Why does addiction vulnerability differ from individual to individual? For the first time, scientists have shown in selectively bred animals that the propensity for addiction is linked to differences in expression of genes for specific molecules in a specific brain region. It's also the first demonstration that a DNA tag called an epigenetic marker can predispose an individual to addiction and relapse.
International tobacco control experts compared the potential risks of e-cigarette use with the benefit of use in aiding smoking cessation, advising regulators to balance the risk-reward of e-cigarette use as a tool in smoking cessation.
Seven top international tobacco control experts are prompting regulators at the US Food and Drug Administration to have a broad 'open-minded' perspective when it comes to regulating vaporized nicotine products, especially e-cigarettes.
Cocaine use has increased substantially among African Americans in some of the most underserved areas of the United States. Interventions designed to increase connection to and support from non-drug using family and friends, with access to employment, the faith community, and education, are the best ways to reduce substance use among African Americans and other minorities in low-income, resource-poor communities, a study led by a medical anthropologist at the University of California, Riverside concludes.
Eric Woodcock, a Ph.D. student in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences in Wayne State University's School of Medicine, has been awarded a two-year, $76,000 predoctoral fellowship from the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health for the project, 'Neuropharmacological investigation of frontostriatal network function and nicotine seeking behavior in current smokers.'
Standardizing hospital care policies across institutions for infants diagnosed with drug withdrawal symptoms at birth reduces their length of treatment and hospitalization, according to new collaborative research led by Vermont Oxford Network, Vanderbilt and the University of Michigan Health System.
In a recent study, researchers found evidence of a compromised dopamine system in heavy users of marijuana. Lower dopamine release was found in the striatum -- a region of the brain that is involved in working memory, impulsive behavior, and attention. Previous studies have shown that addiction to other drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and heroin, have similar effects on dopamine release, but such evidence for cannabis was missing until now.
A review of blood samples for nearly 5,000 patients seen at The Johns Hopkins Hospital Emergency Department suggests that federal guidelines for hepatitis C virus screening may be missing up to a quarter of all cases and argues for updated universal screening.
Maryland's 2011 increase in the alcohol sales tax appears to have led to fewer purchases of beer, wine and liquor in the state, suggesting reduced alcohol use, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research indicates.
The first multi-site US clinical trial of extended-release naltrexone shows promise for more effective treatment of opioid addiction.