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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 26-50 out of 903.

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Public Release: 25-Apr-2016
Nature Microbiology
Algae disrupt coral reefs' recycling
A new study led by researchers at San Diego State University and published today in the journal Nature Microbiology explores how a process known as 'microbialization' destroys links in coral reefs' delicate food chain.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michael Price
San Diego State University

Public Release: 25-Apr-2016
Nature Communications
Missing links brewed in primordial puddles?
The crucibles that bore out building blocks of life may have been, in many cases, not fiery cataclysms, but modest puddles. Researchers working with that hypothesis have achieved a significant advancement toward understanding the evolutionary mystery of how components of RNA and DNA formed from chemicals present on early Earth before life existed. In surprisingly simple reactions they have produced good candidates for their precursors that even spontaneously joined up to look like RNA.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 25-Apr-2016
Ties to Alaska's wild plants
A new series of ethnobotany films produced by the University of Alaska Museum of the North explores traditional Alaskan indigenous uses of wild plants for food, medicine and construction materials.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Theresa Bakker
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Public Release: 25-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Music improves baby brain responses to music and speech
New research from the University of Washington shows that play sessions with music improved babies' brain processing of both music and new speech sounds.
National Science Foundation UW LIFE Center, Ready Mind Project at I-LABS, Washington State Life Sciences Discovery Fund

Contact: Molly McElroy
University of Washington

Public Release: 22-Apr-2016
Science Advances
Scientists discover new reef system at mouth of Amazon River
A new reef system has been found at the mouth of the Amazon River, the largest river by discharge of water in the world. As large rivers empty into the world's oceans in areas known as plumes, they typically create gaps in the reef distribution along the tropical shelves--something that makes finding a reef in the Amazon plume an unexpected discovery.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, FAPESP, Brasoil, MCTI, Brazilian Navy

Contact: Stephanie Schupska
University of Georgia

Public Release: 22-Apr-2016
Interface Focus
Researcher studies how animals puncture things
If shooting arrows from a crossbow into cubes of ballistics gelatin doesn't sound like biological science to you, you've got a lot to learn from University of Illinois animal biology professor Philip Anderson, who did just that to answer a fundamental question about how animals use their fangs, claws and tentacles to puncture other animals.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 22-Apr-2016
Science Advances
Old-growth forests may provide buffer against rising temperatures
The soaring canopy and dense understory of an old-growth forest could provide a buffer for plants and animals in a warming world, according to a study from Oregon State University published today in Science Advances.
National Science Foundation, US Forest Service

Contact: Nick Houtman
Oregon State University

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Journal of Physical Oceanography
Plastic below the ocean surface
Current measurement methods skim the surface of the ocean while computer modeling shows ocean turbulence may force plastics far below the surface despite their buoyancy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andrea Boyle Tippett
University of Delaware

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Physical Review D
Numerical simulations shed new light on early universe
Innovative multidisciplinary research in nuclear and particle physics and cosmology has led to the development of a new, more accurate computer code to study the early universe. The code simulates conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution to model the role of neutrinos, nuclei and other particles in shaping the early universe.
National Science Foundation at University of California San Diego, Laboratory Directed Research and Development program through the Center for Space and Earth Sciences

Contact: Nancy Ambrosiano
DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Paleontologists find North America's oldest monkey fossil along Panama Canal
Iowa State's Aaron Wood found a tiny, black-colored fossil tooth in 2012 when he was a postdoctoral research associate for the Florida Museum of Natural History. It turns out that find was North America's oldest monkey fossil. The journal Nature just published a paper describing the discovery.
National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Florida Museum of Natural History

Contact: Aaron Wood
Iowa State University

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Volcanoes tied to shifts in Earth's climate over millions of years
A new study in the April 22 edition of Science reveals that volcanic activity associated with the plate-tectonic movement of continents may be responsible for climatic shifts from hot to cold over tens and hundreds of millions of years throughout much of Earth's history.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anton Caputo
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Cell Host & Microbe
Plant signals travel different routes to turn on defense
Faced with a pathogen, important signaling chemicals within plant cells travel different routes to inform the plant to turn on its defense mechanisms, according to a recent University of Kentucky study.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Katie Pratt
University of Kentucky

