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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

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Showing releases 151-175 out of 836.

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Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Could suburban sprawl be good for segregation?
Racially and economically mixed cities are more likely to stay integrated if the density of households stays low, finds a new analysis of a now-famous model of segregation. By simulating the movement of families between neighborhoods in a virtual 'city,' Duke University mathematicians show that cities are more likely to become segregated along racial, ethnic or other lines when the proportion of occupied sites rises above a certain critical threshold -- as low as 25 percent.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
ras10@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Geological Society of America Bulletin
Snail shells show high-rise plateau is much lower than it used to be
Geologists have long debated when and how the Tibetan Plateau reached a 14,000-foot-plus elevation, but new research shows it once was probably several thousand feet higher.
National Science Foundation, American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, Comer Foundation, Natural Science Foundation of China.

Contact: Vince Stricherz
vinces@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Journal of Herpetology
Answer to restoring lost island biodiversity found in fossils
Many native species have vanished from tropical islands because of human impact, but University of Florida scientists have discovered how fossils can be used to restore lost biodiversity.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society

Contact: David Steadman
dws@flmnh.ufl.edu
407-913-7615
University of Florida

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Journal of Controlled Release
New chip promising for tumor-targeting research
Researchers have developed a chip capable of simulating a tumor's 'microenvironment' and plan to use the new system to test the effectiveness of nanoparticles and drugs that target cancer.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Emil Venere
venere@purdue.edu
765-494-4709
Purdue University

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Nature Communications
Graphene imperfections key to creating hypersensitive 'electronic nose'
Researchers have discovered a way to create a highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the crystalline flaws in graphene sheets. The imperfections have unique electronic properties that the researchers were able to exploit to increase sensitivity to absorbed gas molecules by 300 times.
National Science Foundation, DOE/National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, NSF/Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment

Contact: Jeanne Galatzer-Levy
jgala@uic.edu
312-996-1583
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Variability keeps the body in balance
Although the heart beats out a very familiar 'lub-dub' pattern that speeds up or slows down as our activity increases or decreases, the pattern itself isn't as regular as you might think. In fact, the amount of time between heartbeats can vary even at a 'constant' heart rate -- and that variability, doctors have found, is a good thing.
John G. Braun Professorship, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation, Pfizer, National Institutes of Health, Institute of Collaborative Biotechnologies

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
debwms@caltech.edu
626-395-3227
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Platelets modulate clotting behavior by 'feeling' their surroundings
Platelets respond to surfaces with greater stiffness by increasing their stickiness, the degree to which they "turn on" other platelets and other components of the clotting system, Emory and Georgia Tech researchers found.
National Science Foundation, American Heart Association, NIH/National Heart Lung Blood Institute, NIH/National Eye Institute

Contact: Quinn Eastman
qeastma@emory.edu
404-727-7829
Emory Health Sciences

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Project launched to study evolutionary history of fungi
The University of California, Riverside is one of 11 collaborating institutions that are funded a total of $2.5 million by the National Science Foundation for a project focused on studying zygomycetes -- ancient lineages of fungi that include plant symbionts, animal and human pathogens and decomposers of a wide variety of organic compounds. Jason Stajich, an associate professor of plant pathology and microbiology, is principal investigator of the project called the 'Zygomycete Genealogy of Life.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
Dartmouth's new ZEBRA bracelet strengthens computer security
In a big step for securing critical information systems, such as medical records in clinical settings, Dartmouth College researchers have created a new approach to computer security that authenticates users continuously while they are using a terminal and automatically logs them out when they leave or when someone else steps in to use their terminal.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
John.Cramer@Dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
New RFID technology helps robots find household objects
Researchers have created a new search algorithm that improves a robot's ability to find and navigate to tagged objects. The team has implemented their system on a PR2 robot, allowing it to travel through a home and correctly locate different types of tagged household objects, including a medication bottle, TV remote, phone and hair brush.
National Science Foundation, Willow Garage

Contact: Jason Maderer
maderer@gatech.edu
404-385-2966
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Pitt engineers receive grants to enhance additive manufacturing
Engineers at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering are proposing to develop enhanced modeling and simulation technology and new qualification standards that will further the adoption of additive manufacturing by industry.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Kovach
pkovach@pitt.edu
412-624-0265
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Finding hints of gravitational waves in the stars
Scientists have shown how gravitational waves -- invisible ripples in the fabric of space and time that propagate through the universe -- might be 'seen' by looking at the stars. The new model proposes that a star that oscillates at the same frequency as a gravitational wave will absorb energy from that wave and brighten, an overlooked prediction of Einstein's 1916 theory of general relativity. The study contradicts previous assumptions about the behavior of gravitational waves.
NASA, National Science Foundation, Borough of Manhattan Community College Faculty Development Grant, CUNY Chancellor's Research Fellowship, W.M. Keck Foundation

