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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 251-275 out of 744.

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Public Release: 27-May-2014
Vines choke a forest's ability to capture carbon, Smithsonian scientists report
As tropical forests take over abandoned agricultural land, scientists expect these new forests to mop up industrial quantities of atmospheric carbon. New research by Smithsonian scientists shows increasingly abundant vines could hamper carbon uptake and may even cause tropical forests to lose carbon.
National Science Foundation, Garden Club of Allegheny County, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Contact: Sean Mattson
633-4700 x28290
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 27-May-2014
Rice researcher rebooting 'deep brain stimulation'
Deep brain stimulators, devices that zap Parkinson's disease tremors by sending electrical current deep into nerve centers near the brain stem, may sound cutting-edge, but Rice University's Caleb Kemere wants to give them a high-tech overhaul.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 27-May-2014
Google Glass adaptation opens the universe to deaf students
A group of deaf university students and their professor developed a system to display video narrating planetarium shows onto glasses worn by deaf students.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joe Hadfield
Brigham Young University

Public Release: 27-May-2014
New University of Colorado study illuminates how cancer-killing gene may actually work
Scientists armed with a supercomputer and a vast trove of newly collected data on the body's most potent "tumor suppressor" gene have created the best map yet of how the gene works, an accomplishment that could lead to new techniques for fighting cancers, which are adept at disabling the gene in order to thrive.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Garth Sundem
University of Colorado Denver

Public Release: 27-May-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Prehistoric birds lacked in diversity
Birds come in astounding variety -- from hummingbirds to emus -- and behave in myriad ways: they soar the skies, swim the waters, and forage the forests. But this wasn't always the case, according to research by scientists at the University of Chicago and the Field Museum.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Koppes
University of Chicago

Public Release: 26-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Relaxation helps pack DNA into a virus
DNA packs more easily into the tight confines of a virus when given a chance to relax.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Science

Contact: Doug Smith
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 25-May-2014
Nature Geoscience
Buried fossil soils found to be awash in carbon
Soils that formed on the Earth's surface thousands of years ago and that are now deeply buried features of vanished landscapes have been found to be rich in carbon, adding a new dimension to our planet's carbon cycle.
National Science Foundation, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation

Contact: Erika Marin-Spiotta
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 25-May-2014
Nature Nanotechnology
DNA nanotechnology places enzyme catalysis within an arm's length
Using molecules of DNA like an architectural scaffold, Arizona State University scientists, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Michigan, have developed a 3-D artificial enzyme cascade that mimics an important biochemical pathway that could prove important for future biomedical and energy applications.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joe Caspermeyer
Arizona State University

Public Release: 25-May-2014
Nature Methods
A new molecule for high-resolution cell imaging
Cells have their own tiny skeletons that are responsible for many important cellular functions. EPFL scientists have developed novel fluorescent probes for imaging these important structures easily and with unprecedented resolution.
National Centre of Competence in Research Chemical Biology, European Science Prize, EUFP7, European Research Council, SNSF

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 23-May-2014
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
Untangling whole genomes of individual species from a microbial mix
A new approach to studying microbes in the wild will allow scientists to sequence the genomes of individual species from complex mixtures. It marks a big advance for understanding the enormous diversity of microbial communities -- including the human microbiome. The work is described in an article published May 22 in Early Online form in the journal G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics, published by the Genetics Society of America.
NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute, National Science Foundation, US Department Of Energy

Contact: Raeka Aiyar
Genetics Society of America

Public Release: 23-May-2014
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Tiny muscles help bats fine-tune flight, stiffen wing skin
Bats appear to use a network of hair-thin muscles in their wing skin to control the stiffness and shape of their wings as they fly, according to a new study. The finding provides new insight about the aerodynamic fine-tuning of membrane wings, both natural and man-made.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 23-May-2014
Science China: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy
A new concept to improve power production performance of wind turbines in a wind farm
A modern wind farm usually consists of multiple wind turbines arranged in an organized pattern or array. Wake interferences among wind turbines have been found to affect the performance of the wind turbines significantly. In 2014(5) issue of Science China: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, the effects of relative rotation direction of wind turbines on the wake interferences among tandem turbines were studied for improved power production performance of wind turbines in a wind farm.
Iowa Alliance for Wind Innovation and Novel Development, National Science Foundation

Contact: Hu Hui
Science China Press

Public Release: 22-May-2014
Supernova caught in the act by palomar transient factory
The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory operated by Caltech scans the sky constantly in search of dramatic astrophysical events. In 2013, it caught a star, probably a Wolf-Rayet star, in the act of exploding.
NASA, NAtional Science Foundation, Caltech

