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Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
Man and life: How marriage, race and ethnicity and birthplace affect cancer survival
Previous studies have shown that married patients with cancer fare better than unmarried cancer patients, surviving more often and longer. In a new study, published April 11 in the journal Cancer, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that the benefits of being married vary by race and ethnicity, with male non-Hispanic white bachelors experiencing the worst outcome.
Stanford Cancer Institute, NIH/National Cancer Institute, Specialized Cancer Center Support Grant

Contact: Yadira Galindo
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
Cancer Cell
Mapping the routes to drug resistance in cancer
When a targeted therapy blocks a pathway that enables tumors to grow, the cells usually manage to get around that obstacle. The result is drug resistance. Researchers have now found a way to map those alternate routes by studying individual cancer cells, suggesting approaches for developing more effective combination therapies. The results are published April 11 in Cancer Cell.

Contact: Joseph Caputo
Cell Press

Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
Annals of Internal Medicine
USPSTF publishes recommendation on taking aspirin to prevent heart attack, stroke, and colorectal cancer
The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that people who are 50-69 years old, have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and who are not at increased risk for bleeding, consider taking aspirin for primary prevention of CVD and colorectal cancer. The full recommendation and evidence reviews are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Contact: Cara Graeff
American College of Physicians

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Cell Reports
Controlling 'bad cholesterol' production could prevent growth of tumors, study finds
Several studies have recognized a link between obesity and cancer. Richard Lehner, professor of Pediatrics and investigator at the University of Alberta's Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, has taken his research further to understand how tumour cells grow through scavenging very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), commonly known as the 'bad cholesterol', and what mechanisms can be used to reduce the malignant cells' growth.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Austrian Science Fund, Women and Children Health Research Institute, Canada Foundation for Innovation

Contact: Ross Neitz
University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Science Advances
Scientists discover how Chinese medicinal plant makes anti-cancer compound
New research reveals how a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine produces compounds which may help to treat cancer and liver diseases.

Contact: Geraldine Platten
John Innes Centre

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Nano Letters
Dressed to kill: Tailoring a suit for tumor-penetrating cancer meds
Tiny capsules, called nanoparticles, are now being used to transport chemotherapy medicine to cancerous tumors. Drexel University researchers believe that the trick to gaining access to the pernicious cellular masses is to give these nanoparticles a new look.

Contact: Britt Faulstick
Drexel University

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Stem Cells and Development
Discovery of CTLA-4 in dendritic cells opens new possibilities to fight cancer
CTLA-4 is also produced and secreted by dendritic cells.

Contact: Jeannette Jimenez
Baylor College of Medicine

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
JCI Insight
Improving models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
In this issue of JCI Insight, Nicholas Chiorazzi and colleagues at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research sought to understand a model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in which patient cancer cells are transplanted into immunocompromised mice.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, Karches Foundation, Marks Foundation, Nash Family Foundation, Jerome Levy Foundation, Leon Levy Foundation, Frank and Mildred Feinberg Foundation, Mona and Edward Albert Foundation, Jean Walton Fund for Leukemia, Lymphoma

Contact: Corinne Williams
JCI Journals

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
JCI Insight
Combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia
In this issue of JCI Insight, Charles Mulligan of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and colleagues show that a combination approach using tyrosine kinase inhibitors and an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase was much more effective in preclinical models of BCR-ABL1+ B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, NIH/National Cancer Institute, National Health and Medical Research Council, St. Baldrick's Foundation, Children's Cancer Institute Australia

Contact: Corinne Williams
JCI Journals

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
JCI Insight
Study identifies mechanisms underlying osteochondroma formation
In this issue of JCI Insight, Antonios Aliprantis and colleagues at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston demonstrate that loss of the genes encoding nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 and c2 (known as NFATs) induce osteochondroma formation in mice.
National Institutes of Health, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Education of China

Contact: Elyse Dankoski
JCI Journals

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Molecular Cell
Penn study brings new understanding to how fundamental DNA sequences govern gene activity
Researchers have shed new light on how the structure of regulatory sequences in DNA is packaged in a cell. This work has implications for better understanding the role that gene sequences called enhancers play within our DNA for governing gene activity.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Journal of National Cancer Institute
Cancer thwarts treatment by 'stealing' blood vessels
Cancers can resist treatment by 'stealing' blood vessels from nearby tissues, a new study shows.
Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Worldwide Cancer Research, Canadian Liver Cancer Foundation and Breast Cancer Now

Contact: Henry French
Institute of Cancer Research

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Special issue: Cancer metastasis
This special issue on cancer, largely focused on metastasis, features two Reviews, two Perspectives, an editorial and a news story that highlight the latest advances in understanding how cancer cells spread and the best means by which to prevent this dissemination.

