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Public Release: 13-Jan-2015
Can inhaled oxygen cause cancer?
The ancient physician/alchemist, Paracelsus, said: 'The dose makes the poison.' According to a new study published in PeerJ, even oxygen may fall prey to the above adage. While essential to human life, aspects of oxygen metabolism may promote cancer. Capitalizing on the inverse relationship of oxygen concentration with elevation, researchers found lower rates of lung cancer at higher elevations, a trend that did not extend to non-respiratory cancers, suggesting that carcinogen exposure occurs via inhalation.

Contact: Kamen Simeonov

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Lancet Oncology
FDA approved drug extends survival for patients with rare cancer
Sunitinib, an agent approved for use in several cancers, provides unprecedented antitumor activity in thymic carcinoma, a rare but aggressive tumor of the thymus gland, according to a phase II clinical trial.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Cancer Institute, Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program

Contact: Karen Teber
Georgetown University Medical Center

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Many cancer survivors have unmet physical and mental needs related to their disease and its treatment
Even decades after being cured, many cancer survivors face physical and mental challenges resulting from their disease and its treatment.

Contact: Evelyn Martinez

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Molecular Cancer Research
Potentially targetable signaling pathway generates slowly proliferating, chemo-resistant cancer cells
A signaling pathway responsible for the generation of slowly proliferating cancer cells, which are hard to eradicate with current treatments and thought to be a cause of subsequent disease relapse, has been reported in a Rapid Impact study published in Molecular Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
Stand Up To Cancer, NIH/National Cancer Institute, Susan G. Komen, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development in Brazil

Contact: Jeremy Moore
American Association for Cancer Research

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
'Survival' protein a target in drug-resistant non-Hodgkin lymphomas
Melbourne researchers have discovered that targeting a cell 'survival' protein could help treat some lymphomas, including those cancers with genetic defects that make them resistant to many existing therapies.
Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Cancer Therapeutics Cooperative Research Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, The Lady Tata Memorial Trust, Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, Victorian Government

Contact: Alan Gill
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers identify new gene mutations linked to colorectal cancer in African-Americans
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have identified new gene mutations unique to colon cancers in African Americans -- the population with the highest incidence and death rates of any group for this disease. This discovery -- namely, that colorectal cancers appear different on a molecular level in African-Americans -- offers new hope for these patients. With this groundbreaking knowledge, scientists now will seek to develop treatments to target the distinct nature of the disease in African-Americans.
NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: Jeannette Spalding
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Beyond prevention: Sulforaphane may find possible use for cancer therapy
New research has identified one of the key cancer-fighting mechanisms for sulforaphane, and suggests that this much-studied phytochemical found in broccoli and other foods may be able to move beyond cancer prevention and toward therapeutic use for advanced prostate cancer.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Emily Ho
Oregon State University

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Cancer Discovery
Moffitt researchers discover mechanism leading to drug resistance, metastasis in melanoma
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have discovered a mechanism that leads to resistance to targeted therapy in melanoma patients and are investigating strategies to counteract it. Targeted biological therapy can reduce toxicity and improve outcomes for many cancer patients, when compared to the adverse effects of standard chemotherapeutic drugs. However, patients often develop resistance to these targeted therapies, resulting in more aggressive cells that can spread to other sites or cause regrowth of primary tumors.
National Insitutes of Health, Melanoma and Sarcoma Groningen Foundation, Joanna M. Nicolay Melanoma Foundation.

Contact: Kim Polacek
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Journal of Clinical Investigation
CNIO researchers discover 1 of the genetic pieces of bladder cancer
Notch genes protect against bladder cancer, whilst in other tumors they act as oncogenes. Researchers warn that drugs that deactivate Notch in a non-specific manner could increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer among men in developed countries.

Contact: Nuria Noriega
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO)

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
From sexual dysfunction to anxiety, many cancer survivors struggle with post treatment
Even decades after being cured, many cancer survivors face physical and mental challenges resulting from their disease and its treatment. From physical problems such as sexual dysfunction to anxiety about getting cancer again survivors continue to fight long after the actual disease is defeated. That's the conclusion of a study led by University of Central Florida social work professor Mary Ann Burg.

Contact: Zenaida Gonzalez Kotala
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 12-Jan-2015
Experimental Hematology
Researchers discover new therapeutic target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia
A study by the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore has found new interactions between two molecules involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), STAT3 and PRL-3, which may offer a new therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The scientists discovered that STAT3, a molecule which has the potential to cause cancer, associates with and regulates the levels of PRL-3, a gene which has been implicated in various types of cancers.

