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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 301-325 out of 749.

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Public Release: 16-May-2014
PLOS ONE
Watching HIV bud from cells
University of Utah researchers devised a way to watch newly forming AIDS virus particles emerging or 'budding' from infected human cells without interfering with the process. The method shows a protein named ALIX gets involved during the final stages of virus replication, not earlier, as was believed previously.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Geological Society of America Bulletin
On the shoulder of a giant: Precursor volcano to the island of O'ahu discovered
Researchers recently discovered that O'ahu, Hawai'i, actually consists of three major Hawaiian shield volcanoes, not two, as previously thought. Extending almost 100 km WNW from the western tip of the island of O'ahu is the submarine Ka'ena Ridge, a region that has now been recognized to represent a precursor volcano to the island of O'ahu, and on whose flanks the Wai'anae and Ko'olau Volcanoes later formed.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii ‑ SOEST

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Science
Tricking the uncertainty principle
Today, we can measure the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but the uncertainty principle places fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that results from of the quantum nature of the fields used to make measurements imposes what is called the 'standard quantum limit.' This background noise keeps us from knowing an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement.
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Bell
bpbell@caltech.edu
626-395-5832
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Psychology of Women Quarterly
Land and power: Women discover one can lead to the other
UC Santa Cruz assistant professor of psychology Shelly Grabe finds that when women in developing countries own land, they gain power within their relationships and are less likely to experience violence.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Guy Lasnier
lasnier@ucsc.edu
831-459-2955
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 15-May-2014
EGU 2014 General Assembly
Nature
Research finds human impact may cause Sierra Nevada to rise, increase seismicity of San Andreas Fault
Research finds human impact may cause Sierra Nevada mountains to rise and to increase seismicity of San Andreas Fault in California. University of Nevada, Reno researchers presented their findings at the European Geophysical Sciences Union conference in Vienna, Austria.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mike Wolterbeek
mwolterbeek@unr.edu
University of Nevada, Reno

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Science
Researchers show emissions from forests influence very first stage of cloud formation
Clouds are the largest source of uncertainty in present climate models. Much of the uncertainty surrounding clouds' effect on climate stems from the complexity of cloud formation. New research from scientists at the CLOUD experiment at CERN, including Carnegie Mellon's Neil Donahue, sheds light on new particle formation -- the very first step of cloud formation. The findings, published in Science, closely match observations in the atmosphere and can help make climate prediction models more accurate.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
jhduffy@andrew.cmu.edu
412-268-9982
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Psychological Science
Justifying wartime atrocities alters memories
Stories about wartime atrocities and torture methods, like waterboarding and beatings, often include justifications -- despite whether the rationale is legitimate. But do such justifications shape an entire people's memory? A study by Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School shows how those justifications actually creep into people's memories of war, excusing the actions of their side.
National Science Foundation

Contact: B. Rose Huber
brhuber@princeton.edu
609-258-0157
Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
The color of blood: Pigment helps stage symbiosis in squid
The relationship between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri is well chronicled, but writing in the current issue of the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, a group led by University of Wisconsin-Madison microbiologists Margaret McFall-Ngai, Edward Ruby and their colleagues adds a new wrinkle to the story.
Marie Curie Actions, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Margaret McFall-Ngai
mjmcfallngai@wisc.edu
608-262-2393
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Science
Dating and DNA show Paleoamerican-Native American connection
Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Japan, Beringia and even Europe have all been suggested origination points for the earliest humans to enter the Americas because of apparent differences in cranial form between today's Native-Americans and the earliest known Paleoamerican skeletons. Now an international team of researchers has identified a nearly complete Paleoamerican skeleton with Native-American DNA that dates close to the time that people first entered the New World.
National Geographic Society, AIAmerica, Waitt Institute, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Science
West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse is under way
Models using detailed topographic maps show that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet has begun. Fast-moving Thwaites Glacier, which acts as a linchpin on the rest of the ice sheet, will likely disappear in a matter of centuries.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Hannah Hickey
hickeyh@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Advanced Materials
Nanowire bridging transistors open way to next-generation electronics
Combining atoms of semiconductor materials into nanowires and structures on top of silicon surfaces shows promise for a new generation of fast, robust electronic and photonic devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
ahfell@ucdavis.edu
530-752-4533
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Scientific Reports
Strongly interacting electrons in wacky oxide synchronize to work like the brain
Current computing is based on binary logic -- zeroes and ones -- also called Boolean computing, but a new type of computing architecture stores information in the frequencies and phases of periodic signals and could work more like the human brain using a fraction of the energy necessary for today's computers, according to a team of engineers.
The Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Advance brings 'hyperbolic metamaterials' closer to reality
Researchers have taken a step toward practical applications for 'hyperbolic metamaterials,' ultra-thin crystalline films that could bring optical advances including powerful microscopes, quantum computers and high-performance solar cells.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Emil Venere
venere@purdue.edu
765-494-4709
Purdue University

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
@millennials wary of @twitter, #MSU study finds
A new study indicates young adults have a healthy mistrust of the information they read on Twitter.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Henion
henion@msu.edu
517-355-3294
Michigan State University