Contact: Science Press Package
American Association for the Advancement of Science

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
JAMA Oncology
'Liquid biopsy' blood test detects genetic mutations in common form of lung cancer
A simple blood test can rapidly and accurately detect mutations in two key genes in non-small cell lung tumors, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other institutions report in a new study - demonstrating the test's potential as a clinical tool for identifying patients who can benefit from drugs targeting those mutations.
US Department of Defense, NIH/National Cancer Institute, The Phi Beta Psi Sorority, The Stading-Younger Cancer Foundation, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, others

Contact: Anne Doerr
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Molecular Cell
CNIO scientists discover a new mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy
Óscar Fernández-Capetillo's team reports that ATR kinase inhibitors are more effective in cells with high levels of CDC25A protein expression. ATR inhibitors were previously developed at the CNIO by Fernández-Capetillo's team in collaboration with the Experimental Therapeutics Programme. The finding facilitates the identification of patients that could benefit from ATR kinase inhibitor therapy. This study has been published this week in 'Molecular Cell.'

Contact: Nuria Noriega
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO)

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
More guidelines, uniformity in RT needed following chemotherapy, surgery in breast cancer
Wide variability exists in radiation treatment decisions following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery for breast cancer, according to a review of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071, a prospective trial. ACOSOG is now part of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology.

Contact: Erin L. Boyle
American Society for Radiation Oncology

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Science Translational Medicine
Common prostate cancer treatments suppress immune response and may promote relapse
Prostate cancer patients and their doctors may want to think twice about the best timing for chemotherapy or radiation therapy in conjunction with a common nonsurgical treatment, based on international research findings led by UT Southwestern Medical Center investigators.
National Institutes of Health, China's Ministry of Science and Technology

Contact: Debbie Bolles
UT Southwestern Medical Center

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
BJU International
Technique may reduce complications in elderly patients undergoing bladder cancer surgery
A retrospective study indicates that for certain elderly patients undergoing surgery for bladder cancer, diverting urine from the bladder can be safely achieved with what's known as a cutaneous ureterostomy with a single stoma rather than the commonly used ileal conduit.

Contact: Dawn Peters

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Molecular Cell
Function of mysterious RNAs may often lie in their genes
Reporting in the journal Molecular Cell, the scientists determined that one prominent long non-coding RNA may be a 'red herring,' with no evident biological role to play -- whereas the DNA from which it originates does perform an important function, as an 'enhancer' that stimulates the expression of an important protein-coding gene nearby.
NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, UK Medical Research Council

Contact: Steve Graff
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Cancer Research
New predictive tool for assessing breast cancer risk
Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and collaborators at Brigham and Women's Hospital found that women were five times as likely to develop cancer if they had a higher percentage of Ki67, a molecular marker that identifies proliferating cells, in the cells that line the mammary ducts and milk-producing lobules. These cells, called the mammary epithelium, undergo drastic changes throughout a woman's life, and the majority of breast cancers originate in these tissues.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, Avon Foundation, CJL Foundation, US Army, Susan G. Komen Foundation

Contact: BD Colen
Harvard Medical School

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Molecular Carcinogenesis
Study suggests epiregulin as a target in lung cancer
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the journal Molecular Carcinogenesis points to a new potential biomarker and target in lung cancer, namely epiregulin, an under-studied EGF-like growth factor.
American Cancer Society

Contact: Garth Sundem
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
UCI study finds safer stem cell-derived therapy for brain radiation recovery
While stem cells have shown promise for treating brain regions damaged by cancer radiation treatments, University of California, Irvine researchers have found that microscopic vesicles isolated from these cells provide similar benefits without some of the risks associated with stem cells.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency, American Cancer Society, NASA, National Institutes of Health, UCI Institute for Clinical & Translational Science

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 6-Apr-2016
CRI scientists find novel metabolic twist that drives cancer survival
Scientists at the Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern have identified a novel metabolic pathway that helps cancer cells thrive in conditions that are lethal to normal cells.
National Institutes of Health, Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT), Robert A. Welch Foundation, Children's Medical Center Foundation

Contact: Deborah Wormser
UT Southwestern Medical Center

Public Release: 6-Apr-2016
New England Journal of Medicine
Radiation therapy chemotherapy combination improves survival in adults with low-grade brain cancer
Patients with a low-grade type of brain tumor called glioma who received radiation therapy plus a chemotherapy regimen, including procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV), experienced a longer progression-free survival and overall survival than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to the results of the clinical trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9802 published in the April 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: Joe Dangor
Mayo Clinic

Public Release: 6-Apr-2016
Journal of Cell Biology
How a metabolic pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis
A metabolic pathway that is up-regulated in some breast cancers promotes the disease's progression by activating a signaling protein called Arf6, according to a paper published in The Journal of Cell Biology. The study, 'P53- and mevalonate pathway-driven malignancies require Arf6 for metastasis and drug resistance' by Ari Hashimoto and colleagues, suggests that statin-like drugs may be effective treatments for breast cancer patients whose tumors express high levels of Arf6 signaling proteins.
Ministry of Education Science Sports and Culture of Japan, Takeda Science Foundation, Mitsubishi Foundation, Akiyama Life Science Foundation, Suhara Foundation, Kobayashi Foundation for Cancer Research, Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund

Contact: Ben Short
Rockefeller University Press

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