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How Early Human Migrations Stirred Europe's Genetic Pot (6 of 12)

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Caption: To best illustrate the dynamics of the genetic landscape in Neolithic Central Europe we animated the genetic distance maps, haplogroup frequencies as well as haplotype diversity through time. The timeline covers 4,500 years of prehistory from the late Mesolithic (~6,000 cal BC) to the end of the Early Bronze Age (2,200 cal BC). The timing is proportional to the time elapsed, i.e. the duration of each cultural period. Events A, B1, B2, C and D mark the genetic changes described in the publication, which are also visible in the alternating genetic affinities on the genetic distance maps (darker colors indicate a greater similarity with the respective Neolithic culture). White arrows summarize the underlying vectors in the form of substantially increasing/ decreasing and/or newly arriving haplogroups as observed in the bar graphs at the bottom. Colored symbols on the genetic distance maps indicate the sampling location of the respective data and black dotted lines denote the distribution area of each Mittelelbe-Saale culture. This video relates to a paper that appeared in the 11 Oct., 2013, issue of Science, published by AAAS. The paper, by Guido Brandt at Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz in Mainz, Germany, and colleagues was titled, "Ancient DNA Reveals Key Stages in the Formation of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity."

Credit: [Video courtesy of Guido Brandt]

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