Contact: Dr. Wilhelm Boland
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Caption: The larva of the sawfly Strongylogaster multifasciata feeds on a bracken leaf. Like other plants, ferns produce toxic substances and can successfully defend themselves against herbivores. Unlike flowering plants, however, bracken ferns do not emit volatiles that attract parasitoids or predators of herbivorous larvae.
Credit: MPI Chem. Ecol./Venkatesan Radhika
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Related news release: Herbivore defense in ferns