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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 201-225 out of 749.

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Public Release: 4-Mar-2014
2014 American Physical Society March Meeting
Physics in 3-D? That's nothing. Try 0-D
Zero-dimensional quantum dots identified by University of Cincinnati researchers could someday have a big effect on a variety of technologies, such as solar energy, lasers and medical diagnostics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Robinette
tom.robinette@uc.edu
513-556-1825
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
2014 American Physical Society March Meeting
UC research tests range of electrical frequencies that help heal chronic wounds
Hard-to-heal wounds, like diabetic ulcers, fester because of insufficient blood supply at the wound site. However, the application of an electrical stimulus can promote the growth of blood vessels, and new UC research examines the best stimulus parameters -- such as frequency and magnitude -- for successful therapy.
National Science Foundation, University of Cincinnati

Contact: M.B. Reilly
reillymb@ucmail.uc.edu
513-556-1824
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
Plant Physiology
Team models photosynthesis and finds room for improvement
Teaching crop plants to concentrate carbon dioxide in their leaves could increase photosynthetic efficiency by 60 percent and yields by as much as 40 percent, researchers report in a new study. The team used a computer model to simulate how adding genes from algae known as cyanobacteria might influence photosynthetic efficiency in plants.
National Science Foundation, Gates Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
2014 American Physical Society March Meeting
UC research tests which nano system works best in killing cancer cells
New UC research to be presented this week tested four iron-oxide nanoparticle systems to see which, when heated, would likely work best as a tool for targeting cancer cells.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: M.B. Reilly
reillymb@ucmail.uc.edu
513-556-1824
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
'Fore!' heads up, wide use of more flexible metallic glass coming your way
Tweaking the shearing characteristics of materials such as glass has important applications well beyond the sporting worldof glass-faced golf clubs, it's a matter of broader impact, aiding such fields as space science, electrical transformers, cell phone cases, and yes, golf clubs, because their mechanical and magnetic properties are highly adjustable.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nancy Ambrosiano
nwa@lanl.gov
505-667-0471
DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
Marine Biology
Distinctive flashing patterns might facilitate fish mating
Scientists have shown for the first time that deep-sea fishes that use bioluminescence for communication are diversifying into different species faster than other glowing fishes that use light for camouflage. The new research indicates that bioluminescence -- a phenomenon in which animals generate visible light through a chemical reaction -- could promote communication and mating in the open ocean, an environment with few barriers to reproduction. The study was recently published in the journal Marine Biology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kendra Snyder
ksnyder@amnh.org
212-496-3419
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
Scientific Reports
Transparent, color solar cells fuse energy, beauty
Colorful, see-through solar cells invented at the University of Michigan could one day be used to make stained-glass windows, decorations and even shades that turn the sun's energy into electricity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicole Casal Moore
ncmoore@umich.edu
734-647-7087
University of Michigan

Public Release: 3-Mar-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
The surface of the sea is a sink for nitrogen oxides at night
The surface of the sea takes up nitrogen oxides that build up in polluted air at night, new measurements on the coast of southern California have shown. The ocean removes about 15 percent of these chemicals overnight along the coast, a team of atmospheric chemists reports in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of March 3.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Bertram
scinews@ucsd.edu
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 28-Feb-2014
BMC Developmental Biology
3-D imaging sheds light on Apert syndrome development
Three-dimensional imaging of two different mouse models of Apert Syndrome shows that cranial deformation begins before birth and continues, worsening with time, according to a team of researchers who studied mice to better understand and treat the disorder in humans.
NIH/National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 28-Feb-2014
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Detection of water vapor in the atmosphere of a hot jupiter
Although liquid water covers a majority of Earth's surface, scientists are still searching for planets outside of our solar system that contain water. Caltech researchers have used a new technique to analyze the atmospheres of such exoplanets, making the first detection of water in the atmosphere of the Jupiter-mass planet orbiting the nearby star tau Boötis. This technique could help researchers learn about how many planets with water -- like Earth -- exist within our galaxy.
National Science Foundation GRF, Packard Foundation, Sloan Foundation, Penn State Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds

Contact: Brian Bell
mr@caltech.edu
626-395-5832
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 28-Feb-2014
Technological Innovations in Statistics Education
To teach scientific reproducibility, start young
In the wake of retraction scandals and studies showing reproducibility rates as low as 10 percent for peer-reviewed articles, the scientific community has focused attention on ways to improve transparency and duplication. A team of math and statistics professors from Amherst College, Duke University and Smith College has proposed a way to address one root of that problem: teach and emphasize reproducibility to aspiring scientists, using software that makes the concept feel logical rather than cumbersome.
Project MOSAIC, National Science Foundation

Contact: Erin Weeks
erin.weeks@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 28-Feb-2014
American Journal of Botany
The nature of color: New formula to calculate hue improves accuracy of color analysis
Color is crucial in ecological studies, playing an important role in studies of flower and fruit development, responses to heat/drought stress, and plant–pollinator communication. But, measuring color variation is difficult, and available formulas sometimes give misleading results. An improved formula to calculate hue (one of three variables characterizing color), published in the March issue of Applications in Plant Sciences, corrects the popular segment classification method of color quantification and will provide accurate color analysis values.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
apps@botany.org
American Journal of Botany

