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Back to EurekAlert! A Service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 251-275 out of 904.

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Public Release: 6-May-2016
Science Advances
Study offers clues to better rainfall predictions
Seawater salinity depends largely on how much moisture is evaporated as winds sweep over the ocean. But pinpointing where the moisture rains back down is a complicated question scientists have long contended with. Scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have found a potential path to better seasonal rainfall predictions. Their study shows a clear link between higher sea surface salinity levels in the North Atlantic and increased rainfall on land in the African Sahel.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: WHOI Media Relations
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 6-May-2016
Science Advances
Scientists track Greenland's ice melt with seismic waves
Researchers from MIT, Princeton University, and elsewhere have developed a new technique to monitor the seasonal changes in Greenland's ice sheet, using seismic vibrations generated by crashing ocean waves. The results, which will be published in the journal Science Advances, may help scientists pinpoint regions of the ice sheet that are most vulnerable to melting. The technique may also set better constraints on how the world's ice sheets contribute to global sea-level changes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 6-May-2016
Science Advances
Smartphones uncover how the world sleeps
A pioneering study of worldwide sleep patterns combines math modeling, mobile apps and big data to parse the roles society and biology each play in setting sleep schedules.
Army Research Laboratory, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicole Casal Moore
University of Michigan

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Science Bulletin
The cause of high Tc superconductivity at the interface between FeSe and SrTiO3
In 2012 a superconductor with potentially very high critical temperature was discovered at the interface between an atomically thin iron selenide (FeSe) film grown on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrate. Now a research team made up of Beijing and Berkeley scientists have carried out the first approximation-free theoretical study to identify the cause of high critical temperature in such system.
National Science Foundation of China, US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division

Contact: Dung-Hai Lee
Science China Press

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Free-standing 2-legged robot conquers terrain
An unsupported bipedal robot at the University of Michigan can now walk down steep slopes, through a thin layer of snow, and over uneven and unstable ground.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Katherine McAlpine
University of Michigan

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IU-led study reveals new insights into light color sensing and transfer of genetic traits
An international team led by Indiana University researchers has uncovered the regulation of a system that allows a globally abundant bacterium to efficiently capture sunlight and perform photosynthesis. The study, conducted in collaboration with researchers in the United States and France, is reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Biological Conservation
Why vultures matter -- and what we lose if they're gone
The primary threat to vultures is the presence of toxins in the carrion they consume. Losses of vultures can allow other scavengers to flourish. And proliferation of such scavengers could bring bacteria and viruses from carcasses into human cities.
National Science Foundation, University of Utah/Office of Sustainability

Contact: Paul Gabrielsen
University of Utah

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Physical Review X
Getting a better measure of spin with diamond
Diamonds are one of the most coveted gemstones. But while some may want the perfect diamond for its sparkle, physicists covet the right diamonds to perfect their experiments. The gem is a key component in a novel system that enables precision measurements that could lead to the discovery of new physics in the sub-atomic realm -- the domain of the particles and forces that build the nucleus of the atom.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Contact: Kandice Carter
DOE/Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
T cells use 'handshakes' to sort friends from foes
Chemists provide the first direct evidence that a T cell gives precise mechanical tugs to other cells, and demonstrate that these tugs are central to a T cell's process of deciding whether to mount an immune response.
National Institutes of Health, Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award, National Science Foundation, National Multiple Sclerosis Society

Contact: Carol Clark
Emory Health Sciences

Public Release: 5-May-2016
IU data scientists launch free tools to analyze online trends, memes
The power to explore social media trends, memes and viral bursts -- from the pop cultural to the political -- with the same algorithmic sophistication as top experts in the field is now available to journalists, researchers and members of the public from a free, user-friendly online software suite released today by scientists at Indiana University. The Web-based tools, called the Observatory on Social Media, or 'OSoMe' (pronounced 'awesome').
National Science Foundation, J.S. McDonnell Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation281

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Split-second imaging reveals molecular changes involved in vision
A team of UWM physicists image a never-before-seen molecular reaction as a light-sensitive protein responds to light. The work, using an X-ray laser, is unmasking how proteins carry out the chemistry necessary for life.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Marius Schmidt
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Come to think of it or not: Study shows how memories can be intentionally forgotten
Context plays a big role in our memories, both good and bad. Bruce Springsteen's 'Born to Run' on the car radio, for example, may remind you of your first love -- or your first speeding ticket. But a Dartmouth- and Princeton-led brain scanning study shows that people can intentionally forget past experiences by changing how they think about the context of those memories.
John Templeton Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Nature Communications
Pond scum and the gene pool: A critical gene in green algae responsible for multicellularity
Brad Olson, assistant professor in the Division of Biology; Erik Hanschen, doctoral student at the University of Arizona; Hisayoshi Nozaki, University of Tokyo; and an international team of researchers found a single gene is responsible for the evolution of multicellular organisms and may be a possible origin of cancer.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Kansas State University's Johnson Cancer Research Center

