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Contact: Caroline Perry
Harvard University

Ionic Conductors Diagram

Caption: To make the speaker, a membrane of transparent, insulating rubber is sandwiched between two layers of transparent, conductive gel. The electrical connection to the power source is established outside of the active region of the device, where it does not need to be transparent.

Credit: Image courtesy of Christoph Keplinger, Jeong-Yun Sun, and Science/AAAS.

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