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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 226-250 out of 911.

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Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New mathematical method reveals structure in neural activity in the brain
A newly-developed mathematical method can detect geometric structure in neural activity in the brain. The method is a first step toward developing a new mathematical toolkit to uncover the structure of neural circuits with unknown function in the brain
National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Young Faculty Award, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New study explains near-annual Monsoon oscillations generated by El Niño
New research results show how interaction of the El Niņo phenomenon with the annual cycle of solar radiation in the western Pacific generates a suite of predictable wind and rainfall patterns associated with the Southeast Asian Monsoons. In contrast to the inter-annual timescales of El Niņo, monsoon oscillations occur on nearly annual timescales. The methodology provides a new way to explore atmosphere variability, as well as a number of other climate phenomena.
US National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Rachel Lentz
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Communications
Electronics get a power boost with the addition of a simple material
The tiny transistor is the heart of the electronics revolution, and Penn State materials scientists have just discovered a way to give this workhorse a big boost, using a new technique to incorporate vanadium oxide -- a functional oxide -- into the electronic devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Gene on-off switch works like backpack strap
A research team based in Houston's Texas Medical Center has found that loop-forming proteins inside the human chromosome appear to work like the sliding plastic adjusters on a grade-schooler's backpack. This discovery may allow researchers to reprogram human cells by directly modifying the loops that form in DNA.
Welch Foundation, IBM, Nvidia, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, McNair Medical Institute

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Climate Change
Study: Alaskan boreal forest fires release more carbon than the trees can absorb
A new analysis of fire activity in Alaska's Yukon Flats finds that so many forest fires are occurring there that the area has become a net exporter of carbon to the atmosphere. This is worrisome, the researchers say, because arctic and subarctic boreal forests like those of the Yukon Flats contain roughly one-third of the Earth's terrestrial carbon stores.The research is reported in the journal Nature Climate Change.
US Geological Survey, US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Photonics
Researchers learn how to steer the heart -- with light
We depend on electrical waves to regulate the rhythm of our heartbeat. When those signals go awry, the result is a potentially fatal arrhythmia. Now, a team of researchers from Oxford and Stony Brook universities has found a way to precisely control these waves -- using light.
BHF Centre of Research Excellence Oxford, Medical Research Council, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, New York Stem Cell Foundation

Contact: Tom Calver
University of Oxford

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Photonics
To infinity and beyond: Light goes infinitely fast with new on-chip material
Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have designed the first on-chip metamaterial with a refractive index of zero, meaning that the phase of light can travel infinitely fast.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Harvard Quantum Optics Center

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 16-Oct-2015
Environmental Science & Technology
UCI-led group suggests ways to better manage urban stormwater runoff
As meteorologists monitor the El Nino condition currently gaining strength in the Pacific Ocean, Californians look with hope to the much-needed rain and snow it could yield. But if we're going to make the most of the precipitation, we need to put a LID on it.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Bell
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 16-Oct-2015
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Novel algorithm simulates water evaporation at the nanoscale
The evaporation of water that occurs when it meets a hot surface is understood in continuum theory and in experimentation. Before now, researchers were unable to study it at nanoscales in molecular simulation. YD and Maroo's algorithm has made that possible, and their paper, 'Surface-Heating Algorithm for Water at Nanoscale,' has garnered notable attention in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matthew Wheeler
Syracuse University

Public Release: 16-Oct-2015
Nuclear Science Advisory Committee issues plan for US nuclear physics research
The Nuclear Science Advisory Committee, or NSAC, has publicly released 'Reaching for the Horizon, The 2015 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science.' The new plan was unanimously accepted by NSAC, a committee composed of eminent scientists who have been tasked by DOE and the National Science Foundation to provide recommendations on future research in the field.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kandice Carter
DOE/Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Nature Communications
Taking dinosaur temperatures with eggshells
Researchers know dinosaurs once ruled the earth, but they know very little about how these animals performed the basic task of balancing their energy intake and output -- how their metabolisms worked. Now, a team of Caltech researchers that has measured the body temperatures of a wide range of dinosaurs has provided insight into how the animals may have regulated their internal heat.
Caltech Chancellors Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Science Foundation, Agence Nationale pour la Recherche, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Hellman Fellowship, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A
Rise and fall of agrarian states influenced by climate volatility
Climate variability is one of the major forces in the rise and fall of agrarian states in Mexico and Peru, according to a team of researchers looking at both climate and archaeological records.
National Science Foundation, Leibnitz Association