Contact: Brad Olson
Kansas State University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Deep male voices not so much sexy as intimidating
Male voices are not deeply pitched in order to attract female mates, but instead serve to intimidate the competition, according to a team of researchers studying a wide variety of primates including humans.
NIH/National Institutes of Mental Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 5-May-2016
ACS Photonics
Molybdenum disulfide holds promise for light absorption
Using a layer of molybdenum disulfide less than 1 nanometer thick, Rice University researchers in Isabell Thomann's lab have designed a system that can absorb more than 35 percent of incident light in the 400- to 700-nanometer wavelength range.
National Science Foundation, Welch Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
First gene linked to temperature sex switch
The sex of many reptile species is set by temperature. New research reported in the journal GENETICS identifies the first gene associated with temperature-dependent sex determination in any reptile. Variation at this gene in snapping turtles contributes to geographic differences in the way sex ratio is influenced by temperature. Understanding the genetics of sex determination could help predict how reptiles will evolve in response to climate change.
NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Science Foundation

Contact: Cristy Gelling
Genetics Society of America

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Significant portion of postdoc researchers eye non-academic careers, study shows
A new study from a Georgia Tech-Cornell University team shows that the research faculty path isn't the only reason students pursue a postdoc.
National Science Foundation, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Measuring a black hole 660 million times as massive as our sun
It's about 660 million times as massive as our sun, and a cloud of gas circles it at about 1.1 million mph. This supermassive black hole sits at the center of a galaxy dubbed NGC 1332, which is 73 million light years from Earth. And an international team of scientists that includes Rutgers associate professor Andrew J. Baker has measured its mass with unprecedented accuracy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Todd B. Bates
Rutgers University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Scientists watch bacterial sensor respond to light in real time
Researchers have made a giant leap forward in taking snapshots of ultrafast reactions in a bacterial light sensor. Using the world's most powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, they were able to see atomic motions as fast as 100 quadrillionths of a second -- 1,000 times faster than ever before.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Helmholtz Association, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Academy of Finland, European Union

Contact: Andrew Gordon
DOE/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Sea star juveniles abundant, but recovery is anything but guaranteed
An unprecedented number of juvenile sea stars have been observed off the Oregon coast over the past several months -- just two years after one of the most severe marine ecosystem epidemics in recorded history nearly wiped the population out.
David and Lucile Packard Foundation, National Science Foundation, Kingfisher Foundation, Wayne and Gladys Valley Foundation

Contact: Bruce Menge
Oregon State University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
'Slow' NZ seabed quake sheds light on tsunami-earthquake mechanism
Seismologists recorded a slow slip event in a shallow area of plate boundary at the Hikurangi margin off the northeast shore of New Zealand, showing for the first time that such slippage can occur near troughs. This implies that subduction plates may be accumulating much more stress and strain than previously believed -- before they bounce back to set off tsunami earthquakes.
National Science Foundation, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Ministry of Education, Research, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, University of Tokyo Earthquake Research Institute

Contact: Anna Ikarashi
Kyoto University

Public Release: 5-May-2016
World's shallowest slow-motion earthquakes detected offshore of New Zealand
Research published in the May 6 edition of Science indicates that slow-motion earthquakes or 'slow-slip events' can rupture the shallow portion of a fault that also moves in large, tsunami-generating earthquakes. The finding has important implications for assessing tsunami hazards. The discovery was made by conducting the first-ever detailed investigation of centimeter-level seafloor movement at an offshore subduction zone.
National Science Foundation, Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science

Contact: Monica Kortsha
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 5-May-2016
Extreme rainfall doesn't always mean extreme erosion, Penn study finds
Research by University of Pennsylvania researchers shows that, though extreme precipitation events can greatly increase the amount of water traveling through a river, large storms only move about 50 percent more sediment than a typical rainfall. The overall contribution of these intense rainfalls to erosion, therefore, is smaller than might be expected.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 4-May-2016
Scientific Reports
Engineers create a better way to boil water -- with industrial, electronics applications
Engineers at Oregon State University have found a new way to induce and control boiling bubble formation, that may allow everything from industrial-sized boilers to advanced electronics to work better and last longer.
Oregon State University/Venture Development Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Chih-hung Chang
Oregon State University

Public Release: 4-May-2016
Science Advances
Study finds ice isn't being lost from Greenland's interior
Scientists studying data from the top of the Greenland ice sheet have discovered that during winter in the center of the world's largest island, temperature inversions and other low-level atmospheric phenomena effectively isolate the ice surface from the atmosphere -- recycling water vapor and halting the loss or gain of ice.
National Science Foundation, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Program, Danish Council for Independent Research

Contact: Bill Burton
University of Illinois at Chicago

Showing releases 251-275 out of 904.

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