9-Nov-2015 Molecular clocks control mutation rate in human cells
Every cell in the human body contains a copy of the human genome. Through the course of a lifetime all cells are thought to acquire mutations in their genomes. Some of the mutational processes generating these mutations do so in bursts and these will often be through external exposures such as sunbathing or tobacco smoking. Other mutational processes, however, may be internal to the cell and generate mutations continuously, at a constant rate over decades.
1-Sep-2015 Time-lapse analysis offers new look at how cells repair DNA damage
Time-lapse imaging can make complicated processes easier to grasp. Berkeley Lab scientists are using a similar approach to study how cells repair DNA damage. Microscopy images are acquired about every thirty minutes over a span of up to two days, and the resulting sequence of images shows ever-changing hotspots inside cells where DNA is under repair.
18-Aug-2015 Viral comparisons
An Oak Ridge National Laboratory team of comparative genomics and computational science researchers compared approximately 4,000 complete virus genomes downloaded from a public database known as GenBank. By compressing the sequence files, the team created a virus dendrogram that maps out the relationships among all the different virus families.
27-Jul-2015 Brookhaven Lab summer school helps develop tomorrow's nuclear chemistry experts
For the past six weeks, 12 college students have had the opportunity to learn all that the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory has to teach about a vital but often overlooked area of chemistry -- one that spans everything from nuclear reactors and the safe handling of nuclear material to hospital diagnostic tools and cutting-edge medical research.
13-May-2015 Digitizing neurons
Supercomputing resources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will support a new initiative designed to advance how scientists digitally reconstruct and analyze individual neurons in the human brain.
12-May-2015 Finding the missing particles
For the past 20 years, a large portion of the particles measured in the atmosphere were missing from models. At best, models were able to explain one-tenth of the carbon-rich secondary organic aerosols measured in the air. The problem turned out to be a series of fundamental assumptions used in the models due to a lack of experimental data. All of the assumptions were proven false by Dr. Alla Zelenyuk and her colleagues.
5-May-2015 Compact light source improves CT scans
A new study shows that the recently developed Compact Light Source -- a commercial X-ray source with roots in research and development efforts at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory -- enables computer tomography scans that reveal more detail than routine scans performed at hospitals today. The new technology could soon be used in preclinical studies and help researchers better understand cancer and other diseases.
31-Mar-2015 BigNeuron: Unlocking the secrets of the human brain
To find a standard 3-D neuron reconstruction algorithm, Big Neuron will sponsor a series of international hackathons and workshops where contending algorithms will be ported onto a common software platform to analyze neuronal physical structure using the same core dataset. All ported algorithms will be bench-tested at DOE's NERSC and ORNL, as well as Human Brain Project supercomputing centers.
27-Mar-2015 Collaborative vision, saving sight
A meeting to explore research collaborations between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee set the foundation for a company that provides accessible and remote health screenings for patients concerned about diabetic related eye diseases.
25-Mar-2015 Protein shake-up
For living organisms proteins are an essential part of their body system and are needed to thrive. In recent years, a certain class of proteins has challenged researchers' conventional notion that proteins have a static and well-defined structure.
17-Feb-2015 Study could pave the way for painkillers with fewer side effects
Researchers have long sought alternatives to morphine -- a powerful and widely used painkiller -- that curb its side effects, including dependency, nausea and dizziness. Now, an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has supplied the most complete atomic-scale map of such a compound docked with a cellular receptor that regulates the body's pain response and tolerance.
12-Feb-2015 Yonath discusses visualizing ribosomes and antibiotic resistance
Ada Yonath, a pioneer in using crystallographic techniques to visualize ribosome structure, was the most recent Eugene P. Wigner Distinguished Lecturer at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Her work continues to contribute to ribosomal research, prompting researchers to look more closely at antibiotics that target bacterial ribosomes, including those of pathogenic bacteria species, an avenue that could help reverse current levels of antibiotic resistance. At the talk, she steered conversation to species-specific antibiotic resistance.
28-Jan-2015 X-ray study reveals division of labor in cell health protein
Researchers working in part at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have discovered that a key protein for cell health, which has recently been linked to diabetes, cancer and other diseases, can multitask by having two identical protein parts divide labor.
7-Jan-2015 'Seeing' hydrogen atoms to unveil enzyme catalysis
A multi-institutional research team led by Chris Dealwis from Case Western Reserve University has used the new IMAGINE instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor to map an enzyme that could play an important role in anti-cancer drug development.
18-Dec-2014 Crown ethers flatten in graphene for strong, specific binding
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has discovered a way to dramatically increase the selectivity and binding strength of crown ethers by incorporating them within a rigid framework of graphene. Strong, specific electrostatic binding of crown ethers may advance sensors, chemical separations, nuclear-waste cleanup, extraction of metals from ores, purification and recycling of rare-earth elements, water purification, biotechnology, energy production in durable lithium-ion batteries, catalysis, medicine and data storage.
16-Dec-2014 A standard for neuroscience data
In November, Neurodata without Borders hosted a hackathon to consolidate ideas for designing and implementing a standard neuroscience file format. And BrainFormat, a neuroscience data standardization framework developed at Berkeley Lab, was one of several candidates selected for further investigation. It is now a strong contender to contribute to the development of a community-wide data format and storage standard for the neuroscience research community.
8-Dec-2014 Study may help slow the spread of flu
An important study conducted in part at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory may lead to new, more effective vaccines and medicines by revealing detailed information about how a flu antibody binds to a wide variety of flu viruses.
21-Nov-2014 Robotics meet X-ray lasers in cutting-edge biology studies
Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are combining the speed and precision of robots with one of the brightest X-ray lasers on the planet for pioneering studies of proteins important to biology and drug discovery.
17-Oct-2014 Atomic trigger shatters mystery of how glass deforms
A new study at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, published Sept. 24 in Nature Communications, has cracked one mystery of glass to shed light on the mechanism that triggers its deformation before shattering. The study improves understanding of glassy deformation and may accelerate broader application of metallic glass, a moldable, wear-resistant, magnetically exploitable material that is thrice as strong as the mightiest steel and ten times as springy.
3-Oct-2014 Accelerating the fight against cancer
As charged-particle therapies grow in popularity, physicists are working with other experts to make them smaller, cheaper and more effective -- and more available to cancer patients in the United States.
The Department of Energy's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.