Contact: Kimberley Wang
National University of Singapore

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
Nature Communications
Novel breast cancer gene found
Overactivity of the BCL11A gene has been linked to a number of difficult-to-treat breast cancers: triple-negative breast cancer. This discovery will inform the search for new targeted treatments for these hard-to-treat tumors.
Wellcome Trust, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, King's College -- Cambridge, Cancer Research UK, Hutchinson Whampoa Ltd., Medical Research Council

Contact: Mark Thomson
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
Coupling head and neck cancer screening and lung cancer scans could improve survival
Adding head and neck cancer screenings to newly recommended lung cancer screenings would likely improve early detection and survival, according to a multidisciplinary team led by scientists affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Allison Hydzik
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
Nature Communications
Bacteria could contribute to development of wound-induced skin cancer
Researchers at King's College London have identified a new mechanism by which skin damage triggers the formation of tumors, which could have important therapeutic implications for patients suffering with chronic ulcers or skin blistering diseases.
Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust

Contact: Jack Stonebridge
King's College London

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
Agent Orange-contaminated airplanes could have affected health of air force reservists
Air Force reservists based in the US who worked after the Vietnam War in C-123 aircraft that sprayed Agent Orange during the war could have experienced adverse health effects from exposure to the herbicide, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine.

Contact: Jennifer Walsh
National Academy of Sciences

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
Mayo researchers find cancer biopsies do not promote cancer spread
A study of more than 2,000 patients by researchers at Mayo Clinic's campus in Jacksonville, Fla., has dispelled the myth that cancer biopsies cause cancer to spread. In the Jan. 9 online issue of Gut, they show that patients who received a biopsy had a better outcome and longer survival than patients who did not have a biopsy.

Contact: Kevin Punsky
Mayo Clinic

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics
Secondary analysis of RTOG 0247 demonstrates favorable OS rates for rectal cancer patients
Locally advanced rectal cancer patients who receive preoperative radiation therapy with either irinotecan plus capecitabine or oxaliplatin plus capecitabine have a four-year overall survival rate of 85 percent and 75 percent, respectively, according to a study published in the Jan. 1, 2015, issue of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics, the official scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology.

Contact: Michelle Kirkwood
American Society for Radiation Oncology

Public Release: 9-Jan-2015
Cell Reports
Tumor-blocking role found for cell regulation molecule
Manchester scientists have explored the role of a protein in regulating tumor development and found that it suppresses liver cancer growth in the lab.

Contact: Jamie Brown
University of Manchester

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
New study findings help physicians and patients determine prostate cancer risk
A discovery by researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute shows that looking at whether a man's uncles and great-grandparents, among other second- and third-degree relatives, had prostate cancer could be as important as looking at whether his father had prostate cancer. A more complete family history would give physicians a new tool to decide whether or not a prostate-specific antigen test was appropriate.
US Department of Defense, NIH/National Cancer Institute, Huntsman Cancer Foundation

Contact: Linda Aagard
University of Utah Health Sciences

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
Scientists illuminate mysterious molecular mechanism powering cells in most forms of life
A team led by structural biologists at The Scripps Research Institute has taken a big step toward understanding the intricate molecular mechanism of a metabolic enzyme produced in most forms of life on Earth. The finding concerns nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, an ancient evolutionary enzyme that is part of a process key to maintaining healthy cells and has also recently been linked to diseases such as diabetes and cancer.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Madeline McCurry-Schmidt
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
Cancer Cell
Blood vessel lining cells control metastasis
Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg and from the Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University paved the way for an innovative combination therapy against metastases: They treated mice with a combination of a low-dose metronomic chemotherapy and an antibody against Ang-2, a regulatory protein of the blood vessel lining cells. The treated animals had significantly less metastases.

Contact: Dr. Sibylle Kohlstädt
German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ)

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
AMP releases 'A Molecular Diagnostic Perfect Storm' paper
Health care providers -- those developing and delivering innovative diagnostic tests -- along with patients, who are the ultimate intended beneficiaries, are caught in the middle of policies imposed by FDA and CMS.

Contact: Catherine Davidge
Association for Molecular Pathology

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
Pathology -- Research and Practice
In head and neck cancer, surgeons need solid answers about tumor recurrence
Partnering with head and neck surgeons, pathologists developed a new use for an old test to determine if a patient's cancer is recurring, or if the biopsy shows benign inflammation of mucosal tissues. Candice C. Black, D.O., explained how her team confirmed the utility of ProExC, an existing antibody cocktail commonly used for pathology tests of the uterine cervix.
The Prouty

Contact: Kirk Cassels
The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
Lancet Respiratory Medicine
How quickly smokers metabolize nicotine may point to most effective way to quit
In a first-of-its-kind randomized clinical trial, researchers from Penn Medicine and collaborators have shown that the most-suited treatment for each smoker may depend on how quickly they metabolize the nicotine in their body after quitting.
NIH/National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute

Contact: Steve Graff
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 8-Jan-2015
Gynecologic Oncology
Screening HPV infection alone more accurate than Pap test in detection of cervical cancer
Screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection alone gives more accurate results than Pap testing for cervical cancer, say the authors of two papers to published today in the journal Gynecologic Oncology.

Contact: Sarah Jenkins

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