Public Release: 27-Feb-2014
Journal of Nature Conservation
Livestock found ganging up on pandas at the bamboo buffet
Pandas, it turns out, aren't celebrating the Year of the Horse. Livestock, particularly horses, have been identified as a significant threat to panda survival. The reason: they're beating the pandas to the bamboo buffet. A paper by Michigan State University panda habitat experts published in this week's Journal for Nature Conservation explores an oft-hidden yet significant conflict in conservation.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Jamie DePolo
depolo@msu.edu
609-702-7810
Michigan State University

Public Release: 27-Feb-2014
Geophysical Research Letters
Study projects big thaw for Antarctic sea ice
A new modeling study suggests that a recent observed increase in summer sea-ice cover in Antarctica's Ross Sea is likely short-lived, with the area projected to lose more than half its summer sea ice by 2050 and more than three quarters by 2100. These changes will significantly impact marine life in what is one of the world's most productive and unspoiled marine ecosystems.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Malmquist
davem@vims.edu
804-684-7011
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Closest, brightest supernova in decades is also a little weird
The closest and brightest supernova in decades, SN 2014J, brightens faster than expected for Type Ia supernovae, the exploding stars used to measure cosmic distances, according to University of California Berkeley astronomers. Another recent supernova also brightened faster than expected, suggesting that there is unsuspected new physics going on inside these exploding stars. The finding may also help physicists improve their use of these supernovae to measure cosmic distance.
TABASGO Foundation, Barney Katzman Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
Journal of Visualized Experiments
Research maze puts images on floor, where rodents look
Visual acuity is sharpest for rats and mice when the animals are looking down. Researchers have found that rodents can learn tasks in a fourth to a sixth of the usual number of repetitions when visual stimuli are projected onto the floor of the maze rather than onto the walls. Findings are reported in the Journal of Visualized Experiments.
National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
Journal of Great Lakes Research
Ambitious new pollution targets needed to protect Lake Erie from massive 'dead zone'
Reducing the size of the Lake Erie 'dead zone' to acceptable levels will require cutting nutrient pollution nearly in half in coming decades, at a time when climate change is expected to make such reductions more difficult.
NOAA, National Science Foundation, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Ohio Division of Wildlife

Contact: Jim Erickson
ericksn@umich.edu
734-647-1842
University of Michigan

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
Advanced Materials
A cavity that you want
An international research team is developing an optical 'nanocavity' that boosts the amount of light that ultrathin semiconductors absorb. The advancement could lead to: more powerful photovoltaic cells; faster video cameras; and it could be useful for splitting water using energy from light, which could aid in the development of hydrogen fuel.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cory Nealon
cmnealon@buffalo.edu
716-645-4614
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting
Whales, ships more common through Bering Strait
A three-year survey of whales in the Bering Strait reveals that many species of whales are using the narrow waterway, while shipping and commercial traffic also increase.
National Science Foundation, NOAA

Contact: Hannah Hickey
hickeyh@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
Nature
JILA physicists discover 'quantum droplet' in semiconductor
JILA physicists used an ultra-fast laser and help from German theorists to discover a new semiconductor quasiparticle -- a handful of smaller particles that briefly condense into a liquid-like droplet. The discovery improves understanding of how electrons interact in various situations, including in optoelectronic devices.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Laura Ost
laura.ost@nist.gov
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 26-Feb-2014
PLOS ONE
Breast cancer cells less likely to spread when one gene is turned off
New research suggests that a protein only recently linked to cancer has a significant effect on the risk that breast cancer will spread, and that lowering the protein's level in cell cultures and mice reduces chances for the disease to extend beyond the initial tumor.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Douglas Kniss
Kniss.1@osu.edu
614-293-4496
Ohio State University

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting
PLOS ONE
Where have all the codfish gone?
The mega-decline in cod and other fisheries across the North Atlantic Ocean threatens the livelihood of fishermen and communities in New England and Atlantic Canada. One suspect in the disappearance of cod and other groundfish is the food source for their young: a planktonic copepod crustacean. The first transcriptome for the key North Atlantic copepod Calanus finmarchicus has been published; scientists will use it to decode the genetic instructions that are resulting in population changes.
National Science Foundation, Cades Foundation of Honolulu, Hawaiʻi

Contact: Andrew E. Christie
crabman@pbrc.hawaii.edu
808-956-5212
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Geology
Dartmouth-led research shows temperature, not snowfall, driving tropical glacier size
Temperature, not snowfall, has been driving the fluctuating size of Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap, whose dramatic shrinkage in recent decades has made it a symbol for global climate change, a Dartmouth-led study shows.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
John.Cramer@Dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Journal of Cell Biology
Penn researchers show nuclear stiffness keeps stem cells and cancer cells in place
Adult stem cells and cancer cells have many things in common, including an ability to migrate through tiny gaps in tissue. Both types of cells also experience a trade-off when it comes to this ability; having a flexible nucleus makes migration easier but is worse at protecting the nucleus' DNA compared to a stiffer nucleus. Nuclear proteins that regulate nuclear stiffness are therefore thought to control processes as diverse as tissue repair and tumor growth.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Nature Communications
Novel optical fibers transmit high-quality images
Engineers at University of Wisconsin Milwaukee have found that a new kind of optical fiber they designed can not only transmit more data than single core optical fibers but also transmit images with less pixelation and higher contrast than the current commercial endoscopy imaging fibers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Arash Mafi
mafi@uwm.edu
414-229-6884
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Showing releases 201-225 out of 749.

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