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Caption: This image shows African armyworm moths (Spodoptera exempta) flying across Kenya, as seen on an entomological radar display (distance between the range-rings on radar display = 463 m). The dense aerial populations, produced by convergent wind-flows, can result in high concentrations of moths on the ground, mass egg-laying and, ultimately, serious outbreaks of the "armyworm" caterpillars. This has resulted in immense grazing pressure on wintering, breeding and intermediate stop-over locations that has led to both overgrazing of natural vegetation and conflicts with agriculture. This image relates to a paper that appeared in the 4 April, 2014, issue of Science, published by AAAS. The paper, by Silke Bauer at Swiss Ornithological Institute in Sempach, Switzerland, and colleagues was titled, "Migratory Animals Couple Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Worldwide."
Credit: [© Don Reynolds]
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