A schematic illustration of the resistance of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) to cryoablation alone and its combination with free doxorubicin (fDOX) and nanoparticle-encapsulated doxorubicin (nDOX). Cryoablation may destroy most tumor cells while the remnant CSCs will reinitiate tumor growth and tumor relapse ensues. The combination of cryoablation and fDOX is not effective enough to destroy all CSCs either to prevent tumor relapse. In contrast, cryoablation combined with nDOX can effectively kill all CSCs, resulting in the eventual elimination of cancer because the non-stem cancer cells could not create the heterogeneity (e.g., cancer cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells) in tumor to sustain its growth.
Wei Rao, Adriano Bellotti, Peter J. Littrup, Jianhua Yu, Xiongbin Lu, Xiaoming He
To seek permission from Xiaoming He
Correspondence should be addressed to X.H.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA