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Department of Health and Human Services

News from the National Institutes of Health

Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 301-325 out of 3618.

<< < 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 > >>

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Nature Communications
Newly discovered protein has link to gestational diabetes
For at least 40 years, scientists who study how the body metabolizes sugar have accepted one point: there are four enzymes that kick-start the body's process of getting energy from food. But this biochemical foursome may not deserve all of the credit. According to research by scientists at Duke and Northwestern universities, the hexokinase team actually has a fifth player.
National Institutes of Health, Department of Veterans Affairs

Contact: Samiha Khanna
Duke University Medical Center

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Attention! How eyes reveal the brain's focus
A primate's ability to pay attention to, or tune out, particular sights and sounds is crucial for success and survival. Duke University researchers looked into monkeys' eyes for insight into how the brain processes distractions. They found that neural activity and changes to pupil size in response to distractors can predict how well the brain helps focus on a goal.
National Institutes of Health, US Department of Defense

Contact: Karl Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
E-cigarette exposure impairs immune responses in mouse model, new research finds
In a study with mice, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers have found that e-cigarettes compromise the immune system in the lungs and generate some of the same potentially dangerous chemicals found in traditional nicotine cigarettes.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute

Contact: Barbara Benham
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
New England Journal of Medicine
Paramedics may be first source of treatment for stroke patients, UCLA study finds
In the first study of its kind, a consortium led by UCLA physicians found that paramedics can start medications for patients in the first minutes after onset of a stroke.
NIH/National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Contact: Kim Irwin
University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
New England Journal of Medicine
Final results of the HIV prevention study VOICE are published in NEJM
Researchers who conducted the VOICE study involving more than 5,000 women in Africa detail in the NEJM how none of the products (tenofovir, Truvada and tenofovir vaginal gel) was effective in preventing HIV and the extent that women did not use them. Tests of blood indicate nonuse began early; many women never used the products. Yet, among women in the tenofovir gel group whose blood tests indicated use, HIV risk was reduced by 66 percent.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver Institute for Child Health and Human Development, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health

Contact: Lisa Rossi
Microbicide Trials Network

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Science Translational Medicine
Potential pancreatic cancer treatment could increase life expectancy
Pancreatic cancer cells are notorious for being protected by a fortress of tissue, making it difficult to deliver drugs to either shrink the tumor or stop its growth. Now researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a device that could change all that: By using electric fields, the device can drive chemotherapy drugs directly into tumor tissue, preventing their growth and in some cases, shrinking them.
The University Cancer Research Fund, NIH/Pioneer Award, Synecor LLC, and others

Contact: Thania Benios
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Brain marker hints at depression, anxiety years later
A car accident, the loss of a loved one, and financial trouble are just a few of the myriad stressors we may encounter in our lifetimes. How well will we deal with the inevitable lows of life? By looking at an area of the brain called the amygdala, Duke scientists can predict depression or anxiety in response to stressful life events as far as four years in the future.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Duke University

Contact: Karl Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Dartmouth researchers reprogram tumor's cells to attack itself
Inserting a specific strain of bacteria into the microenvironment of aggressive ovarian cancer transforms the behavior of tumor cells from suppression to immunostimulation, Dartmouth researchers have found. The findings demonstrate a new approach in immunotherapy that can be applied in a variety of cancer types.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Kirk Cassels
The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Journal of Neuroscience
Researchers identify key mechanisms underlying HIV-associated cognitive disorders
New findings, published today by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, open the door to the development of new therapies to block or decrease cognitive decline due to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, estimated to affect 10 to 50 percent of aging HIV sufferers to some degree.
NIH/National Institute of Aging, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, NIH/National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Contact: Bonnie Ward
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Review of Economics and Statistics
Choosing a cell phone, prescription drug plan or new car? Read this first
To help people make better choices when confronted by a large number of options, researchers have studied two decision-making strategies that break down the options into smaller groups that can be evaluated more effectively. One approach, analogous to a sports tournament, increased by 50 percent the likelihood that volunteer study subjects would make the best choice.
NIH/National Institute of Aging

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Journal of Neuroscience
Superager brains yield new clues to their remarkable memories
'Cognitive SuperAgers,' persons aged 80 and above with extraordinarily sharp memories, have distinctly different looking brains than those of normal older people, according to new research. A Northwestern study begins to reveal why the memories of these cognitively elite elders don't suffer the usual ravages of time. The discoveries may foster the development of strategies to protect the memories of normal aging persons as well as treat dementia.
National Institutes of Health, Davee Foundation

Contact: Marla Paul
Northwestern University

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Circulation Research
Researchers identify 2 genetic mutations that interact to lower heart attack risk
Researchers have determined that two mutations on a single gene can interact in a way that lowers the carrier's risk for a heart attack.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities

Contact: Wolfgang Sadee
Ohio State University

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
MGH/MIT study identifies neurons important for induction of natural REM sleep
An MGH/MIT team has found that that activation of cholinergic neurons -- those that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine -- in two brain stem structures can induce REM sleep in an animal model. Better understanding of mechanisms that control different sleep states is essential to improved treatment of sleep disorders.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sue McGreevey
Massachusetts General Hospital

