanoma.

Contact: Priscille Riviere
INSERM (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale)

Public Release: 27-May-2016
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Faster, more efficient CRISPR editing in mice
Creating transgenic mice, while critical to biomedical research, is laborious and expensive, despite improvements since the advent of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Now, UC Berkeley biologists have invented a technique that simplifies, improves and lowers the cost of generating knockout mice. They discovered that electroporation can move CRISPR-Cas9 molecules into mouse embryos with nearly 100 percent efficiency, much better than the success from microinjecting Cas9 mRNA and guide RNA. The gene-editing success is also higher.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 27-May-2016
Cancer Discovery
Blood test supports use of potential new treatment for patients with stomach cancer
Testing cancers for 'addiction' to a gene that boosts cell growth can pick out patients who may respond to a targeted drug under development, a major new study reports. By measuring the number of copies of just one gene from cancer DNA circulating in the bloodstream, scientists were able to identify the patients with stomach cancer who were most likely to respond to treatment.
Cancer Research UK, AstraZeneca, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and the ICR, Breast Cancer Now

Contact: Claire Hastings
Institute of Cancer Research

Public Release: 26-May-2016
JAMA Oncology
Women may be able to reduce breast cancer risk predicted by their genes
Women with a high risk of developing breast cancer based on family history and genetic risk can still reduce the chance they will develop the disease in their lifetimes by following a healthy lifestyle, new research led by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests.
NIH/National Cancer Institute , NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Hellenic Health Association, Stavros Niarchos Foundation

Contact: Stephanie Desmon
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

Public Release: 26-May-2016
JAMA Oncology
Using a model to estimate breast cancer risk in effort to improve prevention
A model developed to estimate the absolute risk of breast cancer suggests that a 30-year-old white woman in the United States has an 11.3 percent risk, on average, of developing invasive breast cancer by the age of 80, according to a new study published online by JAMA Oncology.

Contact: Stephanie Desmon
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Cell Reports
TSRI scientists discover mechanism that turns mutant cells into aggressive cancers
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have caught a cancer-causing mutation in the act. A new study shows how a gene mutation found in several human cancers, including leukemia, gliomas and melanoma, promotes the growth of aggressive tumors.
National Institutes of Health, YSTEM, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award, V Foundation for Cancer Research, Pew Stewart Scholars

Contact: Madeline McCurry-Schmidt
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Free colonoscopy program for uninsured detects cancer at earlier stage and is cost neutral
For uninsured patients who are at a high risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), performing free screening colonoscopies can identify cancer at an earlier stage and appears to be cost neutral from a hospital system perspective, according to study results published online in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons ahead of print publication.

Contact: Devin Rose
American College of Surgeons

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Molecular Pharmaceutics
Deep learning applied to drug discovery and repurposing
Scientists from Insilico Medicine in collaboration with Datalytic Solutions and Mind Research Network trained deep neural networks to predict the therapeutic use of large number of multiple drugs using gene expression data obtained from high-throughput experiments on human cell lines.

Contact: Qingsong Zhu
InSilico Medicine, Inc.

Public Release: 26-May-2016
NIH study visualizes proteins involved in cancer cell metabolism
Scientists using cryo-EM have broken through a technological barrier in visualizing proteins with an approach that may have an impact on drug discovery and development. The scientists from the National Cancer Institute, part of the NIH, and their colleagues also reported achieving another major milestone, by showing that the shapes of cancer target proteins too small to be considered within the reach of current cryo-EM capabilities can now be determined at high resolution.
NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: NCI Press Officers
NIH/National Cancer Institute

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Nature Communications
Scientists uncover potential trigger to kill cancer
Institute researchers Dr. Sweta Iyer, Dr. Ruth Kluck and colleagues have discovered a novel way of directly activating Bak to trigger cell death. Their findings have just been published in the journal Nature Communications.
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Victorian State Government Operational Infrastructure Support Scheme, Victorian Life Science Computation Initiative

Contact: Ebru Yaman
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Surrogate endpoints poor proxy for survival in cancer drug approval process
Surrogate endpoints used to support the majority of new cancer drugs approved in the US often lack formal study, according to the authors of a study published in the June issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings. This analysis questions whether the US Food and Drug Administration is adhering to standards that demand that surrogates be 'reasonably likely to predict' or 'established' to be used to grant approvals.

Contact: Joe Dangor
Mayo Clinic

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Journal of Psycho-Oncology
Coping with active surveillance anxiety in prostate cancer
Men with prostate cancer who are under medical surveillance reported significantly greater resilience and less anxiety after receiving an intervention of mindfulness meditation, a study found. The anxiety and uncertainty that men who choose active surveillance experience when diagnosed with prostate cancer causes one in four to receive definitive therapies within one to three years, even when there is no sign of tumor progression.