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
JCI Insight
Critical immunotherapy target marks dysfunctional regulatory T cells in brain cancer
In this issue of JCI Insight, David Hafler and colleagues at Yale University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology report that PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells from the tumors of glioblastoma multiforme patients correlates with regulatory T cell dysfunction.
National Institutes of Health, Koch Institute, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Nancy Taylor Foundation for Chronic Diseases Inc., National Science Foundation

Contact: Corinne Williams
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Leg-wing cooperation in baby birds, dinosaurs is key transition in origin of flight
New research based on high-resolution x-ray movies reveals that despite having extremely underdeveloped muscles and wings, young birds acquire a mature flight stroke early in their development, initially relying heavily on their legs and wings to work in tandem to power the strenuous movement. The new study, published today in the journal PLOS ONE, is important for understanding the development of flight in modern birds and reconstructing its origins in extinct dinosaurs.
National Science Foundation, W.M. Keck Foundation

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
The gates of serotonin: Cracking the workings of a notorious receptor
EPFL scientists have elucidated for the first time how a notoriously elusive serotonin receptor functions with atom-level detail. The receptor transmits electrical signals in neurons and is involved in various disorders, meaning that the discovery opens the way for new treatments.
National Center of Science (Poland), Swiss National Science Foundation, European Community, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Temporal cues help keep human looking human
Researchers used genetically modified bacteria as a model to help explain how a developing animal keeps all of its parts and organs in the same general proportions as every other member of its species. By combining two chemical signals with a few variables, timing cues emerge that can not only create patterns, they can also make sure these patterns have roughly the same proportions from one bacterial colony to the next.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, US Department of Homeland Security

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Mechanics of a heartbeat are controlled by molecular strut in heart muscle cells
Using high-resolution microscopy, researchers found that molecular struts called microtubules interact with the heart's contractile machinery to provide mechanical resistance for the beating of the heart, which could provide a better understanding of how microtubules affect the mechanics of the beating heart, and what happens when this goes awry.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Current Biology
Asleep somewhere new, one brain hemisphere keeps watch
Have trouble sleeping on your first night in a new place? A new study explains what's going on in the brain during that 'first-night effect.'
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Farming amoebae carry around detoxifying food
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can farm symbiotic bacteria for food by carrying them from generation to generation. New research shows that these bacteria can also protect the amoeba from environmental toxins.
National Science Foundation, The John Templeton Foundation

Contact: Diana Lutz
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
Scientists sharpen view of gene transfer between pathogenic bacteria
Bacteria possess the ability to take up DNA from their environment, a skill that enables them to acquire new genes for antibiotic resistance or to escape the immune response. Scientists have now mapped the core set of genes that are consistently controlled during DNA uptake in strep bacteria, and they hope the finding will allow them to cut off the microbes' ability to survive what doctors and nature can throw at them.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bill Burton
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Model makes designing new antennas orders of magnitude faster
Researchers have developed a model that allows antenna designers to identify efficient configurations for antenna designs in minutes, rather than days. The model is designed to expedite development of next generation 'multi-input, multi-ouput' (MIMO) antennas, which allow devices to get more use out of the available bandwidth.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
First North American monkey fossils are found in Panama Canal excavation
Seven fossil teeth exposed by the Panama Canal expansion project are first evidence of a monkey on the North American continent before the Isthmus of Panama connected it to South America 3.5 million years ago. A team including Carlos Jaramillo, staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, published this discovery online in the journal, Nature today.
US National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth King
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
ACM Computer-Human Interaction conference
In gaming, player behavior reflects roles -- even when no roles are given
New research finds that player behavior in narrative role-playing games (RPGs) reflects specific character roles -- even if the game tells players nothing about the character's role. The finding is relevant to both game designers and gaming researchers who study player behavior in RPGs.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
American Journal of Pathology
Inflammatory protein involved in autoimmune diseases has healing potential
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have found that TNF-alpha, a proinflammatory molecule and protein produced by the body's cells during infection, also promotes the immune system regulatory responses by first inducing immune surveillance cells--a finding that could lead to more targeted drug therapies for treating several autoimmune diseases.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
IUPUI ecohydrologist studies fog, dew and other novel water sources for dryland vegetation
Ecohydrologist Lixin Wang of the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis is investigating how non-rainfall water sources -- especially fog and dew -- impact drylands with important implications for their agriculture.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cindy Fox Aisen
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science

Showing releases 26-50 out of 903.

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