Contact: Kendra Snyder
ksnyder@amnh.org
212-496-3419
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Trends in Neurosciences
University of Chicago neuroscientists challenge long-held understanding of the sense of touch
Different types of nerves and skin receptors work in concert to produce sensations of touch, University of Chicago neuroscientists argue in a review article published Sept. 22, 2014, in the journal Trends in Neurosciences. Their assertion challenges a long-held principle in the field -- that separate groups of nerves and receptors are responsible for distinct components of touch, like texture or shape.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Wood
matthew.wood@uchospitals.edu
773-702-5894
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
University of Utah engineers unlock potential for faster computing
University of Utah engineers discovered a way to create a special material -- a metal layer on top of a silicon semiconductor -- that could lead to cost-effective, superfast computers that perform lightning-fast calculations but don't overheat. This new 'topological insulator' behaves like an insulator on the inside but conducts electricity on the outside and may pave the way for quantum computers and fast spintronic devices.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, University of Utah Materials Research Science and Engineering Center

Contact: Vince Horiuchi
vincent.horiuchi@utah.edu
801-585-7499
University of Utah

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study: Antifreeze proteins in Antarctic fishes prevent freezing ... and melting
Antarctic fishes that manufacture their own 'antifreeze' proteins to survive in the icy Southern Ocean also suffer an unfortunate side effect, researchers report: The protein-bound ice crystals that accumulate inside their bodies resist melting even when temperatures warm.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 22-Sep-2014
Journal of Experimental Medicine
New rules for anticancer vaccines
Scientists have found a way to find the proverbial needle in the cancer antigen haystack. The results have the potential to completely change current approaches to generating anticancer vaccines.
Cancer Research Institute NY, Northeastern Utilities, Connecticut Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, SPARK, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Life Technologies, USDA/National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Contact: Rita Sullivan King
news@rupress.org
212-327-8603
Rockefeller University Press

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Nature Nanotechnology
Engineered proteins stick like glue -- even in water
MIT researchers find new adhesives based on mussel proteins could be useful for naval or medical applications.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
s_mcd@mit.edu
617-253-8923
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Sep-2014
Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology
Dry roasting could help trigger peanut allergy
Dry roasted peanuts are more likely to trigger an allergy to peanuts than raw peanuts, suggests an Oxford University study involving mice. The researchers say that specific chemical changes caused by the high temperatures of the dry roasting process are recognized by the body's immune system, 'priming' the body to set off an allergic immune response the next time it sees any peanuts.
NIH/National Institute for Health Research, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: University of Oxford News & Information Office
news.office@admin.ox.ac.uk
44-186-528-0530
University of Oxford

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Nature Photonics
UChicago-Argonne National Lab team improves solar-cell efficiency
New light has been shed on solar power generation using devices made with polymers, thanks to a collaboration between scientists in the University of Chicago's chemistry department, the Institute for Molecular Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory. Researchers identified a new polymer -- a type of large molecule that forms plastics and other familiar materials -- which improved the efficiency of solar cells.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, US Department of Energy

Contact: Steve Koppes
skoppes@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366
University of Chicago

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
Ecology
Dwindling wind may tip predator-prey balance
Rising temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns may get the lion's share of our climate change attention, but predators may want to give some thought to wind, according to a University of Wisconsin Madison zoologist's study, which is among the first to demonstrate the way 'global stilling' may alter predator-prey relationships.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brandon Barton
btbarton@wisc.edu
608-262-9226
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
OU biologist awarded NSF grant to study spinal cord circuits controlling limb movements
A University of Oklahoma biology professor will study multifunctional and specialized spinal cord nerve cells that control leg movements with a National Science Foundation grant in the amount of $680,000 for the four-year project.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jana Smith
jana.smith@ou.edu
405-325-1322
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
OU biologist awarded NSF CAREER grant for research of the electric fish
A University of Oklahoma biology professor will study the unique bioelectric signaling system of the electric fish, an analysis that could eventually benefit people's health. The OU researcher is working to understand how these fish manage the energy required to produce the signals used to map the world around them. Electric fish generate electric signals at a rate of 500-600 discharges a second throughout their lives. The energetic demands required for the electric fish are extreme, but necessary for survival.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jana Smith
jana.smith@ou.edu
405-325-1322
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 19-Sep-2014
University of Delaware receives $3.3 million NSF grant to diversify academic workforce
The University of Delaware has been awarded $3.3 million from the National Science Foundation to develop a program that will serve as a national model for diversifying and strengthening the academic workforce.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Donna O'Brien
dobrien@udel.edu
302-831-1418
University of Delaware

Public Release: 18-Sep-2014
Nature Materials
Penn research helps uncover mechanism behind solid-solid phase transitions
Researchers have found that some crystals have an easier time of making a solid-solid transition if they take it in two steps. Surprisingly, the first step of the process involves the parent phase producing droplets of liquid. The liquid droplets then evolve into the daughter phase.
US National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Basic Research Program of China, NASA

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 18-Sep-2014
Journal of Power Sources
Researchers develop unique waste cleanup for rural areas
Washington State University researchers have developed a unique method to use microbes buried in pond sediment to power waste cleanup in rural areas. The first microbe-powered, self-sustaining wastewater treatment system could lead to an inexpensive and quick way to clean up waste from large farming operations and rural sewage treatment plants while reducing pollution.
National Science Foundation, US Office of Naval Research, Washington State University Agricultural Research Center

Contact: Haluk Beyenal
beyenal@wsu.edu
509-335-6607
Washington State University

Showing releases 151-175 out of 836.

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