Contact: Crystal Dilworth
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-May-2014
Developmental Cell
Male and female sex cell determination requires lifelong maintenance and protection
The way in which the sex of an organism is determined may require lifelong maintenance, finds new research from the University of Minnesota. According to the study published today in the journal Developmental Cell, sex-specific transcription factors perform lifelong work to maintain sexual determination and protect against reprogramming of cells from one sex to the other.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Minnesota Medical Foundation, French Agence Nationale de la Recherche

Contact: Caroline Marin
University of Minnesota Academic Health Center

Public Release: 22-May-2014
PLOS Biology
Delegating the dirty work is a key to evolution
We have hundreds of types of cells in our bodies -- everything from red blood cells to hair follicles to neurons. But why can't most of them create offspring for us?
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Public Release: 22-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
JILA study finds crowding has big effects on biomolecules
Crowding has notoriously negative effects at large size scales, blamed for everything from human disease and depression to community resource shortages. But relatively little is known about the influence of crowding at the cellular level. A new JILA study shows that a crowded environment has dramatic effects on individual biomolecules.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Contact: Laura Ost
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 22-May-2014
Screening for autism: There's an app for that
Researchers have developed software to help interpret videotaped behaviors of infants during autism screening tests. The program's accuracy proved equal to autism experts and better than both non-expert medical clinicians and students in training.
National Science Foundation, CAPES, FAPESP, US Department of Defense, Office of Naval Research, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Army Research Office, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 21-May-2014
IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
Carnegie Mellon, Microsoft Research automate privacy compliance for big data systems
Web services companies, such as Facebook, Google and Microsoft, all make promises about how they will use personal information they gather. A team from Carnegie Mellon University and Microsoft Research has automated the method to ensure that large codebases are operating in compliance with those promises and has deployed a prototype automated system on the data analytics pipeline of Bing, Microsoft's search engine.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Byron Spice
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 21-May-2014
Journal of American Chemical Society
A faster track to the tools that track disease
Researchers at Princeton University have developed a direct method to single enantiomer PET tracers. These radioactive small molecules are used in PET scans to help doctors visualize the progression of disease.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tien Nguyen
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-May-2014
Rhythmic bursts of electrical activity from cells in ear teach brain how to hear
A precise rhythm of electrical impulses transmitted from cells in the inner ear coaches the brain how to hear, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The ear generates spontaneous electrical activity to trigger a response in the brain before hearing actually begins, said senior investigator Karl Kandler, Ph.D., professor of otolaryngology and neurobiology at Pitt School of Medicine.
NIH/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Pennsylvania Lions Hearing Research Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Contact: Anita Srikameswaran
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Biology Letters
Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesis makes species resilient
Deanna Soper, postdoctoral researcher in the University of Iowa Department of Biology and currently visiting assistant professor at Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., and her colleagues addressed whether a particular prediction of the Red Queen hypothesis was met -- that exposure to parasites increases multiple mating in New Zealand freshwater snails.
National Science Foundation, Royal Society, National Geographic Society

Contact: Gary Galluzzo
University of Iowa

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Shrub growth decreases as winter temperatures fluctuate up
Many have assumed that warmer winters as a result of climate change would increase the growth of trees and shrubs because the growing season would be longer. But shrubs achieve less yearly growth when cold winter temperatures are interrupted by temperatures warm enough to trigger growth.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Melanie Harsch
University of Washington

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
With climate changing, southern plants outperform northern
Can plants and animals evolve to keep pace with climate change? A new study shows that for at least one widely-studied plant, the European climate is changing fast enough that strains from Southern Europe already grow better in the north than established local varieties.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Journal of Biomechanics
Scientists study biomechanics behind amazing ant strength
A recent study into the biomechanics of the necks of ants -- a common insect that can amazingly lift objects many times heavier than its own body -- might unlock one of nature's little mysteries and, quite possibly, open the door to advancements in robotic engineering. Ohio State University engineers combined laboratory testing and computational modeling conducted at the Ohio Supercomputer Center to determine the relationship between mechanical function, structural design and material properties of ant necks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jamie Abel
Ohio Supercomputer Center

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Physics of Fluids
Professors' super waterproof surfaces cause water to bounce like a ball
Engineers like Julie Crockett and Dan Maynes have spent decades studying super-hydrophobic surfaces because of the plethora of real-life applications. And while some of this research has resulted in commercial products that keep shoes dry or prevent oil from building up on bolts, the duo of BYU professors are uncovering characteristics aimed at large-scale solutions for society.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Todd Hollingshead
Brigham Young University

Showing releases 251-275 out of 744.

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