Above: This shows EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory leakage estimates. Below: This shows results from recent experimental studies. Studies either focus on specific industry segments, or use broad atmospheric data to estimate emissions from multiple segments or the entire industry. Studies have generally found either higher emissions than expected from EPA inventory methods, or found mixed results (some sources higher and others lower).
Photographs, videos and other images provided by the Precourt Institute for Energy at Stanford University are to be used - with appropriate credit - for editorial purposes only. Flopping, editing, altering or otherwise embellishing these images in any way that changes the images' editorial content is prohibited. Photographs and images provided for web use must be resized to low resolution. Permission is for one-time use only. Supplied photo/video/image file must be deleted after use.