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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 1-25 out of 806.

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Public Release: 31-Jul-2015
Genetics
Starvation effects handed down for generations
Starvation early in life can alter an organism for generations to come, according to a new Duke study in nematodes. The epigenetic effects are a 'bet-hedging strategy.' Famine survivors are smaller and less fertile, and they acquire a toughness that lasts at least two generations. The mechanism of the epigenetic inheritance has not been identified, however.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Karl Leif Bates
karl.bates@duke.edu
919-681-8054
Duke University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Self-assembling, biomimetic membranes may aid water filtration
A synthetic membrane that self assembles and is easily produced may lead to better gas separation, water purification, drug delivery and DNA recognition, according to an international team of researchers.
National Science Foundation, US Army Corps of Engineers, Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Allocation, Blue Waters

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
A cheaper, high-performance prosthetic knee
Researchers design cheap prosthetic knee that mimics normal walking motion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andrew Carleen
acarleen@mit.edu
617-253-1682
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
Evolutionary war between microorganisms affecting human health, IU biologist says
Health experts have warned for years that the overuse of antibiotics is creating 'superbugs' able to resist drugs treating infection. Now scientists at Indiana University and elsewhere have found evidence that an invisible war between microorganisms may also be catching humans in the crossfire.
National Science Foundation Division of Environmental Biology

Contact: Kevin Fryling
kfryling@iu.edu
812-856-2988
Indiana University

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
PLOS Pathogens
Waking up HIV
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has helped millions survive the human immunodeficiency virus. Unfortunately, HIV has a built-in survival mechanism, creating reservoirs of latent, inactive virus that are invisible to both HAART and the immune system. But now, researchers at UC Davis have identified a compound that activates latent HIV, offering the tantalizing possibility that the virus can be flushed out of the silent reservoirs and fully cured.
National Institues of Health, UC Davis Research Investments, CAPES/Brazil, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Satya Dandekar
sdandekar@ucdavis.edu
530-304-1290
University of California - Davis Health System

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Conservation Physiology
New study exposes negative effects of climate change on Antarctic fish
Scientists at University of California Davis and San Francisco State University have discovered that the combination of elevated levels of carbon dioxide and an increase in ocean water temperature has a significant impact on survival and development of the Antarctic dragonfish (Gymnodraco acuticeps). The research article was published today in the journal Conservation Physiology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Chloe Foster
chloe.foster@oup.com
44-186-535-3584
Oxford University Press

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Cell Reports
Genetic tug of war in the brain influences behavior
Researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine report on a version of genetic parental control that is more nuanced, and specialized, than classic genomic imprinting. Published in Cell Reports, so-called noncanonical imprinting is particularly prevalent in the brain, and skews the genetic message in subpopulations of cells so that mom, or dad, has a stronger say. The mechanism can influence offspring behavior, and because it is observed more frequently than classic imprinting, appears to be preferred.
New York Stem Cell foundation, National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, The Klarman Foundation for Eating Disorders

Contact: Julie Kiefer
jkiefer@neuro.utah.edu
801-597-4258
University of Utah Health Sciences

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Science
Drought's lasting impact on forests
In a global study of drought impacts, forest trees took an average of two to four years to resume normal growth rates, a revelation indicating that Earth's forests are capable of storing less carbon than climate models have assumed.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Joe Rojas-Burke
joe.rojas@utah.edu
801-585-6861
University of Utah

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature
Researchers design first artificial ribosome
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins and enzymes within the cell. The engineered ribosome may enable the production of new drugs and next-generation biomaterials and lead to a better understanding of how ribosomes function.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation, David and Lucille Packard Foundation

Contact: Sam Hostettler
samhos@uic.edu
312-355-2522
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Meet the high-performance single-molecule diode
Researchers from Berkeley Lab and Columbia University have created the world's highest-performance single-molecule diode. Development of a functional single-molecule diode is a major pursuit of the electronics industry.
US Department of Energy Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lynn Yarris
lcyarris@lbl.gov
510-486-5375
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature Photonics
Intracellular microlasers could allow precise labeling of a trillion individual cells
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators have induced structures incorporated within individual cells to produce laser light. The wavelengths of light emitted by these intracellular microlasers differ based on factors such as the size, shape and composition of each microlaser, allowing precise labeling of individual cells.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship

Contact: Cassandra Aviles
cmaviles@partners.org
617-724-6433
Massachusetts General Hospital

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature
'Failed stars' host powerful auroral displays
By observing a brown dwarf 20 light-years away using both radio and optical telescopes, a team led by Gregg Hallinan, assistant professor of astronomy at Caltech, has found that such so-called failed stars host powerful auroras near their magnetic poles -- additional evidence that brown dwarfs are more like giant planets than small stars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
debwms@caltech.edu
626-395-3227
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Physical Review Letters
Dense star clusters shown to be binary black hole factories
The merger of two black holes is one of the most sought-after observations of modern astronomy. The first observatories capable of directly detecting gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime predicted by Albert Einstein -- will begin observing the universe later this year. When these waves rolling in from space are detected on Earth for the first time, Northwestern University astrophysicists predict astronomers will 'hear,' through these waves, five times more colliding black holes than previously expected.
National Science Foundation and NASA

