Contact: Val Osowski
Michigan State University
Caption: This is an example of swarm behavior when predators are confused by multiple prey in their visual field. The prey form multiple cohesive, circular swarms to maximize the confusion effect for the predator. Prey are randomly placed within the 512 x 512 arena. The swarm "phenotype" (the particular swarming behavior) does not depend on the initial condition, but the number of swarms that form, whether they will merge or separate, does depend on the initial placement of agents. For the purposes of visualization, 100 prey were cloned from a single genotype, as opposed to the 50 prey used in the fitness evaluation during the actual evolution experiment.
Credit: Randal Olson, Michigan State University
Usage Restrictions: with credit to Randal Olson, Michigan State University
Related news release: Discovering 1 reason why swarming evolved offers tantalizing clues on how intelligence developed