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Public Release: 11-Aug-2016
Long-term health effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs not as dire as perceived
The detonation of atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in horrific casualties. The long-term effects of radiation exposure also increased cancer rates in the survivors. But public perception of the rates of cancer and birth defects among survivors and their children is greatly exaggerated when compared to the reality revealed by comprehensive follow-up studies. The reasons for this mismatch are discussed in a review published in the journal GENETICS.

Contact: Cristy Gelling
Genetics Society of America

Public Release: 11-Aug-2016
Tufts Medical Center researchers find new functions of blood cell protein in transplant
Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University scientists have found exciting, new functions of the protein angiogenin that play a significant role in the regulation of blood cell formation, important in bone marrow transplantation and recovery from radiation-induced bone marrow failure. Since current bone marrow transplantations have significant limitations, these discoveries may lead to important therapeutic interventions to help improve the effectiveness of these treatments.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Contact: Jeremy Lechan
Tufts Medical Center

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
BMC Cancer
Effects of chemotherapy on developing ovaries in female fetuses
The chemotherapy drug etoposide may have adverse effects on the developing ovaries of female fetuses, according to a study in mouse cells published in the open-access journal BMC Cancer.

Contact: Anne Korn
BioMed Central

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Cell Host & Microbe
How mouth microbes may worsen colorectal cancer
Bacteria commonly found in the mouth have been recently shown to worsen colorectal cancer in animals, but it has not been clear how these microbes make their way to the gut in the first place. A study published Aug. 10 in Cell Host & Microbe sheds light on this question, revealing that oral microbes called fusobacteria may use the bloodstream to reach colorectal tumors, where they proliferate and subsequently accelerate colorectal cancer.

Contact: Joseph Caputo
Cell Press

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Cell Host & Microbe
Fusobacteria use a special sugar-binding protein to bind to colon tumors
Some bacteria, called fusobacteria, commonly found in the mouth, use a sugar-binding protein to stick to developing colorectal polyps and cancers, according to a new study by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine.
Israel Cancer Research Fund Project, Israel Science Foundation, NIH/National Cancer Insititute, Hoffman-LaRoche

Contact: Marge Dwyer
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
BMC Cancer
Cancer drug for mums-to-be may curb baby girls' future fertility
Chemotherapy treatment during pregnancy may affect the future fertility of unborn baby girls, a study from the University of Edinburgh suggests. Researchers have found that a drug called etoposide can damage the development of mouse ovary tissue grown in the lab.

Contact: Jen Middleton
University of Edinburgh

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Cancer Discovery
Immune analysis of on-treatment longitudinal biopsies predicts response to melanoma immunotherapy
Immune response measured in tumor biopsies during the course of early treatment predicts which melanoma patients will benefit from specific immune checkpoint blockade drugs, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report in the journal Cancer Discovery.

Contact: Scott Merville
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Future Science OA
Hospitalization risks for patients with diabetes and solid-organ malignancy
New research suggests diabetes increases the risk of hospitalization for patients suffering solid-organ malignancy and highlights a need for further understanding of the mechanisms and economic implications.

Contact: Leela Ripton
Future Science Group

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Pancreatic cancer cells find unique fuel sources to keep from starving
Pancreatic cancer cells avert starvation in dense tumors by ordering nearby support cells to supply them with an alternative source of nutrition.
National Institutes of Health, American Cancer Society, Lustgarten Foundation, American Association for Cancer Research, Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation

Contact: Greg Williams
NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Loophole for cancer cells
Cancer cells kill blood vessel cells so that they can slip through the vascular wall and form metastases.

Contact: Prof. Dr. Stefan Offermanns

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Nature Communications
New study shows breast tumors evolve in response to hormone therapy
A new analysis of breast tumors, before and after hormone-reduction therapy, reveals the extreme genetic complexity of these tumors and the variety of responses that are possible to estrogen-deprivation treatments. The findings also suggest that analyzing a single sample of the breast tumor is insufficient for understanding how a patient should best be treated.
National Institutes of Health, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Komen Promise Grant, Komen St. Louis Affiliate Clinical Trials Grant, Pfizer, Novartis, McNair Medical Foundation, Cancer Prevention Research Institute

Contact: Diane Duke Williams
Washington University School of Medicine

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Environmental Science & Technology Letters
Unsafe levels of toxic chemicals found in drinking water for 6 million Americans
Levels of a widely used class of industrial chemicals linked with cancer and other health problems -- polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances -- exceed federally recommended safety levels in public drinking water supplies for six million people in the US, according to a new study led by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Smith Family Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, US Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Council for Strategic Research, Danish Environmental Protection Agency

Contact: Marge Dwyer
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Trends in Cancer
Why is breast cancer common but heart cancer rare?
Malignant cancers strike certain organs, such as the colon or breast, more often than others. In an Opinion publishing Aug. 9 in Trends in Cancer, researchers propose that this vulnerability in some organs may be due to natural selection. Humans can tolerate tumors in large or paired organs more easily than in small, critical organs, such as the heart, and so the larger organs may have evolved fewer mechanisms to defend against cancerous cells.

