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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 26-50 out of 818.

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Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Twin discoveries, 'eerie' effect may lead to manufacturing advances
The discovery of a previously unknown type of metal deformation -- sinuous flow -- and a method to suppress it could lead to more efficient machining and other manufacturing advances by reducing the force and energy required to process metals.
National Science Foundation

Contact: emil Venere
venere@purdue.edu
765-494-4709
Purdue University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
PLOS Biology
Some vaccines support evolution of more-virulent viruses
Scientific experiments with the herpesvirus such as the one that causes Marek's disease in poultry have confirmed, for the first time, the highly controversial theory that some vaccines could allow more-virulent versions of a virus to survive, putting unvaccinated individuals at greater risk of severe illness. The research has important implications for food-chain security and food-chain economics, as well as for other diseases that affect humans and agricultural animals.
NIH/National Institutes of Health Institute of General Medical Sciences, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, NSF-NIH-USDA/Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Program

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
science@psu.edu
814-863-4682
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Jul-2015
Ecology
Parasitic flatworms flout global biodiversity patterns
The odds of being attacked and castrated by a variety of parasitic flatworms increases for marine horn snails the farther they are found from the tropics. A Smithsonian-led research team discovered this exception to an otherwise globally observed pattern -- usually biodiversity is greatest in the tropics and decreases toward the poles.
Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Smithsonian Marine Science Network, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows to OM), NSF-NIH Ecology of Infectious Diseases grant

Contact: Beth King
kingb@si.edu
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 24-Jul-2015
Journal of Wildlife Management
Inbreeding not to blame for Colorado's bighorn sheep population decline
The health of Colorado's bighorn sheep population remains as precarious as the steep alpine terrain the animals inhabit, but a new study led by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder has found that inbreeding -- a common hypothesis for a recent decline -- likely isn't to blame.
National Park Service, Rocky Mountain National Park, National Science Foundation, Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Indian Peaks Wilderness Alliance, University of Colorado Boulder

Contact: Catherine Driscoll
catherine.driscoll@gmail.com
303-492-8858
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 24-Jul-2015
Simulated map of missing satellite galaxies could answer dark matter puzzle
Rochester Institute of Technology scientist is hunting for dark matter and hidden dwarf galaxies. She is making the first 'mock' map and catalog of satellite populations from analyzing extended atomic hydrogen disks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Gawlowicz
smguns@rit.edu
585-475-5061
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Quaternary Science Reviews
Study finds abrupt climate change may have rocked the cradle of civilization
New research reveals that some of the earliest civilizations in the Middle East and the Fertile Crescent may have been affected by abrupt climate change. These findings show that while socio-economic factors were traditionally considered to shape ancient human societies in this region, the influence of abrupt climate change should not be underestimated.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Udel
dudel@rsmas.miami.edu
305-421-4704
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Scripps researchers map out trajectory of April 2015 earthquake in Nepal
Researchers from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego have accurately mapped out the movement of the devastating 7.8-magnitude Nepal earthquake that killed over 9,000 and injured over 23,000 people. Scientists have determined that the earthquake was a rupture consisting of three different stages. The study could help a rapidly growing region understand its future seismic risks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Christina Wu or Mario Aguilera
scrippsnews@ucsd.edu
858-534-3624
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Astrophysical Journal
Brown dwarfs, stars share formation process, new study indicates
The discovery of jets of material ejected from still-forming brown dwarfs provides the first direct evidence that these enigmatic objects form in the same way as their more-massive siblings, stars, rather than like planets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
dfinley@nrao.edu
575-835-7302
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
ASBMB wins National Science Foundation grant to expand mentorship program
The National Science Foundation awarded the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology a grant of half a million dollars to support a comprehensive mentoring program for postdoctoral fellows and early-career faculty members. The program focuses on grantsmanship skills and career-development strategies. It also promotes diversity in the scientific workforce by supporting underrepresented minority postdoctoral scientists and new assistant professors in their efforts to secure research funding.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Allison Frick
africk@asbmb.org
240-283-6639
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
AIBS Complex Data Integration Workshop
Biologists identify ways to enhance complex data integration across research domains
The American Institute of Biological Sciences has published a new report that identifies key barriers to complex data integration and offers recommendations for the research community, research funding organizations, and others.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie Palakovich Carr
jpalakovichcarr@aibs.org
202-568-8117
American Institute of Biological Sciences

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Science
Penn researchers discover new chiral property of silicon, with photonic applications
By encoding information in photons via their spin, 'photonic' computers could be orders of magnitude faster and efficient than their current-day counterparts. Likewise, encoding information in the spin of electrons, rather than just their quantity, could make 'spintronic' computers with similar advantages. University of Pennsylvania engineers and physicists have now discovered a property of silicon that combines aspects of all of these desirable qualities.
US Army Research Office, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Science
UT Dallas nanotechnology research leads to super-elastic conducting fibers
A research team based at the University of Texas at Dallas has made electrically conducting fibers that can be reversibly stretched to over 14 times their initial length and whose electrical conductivity increases 200-fold when stretched. In a study published in the July 24 issue of the journal Science, the scientists describe how they constructed the fibers by wrapping electrically conductive sheets of carbon nanotubes to form a jelly-roll-like sheath around a long rubber core.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Robert A. Welch Foundation, US Army, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Amanda Siegfried
amanda.siegfried@utdallas.edu
972-883-4335
University of Texas at Dallas

