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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 326-350 out of 904.

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Public Release: 24-Feb-2016
Nature Climate Change
Study predicts salt marshes will persist despite rising seas
Analysis shows traditional assessment methods overestimate salt-marsh vulnerability because they don't fully account for processes that allow for vertical and landward migration as water levels increase.
US Geological Survey Climate and Land Use Change Research and Development Program, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Malmquist
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 24-Feb-2016
Predicting human evolution: Teeth tell the story
New research shows that the evolution of human teeth is much simpler than previously thought, and that we can predict the sizes of teeth missing from human and hominin fossils. The findings will be useful in interpreting new hominin fossil finds, and looking at the drivers of human evolution. As well as shedding new light on our evolutionary past, the findings will provide clues about how we may evolve into the future.
Australian Research Council, Academy of Finland, National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, Wenner-Gren Foundation

Contact: Claire Bowers
Monash University

Public Release: 24-Feb-2016
Nature Climate Change
Climate change takes from the poor, gives to the rich, study finds
Fish and other important resources are moving toward the Earth's poles as the climate warms, and wealth is moving with them, according to a new paper by scientists at Rutgers, Princeton, Yale, and Arizona State universities.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Branson
Rutgers University

Public Release: 24-Feb-2016
2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting
New climate model better predicts changes to ocean-carbon sink
The relationship between our future carbon dioxide emissions and future climate change depends strongly on the capacity of the ocean-carbon sink. That is a question climate scientists have so far been unable to answer. In a new paper, a research team headed by Galen McKinley, professor in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, describes the best modeling approach to date for arriving at an answer to this and other crucial climate questions.
NASA, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Galen McKinley
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 24-Feb-2016
One rule to grow them all
A new study by an international team including researchers from Arizona State University, combined tools from embryology, comparative anatomy and computational biology to reveal that a single embryonic rule has regulated hominin tooth size. The researchers found strong evidence that the inhibitory cascade pattern for adult molars was a direct outcome of how big their milk or 'baby' molars are.
Australian Research Council Future Fellowship, Academy of Finland, National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, Wenner-Gren Foundation, GPSA-ASU, ASU Sigma XI, John Templeton Foundation

Contact: Julie Russ
Arizona State University

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Nature Communications
The key to mass-producing nanomaterials
A new 3-D-printed device can mass-produce nanoparticles, commonly used materials that can be difficult and expensive to manufacture.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Perkins
University of Southern California

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
ACS Nano
Counting molecules with an ordinary cell phone
The new visual readout method to count individual nucleic acid molecules within a sample can be performed by any cell-phone camera.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Scientific Reports
New research introduces 'pause button' for boiling
Using a focused laser beam to essentially hit the pause button on boiling, Professor Shalabh Maroo's research group and collaborators at NIST and RPI have created a single vapor bubble in a pool of liquid that can remain stable on a heated surface for hours, instead of milliseconds. This method gives researchers time to study vapor bubbles and determine ways to optimize the boiling process.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matthew Wheeler
Syracuse University

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Astrophysical Journal Letters
LIGO's twin black holes might have been born inside a single star
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes 29 and 36 times the mass of the Sun. Such an event is expected to be dark, but the Fermi Space Telescope detected a gamma-ray burst just a fraction of a second after LIGO's signal. New research suggests that the two black holes might have resided inside a single, massive star whose death generated the gamma-ray burst.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Christine Pulliam
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Tracking worm sex drive, neuron by neuron
Research conducted at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has found that where and when a male worm will pursue a mate is determined by four male-specific sensory neurons that communicate with synaptic feedback loops to form a decision-making network. The team reports their findings in a paper published on Feb. 22, 2016, in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michael Cohen
Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
Dodos might have been quite intelligent, new research finds
New research suggests that the dodo, an extinct bird whose name has entered popular culture as a symbol of stupidity, was actually fairly smart. The work finds that the overall size of the dodo's brain in relation to its body was on par with its closest living relatives: pigeons -- birds whose ability to be trained implies a moderate level of intelligence. The researchers also discovered that the dodo likely had an enhanced sense of smell.
American Museum of Natural History, Macaulay Family Endowment, National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Improvement, Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship, Carlsbergfondet

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
13th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation
UW engineers achieve Wi-Fi at 10,000 times lower power
University of Washington computer scientists and electrical engineers have generated Wi-Fi transmissions using 10,000 times less power than conventional methods. With 'Passive Wi-Fi,' signals can be transmitted at rates up to 11 megabits per second -- rates that are lower than maximum Wi-Fi speeds but are 11 times faster than Bluetooth -- and decoded on any of the billions of devices with Wi-Fi connectivity.
National Science Foundation, University of Washington, Qualcomm

