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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 151-175 out of 749.

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Public Release: 13-Mar-2014
Unraveling a mystery in the 'histone code' shows how gene activity is inherited
Every cell in our body has exactly the same DNA, yet every cell is different. The genetic code carried in our DNA provides instructions for cells to manufacture specific proteins. A second code, carried by histone proteins bound to DNA, determines which genes are activated in particular cells. Researchers at CSHL have found that the slightest variation in a histone protein can have dramatic effects on how the genes encoded in our DNA are used.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Jaclyn Jansen
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Public Release: 13-Mar-2014
More to biological diversity than meets the eye
UI biology researcher Andrew Forbes and his colleagues studied fly and wasp species on plants in a Chilean rainforest and found more species than biological theory would have predicted because specialized interactions between species allow a larger, more diverse number of species to live in the same place.
National Science Foundation, University of Iowa

Contact: Gary Galluzzo
University of Iowa

Public Release: 13-Mar-2014
When big isn't better: How the flu bug bit Google
Numbers and data can be critical tools in bringing complex issues into focus. The understanding of diseases, for example, benefits from algorithms that help monitor their spread. But without context, a number may be just a number, or even misleading. Google's data-aggregating tool Google Flu Trend was designed to provide real-time monitoring of flu cases around the world, but it also illustrates where 'big-data' analysis can go wrong.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeannie Kever
University of Houston

Public Release: 13-Mar-2014
American Journal of Human Genetics
Penn team links Africans' ability to digest milk to spread of cattle raising
A new study led by University of Pennsylvania researchers -- constituting the largest investigation ever of lactose tolerance in geographically diverse populations of Africans -- investigated the genetic origins of this trait and offers support to the idea that the ability to digest milk was a powerful selective force in a variety of African populations which raised cattle and consumed the animals' fresh milk.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 12-Mar-2014
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Heart scans only useful in prescribing statins under certain conditions, UCSF team reports
As long as inexpensive statins, which lower cholesterol, are readily available and patients don't mind taking them, it doesn't make sense to do a heart scan to measure how much plaque has built up in a patient's coronary arteries before prescribing the pills, according to a new study by researchers at UC San Francisco.
NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH/National Cancer Institute, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Kurtzman
University of California - San Francisco

Public Release: 12-Mar-2014
Physical Review A
'Ultracold' molecules promising for quantum computing, simulation
Researchers have created a new type of 'ultracold' molecule, using lasers to cool atoms nearly to absolute zero and then gluing them together, a technology that might be applied to quantum computing, precise sensors and advanced simulations.
National Science Foundation, US Army Research Office

Contact: Emil Venere
Purdue University

Public Release: 12-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Turing's theory of morphogenesis validated 60 years after his death
Sixty years after Turing's death, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and Brandeis University have provided the first experimental evidence that validates Turing's theory in cell-like structures.
National Science Foundation Material Research Science and Engineering Center

Contact: Joe Miksch
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 12-Mar-2014
Good vibes for catalytic chemistry
University of Utah chemists discovered how vibrations in chemical bonds can be used to predict chemical reactions and thus design better catalysts to speed reactions that make medicines, industrial products and new materials.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 11-Mar-2014
Nature Materials
Scientists 'herd' cells in new approach to tissue engineering
UC Berkeley engineers have found that an electrical current can be used to orchestrate the flow of a group of cells. This achievement sets the stage for more controlled forms of tissue engineering and for potential applications such as 'smart bandages' that use electrical stimulation to help heal wounds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 11-Mar-2014
Psychological Science
Gesturing with hands is a powerful tool for children's math learning
Children who use their hands to gesture during a math lesson gain a deep understanding of the problems they are taught, according to new research from University of Chicago's Department of Psychology.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jann Ingmire
University of Chicago

Public Release: 11-Mar-2014
Plant Cell
Lignin breakthroughs serve as GPS for plant research
By thoroughly mapping a single specialized tissue involved in wood formation, scientists at North Carolina State University have developed the equivalent of turn-by-turn directions for future plant research.
National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program Grant, Jordan Endowment at North Carolina State

Contact: D'Lyn Ford
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 11-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Excessive deer populations hurt native plant biodiversity
A research team led by Susan Kalisz, professor of evolutionary ecology in the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biological Sciences, published a paper online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that takes a long view on why invasive garlic mustard plants thrive to the detriment of native species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joseph Miksch
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 11-Mar-2014
Ecology Letters
Exotic plant species alter ecosystem productivity
In their joint publication in the journal Ecology Letters, German and American biologists have reported an increase in biomass production in ecosystems colonized by non-native plant species. In the face of climate change, these and other changes to ecosystems are predicted to become more frequent, according to the researchers.
USDA/Cooperative State Research, DAAD, NSF/Global Invasions Network

