Salmonella (image) University of Missouri-Columbia Caption Salmonella is the most common cause of food poisoning in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Salmonellosis, the disease caused by salmonella, causes diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal cramps and, in severe cases, death. Credit University of Missouri Usage Restrictions None Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.