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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

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Showing releases 151-175 out of 793.

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Public Release: 3-Aug-2014
Human Ecology
Kangaroos win when Aborigines hunt with fire
Australia's Aboriginal Martu people hunt kangaroos and set small grass fires to catch lizards, as they have for at least 2,000 years. A University of Utah researcher found such man-made disruption boosts kangaroo populations -- showing how co-evolution helped marsupials and made Aborigines into unintentional conservationists.
National Science Foundation, Stanford University Woods Institute for the Environment

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 3-Aug-2014
Nature
Uncovering the 3-D structure of a key neuroreceptor
EPFL scientists reveal for the first time the 3-D structure of a crucial neuroreceptor. The achievement has great implications for understanding the basic mechanism of electrical signal transmission between neurons and might help to design novel medicines to treat various neurological diseases.
Swiss National Science Foundation, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, EC-FP7, Human Science Frontier Program, Agence Nationale de la Recherche

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Icarus
A hellacious two weeks on Jupiter's moon Io
During a year-long series of observations of Jupiter's volcanically active moon, Io, UC Berkeley astronomers Imke de Pater and graduate student Katherine de Kleer observed within a two week period in August 2013 three of the largest outbursts ever seen on the moon, all probably involving lava erupting through fissures in curtains of fire. The observations by the Keck and Gemini telescopes in Hawaii suggest that outbursts are more common than previously thought.
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
On-chip topological light
First came the concept of topological light. Then came images of topological light moving around a microchip. Now full measurements of the transmission of light around and through the chip.
European Research Council, US Army, National Science Foundation

Contact: Phillip F. Schewe
pschewe@umd.edu
301-405-0989
Joint Quantum Institute

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Current Anthropology
Society bloomed with gentler personalities and more feminine faces
A Duke University study finds that human skulls changed in ways that indicate a lowering of testosterone levels at around the same time that culture was blossoming. Heavy brows were out, rounder heads were in. Technological innovation, making art and rapid cultural exchange probably came at the same time that we developed a more cooperative temperament by dialing back aggression with lower testosterone levels.
National Science Foundation, Leakey Foundation, University of Iowa/Orthodontics Department

Contact: Karl Leif Bates
karl.bates@duke.edu
919-681-8054
Duke University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Companion planets can increase old worlds' chance at life
Having a companion in old age is good for people -- and, it turns out, might extend the chance for life on certain Earth-sized planets in the cosmos as well.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Kelley
kellep@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers uncover clues to flu's mechanisms
Scientists calculate the transformation of a protein associated with influenza and discover details of intermediate states that may be treated with new drugs.
National Science Foundation, Welch Foundation, National Institutes for Health, Gillson-Longenbaugh Foundation, Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Science
Study finds physical link to strange electronic behavior
Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have revealed the first evidence of physical properties that correspond with a directionally dependent electronic phase in the iron-based high-temperature superconductor barium iron nickel arsenide. The evidence is presented online this week in Science Express.
Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Robert A. Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Carnegie Mellon chemists create nanofibers using unprecedented new method
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University have developed a novel method for creating self-assembled protein/polymer nanostructures that are reminiscent of fibers found in living cells. The work offers a promising new way to fabricate materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Carnegie Mellon's Controlled Radical Polymerization, Oregon State University

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
jhduffy@andrew.cmu.edu
412-268-9982
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Science
Refocusing research into high-temperature superconductors
Scientists around the globe are trying to understand the phenomenon of loss-free electric power transmission by high-temperature superconductors. Materials that exhibit this effect at room temperature would bear huge technical potential. Recently symmetry changes in the electronic phases of high-temperature superconductors near their transition temperature had been attributed to doping effects. But an international team of scientists has now discovered that solely spin dynamics of the electrons are responsible for these spontaneous changes.
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science Foundation, R.A. Welch Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Dr. Andreas Battenberg
battenberg@zv.tum.de
49-892-891-0510
Technische Universitaet Muenchen

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Cell
Strict genomic partitioning by biological clock separates key metabolic functions
Much of the liver's metabolic function is governed by circadian rhythms -- our own body clock -- and UC Irvine researchers have now found two independent mechanisms by which this occurs.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Vasich
tmvasich@uci.edu
949-824-6455
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
ChemBioChem
Engineering a protein to prevent brain damage from toxic agents
New research may help prevent brain damage for those exposed to pesticides and chemical weapons. The work centers on proteins called phosphotriesterases, which are able to degrade chemicals known as organophosphates -- found in everything from industrial pesticides to sarin gas. They permanently bond to neurotransmitters in the brain, interfering with their ability to function and causing irreversible damage. The researchers re-engineered the protein to make it sufficiently stable to be used therapeutically.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
kathleen.hamilton@nyu.edu
718-260-3792
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Chemical Communications
Chemists demonstrate 'bricks-and-mortar' assembly of new molecular structures
Chemists at Indiana University Bloomington have described the self-assembly of large, symmetrical molecules in bricks-and-mortar fashion, a development with potential value for the field of organic electronic devices such as field-effect transistors and photovoltaic cells.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Steve Hinnefeld
slhinnef@iu.edu
812-856-3488
Indiana University