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Stem Cell Reports
Stem cell treatment lessens impairments caused by dementia with Lewy bodies
Neural stem cells transplanted into damaged brain sites in mice dramatically improved both motor and cognitive impairments associated with dementia with Lewy bodies, according to University of California, Irvine neurobiologists with the Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center and the Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Advanced Material Interfaces
Researchers take first steps to create biodegradable displays for electronics
Americans, on average, replace their mobile phones every 22 months, junking more than 150 million phones a year in the process. Now,University of Missouri researchers are on the path to creating biodegradable electronics by using organic components in screen displays. The researchers' advancements could one day help reduce electronic waste in the world's landfills.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Physical Review Letters
The shape of a pipe dramatically affects how pollutants will spread
The shape of a pipe has a large effect on the spreading of particles suspended in the fluid flowing through the pipe. Calculations show that round pipes produce symmetrical spreading along the flow direction, whereas rectangular pipes give an asymmetry.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Thania Benios
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Mini DNA sequencer tests true
The MinION, a handheld DNA-sequencing device developed by Oxford Nanopore, has been tested and evaluated by an independent, international consortium coordinated by EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute. The innovative device opens up new possibilities for using sequencing technology in the field, for example in tracking disease outbreaks, testing packaged food or the trafficking of protected species.
Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute, and others

Contact: Mary Todd Bergman
European Molecular Biology Laboratory - European Bioinformatics Institute

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Nature Communications
Scientists develop genetic blueprint of inner ear cell development
Using a sensitive new technology called single-cell RNA-seq on cells from mice, scientists have created the first high-resolution gene expression map of the newborn mouse inner ear. The findings provide new insight into how epithelial cells in the inner ear develop and differentiate into specialized cells that serve critical functions for hearing and maintaining balance.
NIH/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Triologic Society, Swiss National Science Foundation, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, and others

Contact: NIDCD Press Office
NIH/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Video: 3-D-printed 'soft' robotic tentacle displays new level of agility
Cornell University engineers have developed a method to re-create the arrangement of muscles of an octopus tentacle, using an elastomer and 3-D printer.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 3M, National Science Foundation

Contact: Daryl Lovell
Cornell University

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Screen of human genome reveals set of genes essential for cellular viability
Using two complementary analytical approaches, scientists at Whitehead Institute and Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard have for the first time identified the universe of genes in the human genome essential for the survival and proliferation of human cell lines or cultured human cells.
National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Science Foundation, MIT Whitaker Health Sciences Fund, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Matt Fearer
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Duke launches autism research app with global reach
'Autism & Beyond,' a free app developed at Duke, uses an iPhone's self-facing camera to assess a child's emotional state while viewing various stimuli on its display screen. The app is built on Apple's open source ResearchKit, promising medical researchers a global reach with standardized consent forms and protocols.
NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering

Contact: Karl Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 15-Oct-2015
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology meeting
Shift in weaning age supports hunting-induced extinction of Siberian woolly mammoths
Chemical clues about weaning age embedded in the tusks of juvenile Siberian woolly mammoths suggest that hunting, rather than climate change, was the primary cause of the elephant-like animal's extinction.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, CRDF Global

Contact: Jim Erickson
University of Michigan

Public Release: 14-Oct-2015
Biochemists uncover structure of cellular memory mechanism
Biochemists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School uncover structure of cellular mechanism tied to thought, movement and other bodily functions.
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Muscular Dystrophy Association, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Cahill
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Public Release: 14-Oct-2015
New concept to help set priorities in water management
The basic principle behind most strategies aimed at renaturalizing ecosystems is to increase biodiversity by restoring natural habitat structure. These projects often do not result in the success researchers had hoped for because the complexity of ecological relationships is so vast. Researchers have now developed a theoretical framework -- the concept of ecological simplification -- aimed at closing this gap. They tested it in two iconic river landscapes.
National Science Foundation, Montana Institute on Ecosystems

Contact: Dr. Marc Peipoch Guell
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ

Public Release: 14-Oct-2015
SASTRA Ramanujan Conference
Research in Number Theory
Mathematicians find 'magic key' to drive Ramanujan's taxi-cab number
Taxi-cab numbers, among the most beloved integers in math, trace their origins to 1918 and what seemed like a casual insight by the Indian genius Srinivasa Ramanujan. Now mathematicians at Emory University have discovered that Ramanujan did not just identify the first taxi-cab number -- 1729 -- and its quirky properties. He showed how the number relates to elliptic curves and K3 surfaces -- objects important today in string theory and quantum physics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Carol Clark
Emory Health Sciences

Public Release: 14-Oct-2015
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Bubble plumes off Washington, Oregon suggest warmer ocean may be releasing frozen methane
The location of bubble plumes off the Pacific Northwest supports the idea that gradual ocean warming at about a third of a mile down may be releasing frozen methane in the seafloor.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Showing releases 226-250 out of 911.

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