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Nano Letters
Smarter window materials can control light and energy
Chemical engineering professor Delia Milliron and her team have engineered two new advancements in electrochromic materials -- a highly selective cool mode and a warm mode -- not thought possible several years ago. The researchers are one step closer to delivering smart windows with a new level of energy efficiency.
US Department of Energy, Welch Foundation, NSF Graduate Fellowship Program

Contact: Sandra Zaragoza
Zaragoza@utexas.edu
512-471-2129
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
24th USENIX Security Symposium (2015)
Computer security tools for journalists lacking in a post-Snowden world
Despite heightened awareness of surveillance tactics and privacy breaches, existing computer security tools aren't meeting the needs of journalists working with sensitive material, a new University of Washington and Columbia University study finds.
National Science Foundation/Division of Computer and Network Systems

Contact: Jennifer Langston
jlangst@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Geology
Predicting the shape of river deltas
Now researchers from MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have devised a simple way to predict a river delta's shape, given two competing factors: its river's force in depositing sediment into the ocean, and ocean waves' strength in pushing that sediment back along the coast. Depending on the balance of the two, the coastline of a river delta may take on a smooth 'cuspate' shape, or a more pointed 'crenulated' outline, resembling a bird's foot.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Unlocking mints' secrets could advance medicine, spices, more
Michigan State University has netted a $5.1 million National Science Foundation grant to explore the diverse world of mints.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
layne.cameron@cabs.msu.edu
517-353-8819
Michigan State University

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
What makes kids aggressive later in life?
A University at Buffalo developmental psychologist has received a $550,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to study possible pathways that might lead young children toward different types of aggressive behavior later in life.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bert Gambini
gambini@buffalo.edu
716-645-5334
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
The light of fireflies for medical diagnostics
EPFL scientists have exploited the light of fireflies in a new method that detects biological molecules without the need for complex devices and high costs.
Swiss National Science Foundation, National Centre of Competence in Research in Chemical Biology

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Science Translational Medicine
Stanford researchers link HIV susceptibility to little-understood immune cell class
High diversity among certain cells that help fight viruses and tumors is strongly associated with the likelihood of subsequent infection by HIV, Stanford University School of Medicine researchers have found.
Beckman Young Investigator Award, National Institutes of Health New Innovator Award, National Science Foundation training grant

Contact: Bruce Goldman
goldmanb@stanford.edu
650-725-2106
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
BioScience
Readiness of America's biology teachers questioned
Data spanning 1987 to 2007 show changing demographics among public high school biology teachers. The workforce has become less experienced and has been destabilized by turnover, and biology teachers are more likely than other science teachers to work outside of their discipline.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James M Verdier
jverdier@aibs.org
205-286-8626
American Institute of Biological Sciences

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Nature
Resolving social conflict is key to survival of bacterial communities
Far from being selfish organisms whose sole purpose is to maximize their own reproduction, bacteria in large communities work for the greater good by resolving a social conflict among individuals to enhance the survival of their entire community.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim McDonald
kmcdonald@ucsd.edu
858-534-7572
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 22-Jul-2015
Ecosystem Health and Sustainability
Researchers quantify nature's role in human well-being
The benefits people reap from nature -- or the harm they can suffer from natural disasters -- can seem as obvious as an earthquake. Yet putting numbers to changes in those ecosystem services and how human well-being is affected has fallen short, until now. A team of researchers from Michigan State University are advancing new modeling technology to quantify human dependence on nature, human well-being, and relationships between the two.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Sue Nichols
nichols@msu.edu
517-432-0206
Michigan State University

Public Release: 21-Jul-2015
Animal Cognition
Stress 'sweet spot' differs for mellow vs. hyper dogs
People aren't the only ones who perform better on tests or athletic events when they are just a little bit nervous -- dogs do too. But in dogs as in people, the right amount of stress depends on disposition. A new study by researchers at Duke University finds that a little extra stress and stimulation makes hyper dogs crack under pressure but gives mellow dogs an edge.
AKC Canine Health Foundation, National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
ras10@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 21-Jul-2015
UT Arlington research could yield more resilient ceramic material for future spacecraft
A University of Texas at Arlington engineer is modifying molecular structures and blending ceramics to create new material that would be less brittle but retain the strength of the original ceramic and could be used on spacecraft, in power plants and for other applications.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
hbooth@uta.edu
817-272-7075
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 21-Jul-2015
Optica
Drawing a line between quantum and classical world
In a new paper, published in the July 20 edition of Optica, University of Rochester researchers show that a classical beam of light that would be expected to obey Bell's Inequality can fail this test in the lab, if the beam is properly prepared to have a particular feature: entanglement.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Leonor Sierra
lsierra@ur.rochester.edu
585-276-6264
University of Rochester

Showing releases 26-50 out of 818.

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