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Nature
Antarctic ice sheet is result of CO2 decrease, not continental breakup
Climate modelers from the University of New Hampshire have shown that the most likely explanation for the initiation of Antarctic glaciation during a major climate shift 34 million years ago was decreased carbon dioxide levels. The finding counters a 40-year-old theory suggesting massive rearrangements of Earth's continents caused global cooling and the abrupt formation of the Antarctic ice sheet. It will provide scientists insight into the climate change implications of current rising global CO2 levels.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Sims
david.sims@unh.edu
603-862-5369
University of New Hampshire

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Animal Behaviour
Supportive moms and sisters boost female baboon's rank
A study of dominance in female baboons suggests that the route to a higher rank is to maintain close ties with mom, and to have lots of supportive sisters.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Chicago Zoological Society

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
ras10@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
NSF grant to Wayne State supports new concept for manufacturing nanoscale devices
According to the National Science Foundation, nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of functional materials, devices, and systems with novel properties and functions. A major bottleneck in scaling up nanotechnology is the lack of manufacturing methods that connect different functional materials into one device. A research team led by Dr. Guangzhao Mao, professor of chemical engineering and materials science at Wayne State University, is seeking answers to this problem.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie O'Connor
julie.oconnor@wayne.edu
313-577-8845
Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Langmuir
Exploring 3-D printing to make organs for transplants
Printing whole new organs for transplants sounds like something out of a sci-fi movie, but the real-life budding technology could one day make actual kidneys, livers, hearts and other organs for patients who desperately need them. In the ACS journal Langmuir, scientists are reporting new understanding about the dynamics of 3-D bioprinting that takes them a step closer to realizing their goal of making working tissues and organs on-demand.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michael Bernstein
m_bernstein@acs.org
202-872-6042
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Nature
Mapping the optimal route between 2 quantum states
As a quantum state collapses from a quantum superposition to a classical state or a different superposition, it will follow a path known as a quantum trajectory. In a new paper featured this week on the cover of Nature, scientists have shown that it is possible to track these quantum trajectories and compare them to a recently developed theory for predicting the most likely path a system will take between two states.
Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Barnstone
dbarnsto@ur.rochester.edu
585-276-6264
University of Rochester

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
Spin-based electronics: New material successfully tested
Spintronics is a new field of electronics, using electron spin rather than motion. This technology requires insulating components that can control this quantum property. Scientists have shown experimentally that a novel material shows all the required properties.
Sino-Swiss Science and Technology Cooperation, Swiss National Science Foundation, MOST, Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
New catalyst converts carbon dioxide to fuel
Scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago have synthesized a catalyst that improves their system for converting waste carbon dioxide into syngas, a precursor of gasoline and other energy-rich products, bringing the process closer to commercial viability.
American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, National Science Foundation, University of Illinois at Chicago, US Department of Energy

Contact: Jeanne Galatzer-Levy
jgala@uic.edu
312-996-1583
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
ZooKeys
Decades-old amber collection offers new views of a lost world
Scientists are searching through a massive collection of 20-million-year-old amber found in the Dominican Republic more than 50 years ago, and the effort is yielding fresh insights into ancient tropical insects and the world they inhabited. (Includes a video about the work narrated by David Attenborough.)
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 30-Jul-2014
Nature
Finding quantum lines of desire
What paths do quantum particles, such as atoms or photons, follow through quantum state space? Kater Murch of Washington University in St. Louis has used an 'artificial atom' to continuously and repeatedly paths through quantum state space. From the cobweb of a million paths, a most likely path between two quantum states emerged, much as social trails emerge as people round off corners or cut across lawns between buildings.
US Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects, National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Lutz
dlutz@wustl.edu
314-935-5272
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 29-Jul-2014
UC San Diego's WIFIRE project helps firefighters get a jump on wildfires
In recent years, the number and scale of wildfires in the US has risen, threatening cities and forests, and at times forcing large-scale evacuations. Now, thanks to a multi-year, $2.65 million grant from the National Science Foundation, the University of California San Diego, and the University of Maryland have been building a cyberinfrastructure to better monitor, predict, and mitigate wildfires in the future.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jan Zverina
jzverina@sdsc.edu
858-534-5111
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 29-Jul-2014
SIGGRAPH 2014
ACM Transactions on Graphics
Vision-correcting display makes reading glasses so yesterday
Researchers at UC Berkeley are developing vision-correcting displays that can compensate for a viewer's visual impairments to create sharp images without the need for glasses or contact lenses. The technology could potentially help those who currently need corrective lenses to use their smartphones, tablets and computers, and could one day aid people with more complex visual problems.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
scyang@berkeley.edu
510-643-7741
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 29-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
Tough foam from tiny sheets
Tough, ultralight foam of atom-thick sheets can be made to any size and shape through a chemical process invented at Rice University.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mike Williams
mikewilliams@rice.edu
713-348-6728
Rice University

Showing releases 151-175 out of 793.

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