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Environmental Pollution
Urban soils release surprising amounts of carbon dioxide
In the concrete jungle at the core of a city, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are dominated by the fossil fuels burned by the dense concentrations of cars and buildings. Boston University researchers now have shown, however, that in metropolitan areas surrounding the city core, plant roots and decomposing organic material in soil give off enough CO2 , in a process termed 'soil respiration', to make an unexpectedly great contribution to total emissions.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Contact: Kira Jastive
Boston University

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting
World's large river deltas continue to degrade from human activity
From the Yellow River in China to the Mississippi River in Louisiana, researchers are racing to better understand and mitigate the degradation of some of the world's most important river deltas, according to a University of Colorado Boulder faculty member.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Syvitski
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
What bats reveal about how humans focus attention
Researchers discover how a bat's brain determines what sounds are worth paying attention to. (And how human brains probably do too.)
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jill Rosen
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 23-Feb-2016
Two Carnegie Mellon statistics professors earn NSF CAREER awards
The National Science Foundation has awarded Carnegie Mellon University's Jing Lei and Ryan Tibshirani Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) awards. Lei and Tibshirani, both assistant professors in the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences' Department of Statistics, each received five-year, $400,000 grants for their projects 'Modernizing Classical Nonparametric and Multivariate Theory for Large-scale, High-dimensional Data Analysis' and 'Locally Adaptive Nonparametric Estimation for the Modern Age -- New Insights, Extensions, and Inference Tools,' respectively.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Shilo Rea
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
New Phytologist
Mystery of Dracula orchids' mimicry is unraveled with a 3-D printer
Scientists have unlocked the mystery of mimicry used by Dracula orchids to attract flies and ensure their survival. A team led by University of Oregon researchers did it using a 3-D printer.
National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proven one-step process converts CO2 and water directly into liquid hydrocarbon fuels
A team of University of Texas at Arlington chemists and engineers have proven that concentrated light, heat and high pressures can drive the one-step conversion of carbon dioxide and water directly into useable liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
National Science Foundation, Robert A. Welch Foundation

Contact: Louisa Kellie
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
PLOS Computational Biology
New theorem helps reveal tuberculosis' secret
Rice University researchers seek to streamline the analysis of complex biochemical networks and to reveal inconsistencies in biological data. Their theorem helps to uncover hidden drivers of non-monotonic responses to monotonic stimuli in tuberculosis bacteria.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
UM professor earns distinguished National Science Foundation CAREER grant
Orion Berryman, an assistant professor in the University of Montana Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, recently received a CAREER grant from the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Orion Berryman
The University of Montana

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
Nature Climate Change
Study of tundra soil demonstrates vulnerability of ecosystem to climate warming
Findings from one of the first comprehensive field studies by a collaborative team of researchers demonstrate the active layer microbiome of tundra soil was significantly altered after only 1.5 years of experimental warming -- a rapid response demonstrating high sensitivity of this ecosystem to warming. Collectively, the results of this study suggest the vulnerability of permafrost ecosystem carbon to climate warming and the significance of microbial feedbacks in mediating this vulnerability.
US Department of Energy, DOE/Office of Science, National Science Foundation, University of Oklahoma Vice President for Research and Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
Nature Communications
Penn study reveals how fish control microbes through their gills
In a new study published in the journal Nature Communications, Oriol Sunyer of the University of Pennsylvanian and colleagues found that fish induce production of a particular antibody in their gills in response to pathogen exposure, work that could lead to improved fish vaccines for aquaculture.
US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, European Commission

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
Global Change Biology
Nearly all US forests threatened by drought, climate change
Forests nationwide are feeling the heat from increasing drought and climate change, according to a study by scientists from 14 research institutions. While the effects have been most pronounced in the West, the team found virtually all US forests are now experiencing some degree of change and are vulnerable to future declines.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
Network and Distributed System Security Symposium
Carnegie Mellon, Stanford researchers devise method to safely share password data
An unfortunate reality for cybersecurity researchers is that real-world data for their research too often comes via a security breach. Now computer scientists at Carnegie Mellon and Stanford universities have devised a way to let organizations share statistics about their users' passwords without putting those same customers at risk of being hacked.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing, Open Technology Fund

Contact: Byron Spice
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 22-Feb-2016
White House honors NYU's Gureckis with Presidential Early Career Award
New York University's Todd Gureckis, an associate professor in the Department of Psychology, has been awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers,
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Showing releases 326-350 out of 904.

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