Contact: Tilo Arnhold
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ

Public Release: 11-Mar-2014
Speed trap for fish catches domestic trout moving too slow
Washington State University researchers have documented dramatic differences in the swimming ability of domesticated trout and their wilder relatives. The study calls into question the ability of hatcheries to mitigate more than a century of disturbances to wild fish populations.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Kristy Bellinger
Washington State University

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Biophysical Journal
Penn researchers model a key breaking point involved in traumatic brain injury
Even the mildest form of a traumatic brain injury, better known as a concussion, can deal permanent, irreparable damage. Now, an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the University of Pennsylvania is using mathematical modeling to better understand the mechanisms at play in this kind of injury, with an eye toward protecting the brain from its long-term consequences.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Defense

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
National study reveals urban lawn care habits
What do people living in Boston, Baltimore, Miami, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Phoenix, and Los Angeles have in common? From coast to coast, prairie to desert -- residential lawns reign. But, according to a new study in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, beneath this sea of green lie unexpected differences in fertilization and irrigation practices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lori M Quillen
845-677-7600 x121
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Chemical spill activates Virginia Tech engineers in effort to determine long-term effects
Virginia Tech engineers snapped into action when more than 10,000 gallons of a chemical mixture leaked from a storage tank near Charleston, W.Va. Civil and environmental engineering graduate students jumped into the lab to develop analytical chemical techniques that isolated the six major components in the crude mixture and identified their chemical structures.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Pastor
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Nature Nanotechnology
Scientists build thinnest-possible LEDs to be stronger, more energy efficient
University of Washington scientists have built the thinnest-known LED that can be used as a source of light energy in electronics. The LED is based off of two-dimensional, flexible semiconductors, making it possible to stack or use in much smaller and more diverse applications than current technology allows.
US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Research Grant Council of Hong Kong, University Grant Committee of Hong Kong, Croucher Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Michelle Ma
University of Washington

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
A tale of 2 data sets: New DNA analysis strategy helps researchers cut through the dirt
Researchers from Michigan State University, the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have published the largest soil DNA sequencing effort to date in PNAS. What has emerged in this first of the studies to come from this project is a simple, elegant solution to sifting through the deluge of information gleaned, as well as a sobering reality check on just how hard a challenge these environments will be.
Department of Energy Office of Science, US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation, Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

Contact: David Gilbert
DOE/Joint Genome Institute

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Impersonating poisonous prey
Imitation is the most sincere form of flattery -- especially in the predator/prey/poison cycle. In nature, bright colors are basically neon signs that scream, 'Don't eat me!' But how did prey evolve these characteristics? When did predators translate the meaning?
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Nature Nanotechnology
Two-dimensional material shows promise for optoelectronics
A team creates LEDs, photovoltaic cells, and light detectors using novel one-molecule-thick material.
US Office of Naval Research, Packard, Pappalardo, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Nature Methods
Rice synthetic biologists shine light on genetic circuit analysis
In a significant advance for the growing field of synthetic biology, Rice University bioengineers have created a toolkit of genes and hardware that uses colored lights and engineered bacteria to bring both mathematical predictability and cut-and-paste simplicity to the world of genetic circuit design.
National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, NASA

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Turing's theory of chemical morphogenesis validated 60 years after his death
Sixty years after Alan Turing's death, researchers from Brandeis University and the University of Pittsburgh have provided the first experimental evidence that validates Turing's theory of chemical morphogenesis in cell-like structures.
National Science Foundation Material Research Science and Engineering Center

Contact: Leah Burrows
Brandeis University

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
2014 American Physical Society March Meeting
Nature Communications
Mapping the behavior of charges in correlated spin-orbit coupled materials
A team of Boston College physicists has mapped the inner atomic workings of a compound within the mysterious class of materials known as spin-orbit Mott insulators. The findings confirm the properties that theorists predict could lead to discoveries in superconductivity, the topological phases of matter and new forms of magnetism.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Ed Hayward
Boston College

Public Release: 10-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Lawn care practices across the nation vary more than expected
A paper published today by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences digs into the concept of the 'Urban Homogenization Hypothesis,' an assumption that urbanization is creating landscapes that are indistinguishable despite regional differences in climate and vegetation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jane Hodgins
USDA Forest Service - Northern Research Station

Showing releases 151-175 out of 749.

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