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Stem Cell Reports
Glioblastoma: Study ties 3 genes to radiation resistance in recurrent tumors
A new study identifies three genes that together enable a lethal form of brain cancer to recur and progress after radiation therapy. The findings could lead to new therapies for brain tumors that target cancer stem cells.
American Cancer Society, National Institutes of Health, Danish Cancer Society, Danish National Research Foundation

Contact: Darrell E. Ward
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Arthritis & Rheumatology
Seeing the knee in a new light: Fluorescent probe tracks osteoarthritis development
A harmless fluorescent probe injected into a joint may make it easier to diagnose and monitor osteoarthritis, leading to better patient care. A new study led by biomedical researchers at Tufts University reports that such a probe successfully tracked the development of early to moderate osteoarthritis in male mice.
NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: Siobhan Gallagher
Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Precision medicine in action: Genomic test helps solve medical mystery
Precision medicine is getting a jump-start from a new national initiative announced in President Obama's State of the Union message. One Georgia family has already experienced its benefits: genomic testing called whole exome sequencing helped Mayo Clinic neurologist Zbigniew Wszolek, M.D., solve a medical mystery that had left a boy with painful, jerking spasms that at times prevented him from walking or talking. Dr. Wszolek describes the case in a newly published article in the medical journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings.
Max Kade Foundation, NIH/National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Contact: Kevin Punsky
Mayo Clinic

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Journal of Neuroscience
Cocaine users have impaired ability to predict loss
Cocaine addicted individuals may continue their habit despite unfavorable consequences like imprisonment or loss of relationships because their brain circuits responsible for predicting emotional loss are impaired, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published today in The Journal of Neuroscience.
NIH/National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH/National Institute on Mental Health

Contact: Sasha Walek
The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Just knowing isn't enough: Issuing hospital report cards had no impact on surgery outcomes
If you're an older person having a major operation these days, it is very likely that your hospital is receiving a 'report card' on their performance. These reports are designed to prompt hospitals to improve in areas where they perform poorly. That's the good news. The not-so-good news: Those 'report cards' do not seem to be making things better for patients.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kara Gavin
University of Michigan Health System

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Science Signaling
Researchers ID genetic cues for a big heart
An enlarged cardiac muscle can force the heart to work harder to pump blood throughout the body, weakening the organ until it eventually wears out. Duke researchers have uncovered the circuitry of signals that govern the heart's growth in flies, giving insight into a dangerous enlargement of the heart called cardiac hypertrophy that can result from high blood pressure or inherited conditions like Noonan syndrome.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Karl Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
1 in 3 people would risk shorter life rather than take daily pill to avoid heart disease
In a survey, one in three adults say they would risk living a shorter life rather than taking a daily pill to prevent cardiovascular disease. About one in five say they were willing to pay $1,000 or more to avoid taking a daily pill for the rest of their lives. Most respondents weren't willing to trade any weeks of life to avoid daily medication.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Bridgette McNeill
American Heart Association

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Journal of Neuroscience
New findings on how the brain ignores distractions
By scanning the brains of people engaged in selective attention to sensations, researchers have learned how the brain appears to coordinate the response needed to ignore distractors. They are now studying whether that ability can be harnessed, for instance to suppress pain.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Journal of Neuroscience
Stanford study ties immune cells to delayed onset of post-stroke dementia
A single stroke doubles a person's risk of developing dementia over the following decade, even when that person's mental ability is initially unaffected. In experiments using both mouse models of stroke and brain-tissue samples from humans, Stanford University School of Medicine researchers have linked the delayed onset of post-stroke dementia to the persistent presence, in the brain, of specialized immune cells that shouldn't be there at all.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: Bruce Goldman
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Researchers determine how the brain controls robotic grasping tools
Grasping an object involves a complex network of brain functions. First, visual cues are processed in specialized areas of the brain. Then, other areas of the brain use these signals to control the hands to reach for and manipulate the desired object. New findings from researchers at the University of Missouri suggest that the cerebellum, a region of the brain that has changed very little over time, may play a critical role. Findings could lead to advancements in assistive technologies benefiting the disabled.
Army Research Laboratory's Army Research Office, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disease

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New mechanism of inheritance could advance study of evolution, disease treatment
UMD geneticist Antony Jose and two of his graduate students are the first to figure out a specific mechanism by which a parent can pass silenced genes to its offspring. Importantly, the team found that this silencing could persist for multiple generations -- more than 25, in the case of this study.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Environmental Science and Technology
Worms lead way to test nanoparticle toxicity
Rice University scientists use roundworm populations in low-cost, high-throughput toxicity tests for a range of nanoparticles. The tests could cut the cost of determining which nanoparticles should be studied further for applications and for their effects on the environment.
National Institutes of Health, Searle Scholar

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Showing releases 301-325 out of 3618.

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