Contact: Megan Fellman
fellman@northwestern.edu
847-491-3115
Northwestern University

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Acta Materialia
Boxfish shell inspires new materials for body armor and flexible electronics
The boxfish's unique armor draws its strength from hexagon-shaped scales and the connections between them, engineers at the University of California, San Diego, have found. They describe their findings and the carapace of the boxfish (Lactoria cornuta) in the July 27 issue of the journal Acta Materialia. Engineers also describe how the structure of the boxfish could serve as inspiration for body armor, robots and even flexible electronics.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Liezel Labios
llabios@ucsd.edu
858-246-1124
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature
Astronomers discover powerful aurora beyond solar system
The first aurora discovered beyond our solar system is on a brown dwarf 18 light-years from Earth. Some 10,000 times more powerful than any seen before, it may be of a type possible to detect on extrasolar planets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
dfinley@nrao.edu
575-835-7302
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
American Economic Review
Firms 'underinvest' in long-term cancer research
Pharmaceutical firms 'underinvest' in long-term research to develop new cancer-fighting drugs due to the greater time and cost required to conduct such research, according to a newly published study co-authored by MIT economists.
NIH/National Institute on Aging, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Link between mood, pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients
Depressive symptoms and mood in the moment may predict momentary pain among rheumatoid arthritis patients, according to Penn State researchers.
NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
Plant light sensors came from ancient algae
The light-sensing molecules that tell plants whether to germinate, when to flower and which direction to grow to seek more sunlight were inherited millions of years ago from ancient algae, finds a new study from Duke University. The findings are some of the strongest evidence yet against the prevailing idea that the ancestors of early plants got the red light sensors that helped them move from water to land by engulfing bacteria, the researchers say.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
ras10@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
First measurements taken of South Africa's Iron Age magnetic field history
A team of researchers has for the first time recovered a magnetic field record from ancient minerals for Iron Age southern Africa (between 1000 and 1500 AD). The data, combined with the current weakening of Earth's magnetic field, suggest that the region of Earth's core beneath southern Africa may play a special role in reversals of the planet's magnetic poles.
National Science Foundation, South African National Research Foundation, Simons Foundation, IBM-Einstein Fellowship Fund

Contact: Peter Iglinski
peter.iglinski@rochester.edu
585-273-4726
University of Rochester

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Travel funding: GSA, SACNAS, STEPPE, for students for major geoscience conferences
The Geological Society of America in partnership with the American Geosciences Institute, Incorporated Research Institute for Seismology, the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science, the Society for Sedimentary Geology, and STEPPE have received funding to support 25 undergraduate and graduate students to attend the SACNAS and GSA national conferences in November 2015.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tahlia Bear
tbear@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Nano Letters
Reshaping the solar spectrum to turn light to electricity
Solar energy could be made cheaper if solar cells could be coaxed to generate more power. A huge gain in this direction has been made by a team of chemists at the University of California, Riverside that has found an ingenious way to make solar energy conversion more efficient. The researchers combined inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals with organic molecules to 'upconvert' photons in the visible and near-infrared regions of the solar spectrum.
National Science Foundation, US Army

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Cancer Discovery
Clinical validation for LOXO-101 against TRK fusion cancer
Published today in Cancer Discovery, first imaging studies conducted post-treatment, confirmed that stage IV patient's tumors had substantially regressed. With four months of treatment, additional CT scans demonstrated almost complete disappearance of the largest tumors.
V Foundation Scholar Award, Loxo Oncology Research Grant, State of Colorado and University of Colorado Technology Transfer Office Bioscience Discovery Evaluation Grant Program, University of Colorado Lung Cancer SPORE

Contact: Erika Matich
erika.matich@ucdenver.edu
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
ASU will lead new research network looking at weather extremes and city infrastructure
Extreme weather events can cripple crucial infrastructure that enables transit, electricity, water and other services in urban areas. With weather extremes becoming more common -- from devastating hurricanes and flooding to record drought and heat waves -- it will be increasingly important to develop infrastructure in different, more sustainable ways. That is the idea behind a new Urban Resilience to Extreme Weather-Related Events Sustainability Research Network, recently funded by the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Skip Derra
skip.derra@asu.edu
480-965-4823
Arizona State University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Developmental Neuropsychology
Babies' brains show that social skills linked to second language learning
Babies learn language best by interacting with people rather than passively through a video or audio recording. But it's been unclear what aspects of social interactions make them so important for learning. New findings by researchers at the Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences at the University of Washington demonstrate for the first time that an early social behavior called gaze shifting is linked to infants' ability to learn new language sounds.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Molly McElroy
mollywmc@uw.edu
206-221-1684
University of Washington

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
Small genetic differences could spell life-and-death for gut infections
When it comes to fighting gut infections, we are not equal. EPFL scientists have shown how apparently insignificant genetic variation can lead to big differences in the gut's immunity. The study could change the way we treat gut disease.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Federation of European Biochemical Societies, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SystemsX

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Showing releases 1-25 out of 806.

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