Contact: Joseph Caputo
Cell Press

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Study may lead to better breast cancer drugs
Biomedical scientists have revealed the inner workings of a group of proteins that help to switch critical genes on and off during blood-cell production, in a finding that could lead to the development of new and improved cancer drugs.
Australian Research Council, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia

Contact: Dr. Daniel Ryan
Australian National University

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Journal of Clinical Oncology
Obesity on the rise in adults with a history of cancer
A study at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health showed that obesity was more prevalent in patients with a history of cancer than in the general population, and survivors of colorectal and breast cancers were particularly affected. The study is among the first to compare rates of obesity among US cancer survivors and adults without a history of cancer.
NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: Stephanie Berger
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Nature Communications
Research reveals patient can have more than one breast cancer, points at treatments
Breast cancer tumors are complex and dynamic. They comprise a population of continuously dividing cells that carry different genetic mutations. On a paper published today in Nature Communications, researchers from Baylor College of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, MD Anderson Cancer Center and the Mayo Clinic reveal that treating human estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer tumors with estrogen-deprivation therapy results in changes in the spectrum of mutations in the tumor population.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Komen Promise Grant, Komen St. Louis Affiliate Clinical Trials Grant, and others

Contact: Allison Huseman
Baylor College of Medicine

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Killer T cells recognize cancer in pre-clinical tumors, but are silenced as tumor develops
Fred Hutch study: In a tumor's pre-clinical stages, certain immune cells can recognize changes that make these cells behave as cancerous cells and attempt to launch an immune attack. However, the T cells that are recognizing these 'driver' mutations in the tumor are rapidly turned off and then permanently silenced, making the cells non-functional. If researchers can find a way to reverse that silencing, the tumor-recognizing T cells could be rescued and could potentially improve the performance of certain immunotherapies.

Contact: Sandy Van
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Biodata Mining
UH Cancer Center researchers develop algorithm to find precise cancer treatments
University of Hawai'i Cancer Center researchers developed a computational algorithm to analyze 'Big Data' obtained from tumor samples to better understand and treat cancer.

Contact: Nana Ohkawa
University of Hawaii Cancer Center

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Frontiers in Oncology
Outdated assessment of treatment response makes good cancer drugs look bad
Patients are missing out on successful treatments because current measures make them seem unsuccessful.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Garth Sundem
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
New drug class gives hope for better treatments for incurable myeloma
Australian researchers have discovered that a new class of anti-cancer agents may be effective in treating multiple myeloma, an incurable bone marrow cancer.
National Health and Medical Research Council, Cancer Council Victoria, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, Australian Cancer Research Foundation, China Scholarship Council, Victorian Government Operational Infrastructure Support Scheme

Contact: Vanessa Solomon
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Nature Chemical Biology
Compound shows promise as next-generation prostate cancer therapy
In the search for new ways to attack recurrent prostate cancer, researchers at Duke Health report that a novel compound appears to have a unique way of blocking testosterone from fueling the tumors in mice.
US Department of Defense, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sarah Avery
Duke University Medical Center

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
European Urology
Radical treatment and examination combined can halve mortality from prostate cancer
Men with very high-risk prostate cancer, who are treated at hospitals with a high proportion of administered radical local treatment (radiotherapy or prostatectomy), only have half of the mortality risk of men who are treated at hospitals with the lowest proportion. This is according to a new study conducted by researchers at Umeå University in Sweden and published in European Urology.

Contact: Daniel Harju
Umea University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Needle biopsies for noninvasive breast cancer: Routine analysis wastes millions
For patients with the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer, routine testing for estrogen and progesterone receptors in tissue taken at the first 'needle' biopsy is both unnecessary and wasteful, according to results of a study led by Johns Hopkins pathologists.
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Contact: Alsy Acevedo
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Health Affairs
Researchers turn to policy to tackle health disparities in an age of personalized medicine
Genetic research is a valuable tool in understanding diseases and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, significant obstacles limit the clinical use of this knowledge to all groups. Genetic applications in healthcare must advance in a way that reduces racial and ethnic disparities.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Komen Foundation and the Cancer Foundation for Minority and Underserved Populations, Renal Disease Epidemiology Training Program

Contact: Lisa LaPoint
Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Thousands of new cancer cases in Ontario each year due to environmental exposures
Between 3,540 and 6,510 new cancer cases in Ontario each year result from environmental factors, says a new report from Cancer Care Ontario and Public Health Ontario (PHO).

Contact: Janet Wong
Public Health Ontario

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