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Nature
California mountains rise as groundwater depleted in state's Central Valley
The weight of water pumped from California's agricultural heartland, the Central Valley, over the past 150 years is enough to allow Earth's crust to rebound upward, raising surrounding mountain ranges, the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges, some six inches. Winter rains and summer pumping cause annual up and down movements that could affect earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault, which parallels the ranges.
National Science Foundation, Miller Institute

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Journal of Experimental Biology
Scientists investigate the role of the 'silent killer' inside deep-diving animals
Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego and Sonoma State University have furthered science's understanding of carbon monoxide's natural characteristics and limitations by studying the gas in one of the world's best divers: the elephant seal.
Office of Naval Research, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mario Aguilera
scrippsnews@ucsd.edu
858-534-3624
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Nature Communications
Microchip-like technology allows single-cell analysis
Engineers have developed a system similar to random access memory chips that allows the fast, efficient control and separation of individual cells. Once scaled up, the technology promises to sort and store hundreds of thousands of cells in a matter of minutes, enabling biologists to study vast arrays of single cells.
National Research Foundation of Korea, National Science Foundation, Research Triangle Materials Research Science and Engineering Center

Contact: Ken Kingery
ken.kingery@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University

Public Release: 14-May-2014
Journal of Experimental Biology
Manmade artificial shark skin boosts swimming
People have thought for decades that the rough skin of sharks may give them a swimming boost and now scientists from Harvard University, USA, have made the first ever realistic simulated shark skin. They also measured that the fish's sharp scales boost swimming by up to 6.6 percent while reducing the energy cost.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathryn Knight
kathryn.knight@biologists.com
44-012-234-25525
The Company of Biologists

Public Release: 13-May-2014
Protein Data Bank: 100,000 structures
Four wwPDB data centers in the US, UK and Japan support online access to three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules that help researchers understand many facets of biomedicine, agriculture, and ecology, from protein synthesis to health. This public archive of experimentally determined protein and nucleic acid structures has reached a critical milestone of 100,000 structures, thanks to the efforts of structural biologists throughout the world.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Energy

Contact: Christine Zardecki
info@rcsb.org
848-445-0103
Rutgers University

Public Release: 13-May-2014
Physical Review Letters
Radiation from early universe found key to answer major questions in physics
Astrophysicists at UC San Diego have measured the minute gravitational distortions in polarized radiation from the early universe and discovered that these ancient microwaves can provide an important cosmological test of Einstein's theory of general relativity.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Kim McDonald
kmcdonald@ucsd.edu
858-534-7572
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 13-May-2014
Advanced Materials
UT Dallas team creates flexible electronics that change shape inside body
A team of researchers from UT Dallas has helped create flexible transistors that can grip large tissues, nerves and blood vessels without losing their electronic properties. These biologically adaptive, flexible transistors might one day help doctors learn more about what is happening inside the body, and stimulate the body for treatments.
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, National Science Foundation East Asia and Pacific Summer Institute

Contact: LaKisha Ladson
lakisha.ladson@UTDallas.edu
972-883-4183
University of Texas at Dallas

Public Release: 13-May-2014
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
Follow that fish!
Research is helping unravel the complex interplay between alcohol and social behavior. In what may be the first experiment to allow ethanol-exposed and untreated zebrafish to swim freely together, those exposed to certain alcohol concentrations nearly doubled their swimming speeds when in a group--suggesting that the presence of peers substantially impacts social behavior. Most remarkably, unexposed fish modulated their behavior in the presence of a shoalmate exposed to alcohol.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
kathleen.hamilton@nyu.edu
718-260-3792
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering

Public Release: 13-May-2014
Carnegie Mellon will test Internet architecture in vehicular network and for online video
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and three other institutions will test a next-generation Internet architecture they've developed in a vehicular network in Pittsburgh and in delivering online video on a national scale. These deployments of the eXpressive Internet Architecture are made possible by a two-year, $5 million award from the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Byron Spice
bspice@cs.cmu.edu
412-268-9068
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 13-May-2014
Nature Photonics
Ultrafast laser technique developed to observe electron action
UCF physicist Zheng Chang and his team have developed a new ultrafast light source for observing electron motion in molecules -- made up of nuclei and electrons -- at the point before the nuclei start to move. By being able to observe what actually happens, scientists can begin to understand how an electron interacts with other electrons, which may help improve the efficiency of solar cells.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Zenaida Kotala
zenaida.kotala@ucf.edu
407-823-6120
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 12-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists from USC and NYU design a molecule that blocks cancer growth in mice
New cancer-fighting drug prevents two critical proteins from interacting by mimicking the surface topography of one protein -- like wearing a mask -- which tricks the other protein into binding with it.
National Science Foundation, New York University Perlmutter Cancer Center

Contact: Robert Perkins
perkinsr@usc.edu
213-740-9226
University of Southern California

Showing releases 301-325 out of 749.

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From the "Birth of the Internet" to "Jellyfish Gone Wild", these in-depth, Web-based reports explore the frontiers of science and engineering.