Contact: Marla Paul
Northwestern University

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Human Gene Therapy
Does AAV-based gene delivery cause liver cancer? The debate heats up
Liver cancer can be triggered by mutations in cancer driver genes resulting from the insertion of adeno-associated virus vectors used to deliver therapeutic genes, although this tumor-inducing role of AAV remains highly controversial. Recently published evidence of AAV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma was previously re-examined in Human Gene Therapy.

Contact: Kathryn Ryan
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News

Public Release: 26-May-2016
Cancer Medicine
New 3-D hydrogel biochips prove to be superior in detecting bowel cancer at early stages
Researchers from a number of Russian research centers have developed a new method of diagnosing colorectal cancer. The scientists have created a hydrogel-based biochip to help detect bowel cancer i.e. colorectal cancer.

Contact: Matvey Kireev
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Public Release: 25-May-2016
ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Investigating how 'chemo brain' develops in cancer patients
During and after chemotherapy, many cancer patients describe feeling a mental fog, a condition that has been dubbed 'chemo brain.' Why this happens is unclear, but researchers have found a new clue to understanding this syndrome. A study in the journal ACS Chemical Neuroscience reports that chemotherapy in rats affects their chemical messengers dopamine and serotonin, which are associated with cognition.

Contact: Michael Bernstein
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 25-May-2016
The Lancet
Global economic downturn linked with at least 260,000 excess cancer deaths
The economic crisis of 2008-10, and the rise in unemployment that accompanied it, was associated with more than 260,000 excess cancer-related deaths -- including many considered treatable -- within the Organization for Economic Development, according to a Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Imperial College London, and Oxford University study. The researchers found that excess cancer burden was mitigated in countries with universal health coverage and in those that increased health care spending.

Contact: Marge Dwyer
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Public Release: 25-May-2016
Health Technology Assessment
Lung cancer survival rate increases by 73 percent if caught early
The UK Lung cancer screening trial has been successfully completed and demonstrated that patients with a high risk of developing lung cancer can be identified with early stage disease and have up to a 73 percent chance of surviving for five years or more. The UKLS trial was conducted by experts in the University of Liverpool.

Contact: Simon Wood
University of Liverpool

Public Release: 25-May-2016
Cell Reports
Dose of transplanted blood-forming stem cells affects their behavior
Unlike aspirin, bone marrow doesn't come with a neatly printed label with dosage instructions. However, a new study published in Cell Reports provides clues about how the dose of transplanted bone marrow might affect patients undergoing this risky procedure, frequently used to treat cancer and blood diseases.
National Institutes of Health, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine

Contact: Zen Vuong
University of Southern California - Health Sciences

Public Release: 25-May-2016
JAMA Cardiology
Study finds elevated cancer risk among women with new-onset atrial fibrillation
Among nearly 35,000 initially healthy women who were followed-up for about 20 years, those with new-onset atrial fibrillation had an increased risk of cancer, according to a study published online by JAMA Cardiology.

Contact: David Conen
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 25-May-2016
Study reveals protein that dials immune responses up and down
Research led by scientists at SBP has identified a new regulator of immune responses. The study, published recently in Immunity, sheds new light on why T cells fail to clear chronic infections and eliminate tumors.
National Institutes of Health, Melanoma Research Foundation

Contact: Susan Gammon, Ph.D.
Sanford-Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute

Public Release: 25-May-2016
Nature Communications
Differences in metabolism between androgen-dependent and castration resistant prostate cancer may lead to new therapies
Integration of gene expression and metabolomics data identified key metabolic pathways that are altered in prostate cancer.

Contact: Graciela Gutierrez
Baylor College of Medicine

Public Release: 25-May-2016
Radiation oncologists meet with members of Congress, advocate for cancer research funding
Radiation oncologists from across the United States convened on Capitol Hill yesterday to encourage members of Congress to invest in cancer research with sustainable and predictable funding and to protect patients' access to high quality cancer care through value-based physician payment models.

Contact: Liz Gardner
American Society for Radiation Oncology

Public Release: 25-May-2016
First large-scale proteogenomic study of breast cancer provides insight into potential therapeutic targets
This study integrates genomic and proteomic data to yield a more complete picture of cancer biology than either analysis could do alone.

Contact: Dana Benson
Baylor College of Medicine

Public Release: 25-May-2016
Cancer Research
Scripps Florida scientists show commonly prescribed painkiller slows cancer growth
Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute Florida campus have found that one of the most widely prescribed pain and anti-inflammation drugs slows the growth rate of a specific kind of cancer in animal models and suggests the medication could have the same effect on other types of tumors.
National Institutes of Health, Young Investigator Award from the Children's Tumor Foundation

Contact: Eric Sauter
Scripps Research Institute

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