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Back to EurekAlert! A Service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  News From the National Science Foundation
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Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 376-400 out of 858.

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Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Drought's lasting impact on forests
In a global study of drought impacts, forest trees took an average of two to four years to resume normal growth rates, a revelation indicating that Earth's forests are capable of storing less carbon than climate models have assumed.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Joe Rojas-Burke
University of Utah

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Researchers design first artificial ribosome
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins and enzymes within the cell. The engineered ribosome may enable the production of new drugs and next-generation biomaterials and lead to a better understanding of how ribosomes function.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation, David and Lucille Packard Foundation

Contact: Sam Hostettler
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Meet the high-performance single-molecule diode
Researchers from Berkeley Lab and Columbia University have created the world's highest-performance single-molecule diode. Development of a functional single-molecule diode is a major pursuit of the electronics industry.
US Department of Energy Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lynn Yarris
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature Photonics
Intracellular microlasers could allow precise labeling of a trillion individual cells
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators have induced structures incorporated within individual cells to produce laser light. The wavelengths of light emitted by these intracellular microlasers differ based on factors such as the size, shape and composition of each microlaser, allowing precise labeling of individual cells.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship

Contact: Cassandra Aviles
Massachusetts General Hospital

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
'Failed stars' host powerful auroral displays
By observing a brown dwarf 20 light-years away using both radio and optical telescopes, a team led by Gregg Hallinan, assistant professor of astronomy at Caltech, has found that such so-called failed stars host powerful auroras near their magnetic poles -- additional evidence that brown dwarfs are more like giant planets than small stars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Physical Review Letters
Dense star clusters shown to be binary black hole factories
The merger of two black holes is one of the most sought-after observations of modern astronomy. The first observatories capable of directly detecting gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime predicted by Albert Einstein -- will begin observing the universe later this year. When these waves rolling in from space are detected on Earth for the first time, Northwestern University astrophysicists predict astronomers will 'hear,' through these waves, five times more colliding black holes than previously expected.
National Science Foundation and NASA

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Acta Materialia
Boxfish shell inspires new materials for body armor and flexible electronics
The boxfish's unique armor draws its strength from hexagon-shaped scales and the connections between them, engineers at the University of California, San Diego, have found. They describe their findings and the carapace of the boxfish (Lactoria cornuta) in the July 27 issue of the journal Acta Materialia. Engineers also describe how the structure of the boxfish could serve as inspiration for body armor, robots and even flexible electronics.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Liezel Labios
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Astronomers discover powerful aurora beyond solar system
The first aurora discovered beyond our solar system is on a brown dwarf 18 light-years from Earth. Some 10,000 times more powerful than any seen before, it may be of a type possible to detect on extrasolar planets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
American Economic Review
Firms 'underinvest' in long-term cancer research
Pharmaceutical firms 'underinvest' in long-term research to develop new cancer-fighting drugs due to the greater time and cost required to conduct such research, according to a newly published study co-authored by MIT economists.
NIH/National Institute on Aging, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Link between mood, pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients
Depressive symptoms and mood in the moment may predict momentary pain among rheumatoid arthritis patients, according to Penn State researchers.
NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
Plant light sensors came from ancient algae
The light-sensing molecules that tell plants whether to germinate, when to flower and which direction to grow to seek more sunlight were inherited millions of years ago from ancient algae, finds a new study from Duke University. The findings are some of the strongest evidence yet against the prevailing idea that the ancestors of early plants got the red light sensors that helped them move from water to land by engulfing bacteria, the researchers say.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
First measurements taken of South Africa's Iron Age magnetic field history
A team of researchers has for the first time recovered a magnetic field record from ancient minerals for Iron Age southern Africa (between 1000 and 1500 AD). The data, combined with the current weakening of Earth's magnetic field, suggest that the region of Earth's core beneath southern Africa may play a special role in reversals of the planet's magnetic poles.
National Science Foundation, South African National Research Foundation, Simons Foundation, IBM-Einstein Fellowship Fund

Contact: Peter Iglinski
University of Rochester

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Travel funding: GSA, SACNAS, STEPPE, for students for major geoscience conferences
The Geological Society of America in partnership with the American Geosciences Institute, Incorporated Research Institute for Seismology, the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science, the Society for Sedimentary Geology, and STEPPE have received funding to support 25 undergraduate and graduate students to attend the SACNAS and GSA national conferences in November 2015.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tahlia Bear
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Nano Letters
Reshaping the solar spectrum to turn light to electricity
Solar energy could be made cheaper if solar cells could be coaxed to generate more power. A huge gain in this direction has been made by a team of chemists at the University of California, Riverside that has found an ingenious way to make solar energy conversion more efficient. The researchers combined inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals with organic molecules to 'upconvert' photons in the visible and near-infrared regions of the solar spectrum.
National Science Foundation, US Army

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Cancer Discovery
Clinical validation for LOXO-101 against TRK fusion cancer
Published today in Cancer Discovery, first imaging studies conducted post-treatment, confirmed that stage IV patient's tumors had substantially regressed. With four months of treatment, additional CT scans demonstrated almost complete disappearance of the largest tumors.
V Foundation Scholar Award, Loxo Oncology Research Grant, State of Colorado and University of Colorado Technology Transfer Office Bioscience Discovery Evaluation Grant Program, University of Colorado Lung Cancer SPORE

Contact: Erika Matich
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
ASU will lead new research network looking at weather extremes and city infrastructure
Extreme weather events can cripple crucial infrastructure that enables transit, electricity, water and other services in urban areas. With weather extremes becoming more common -- from devastating hurricanes and flooding to record drought and heat waves -- it will be increasingly important to develop infrastructure in different, more sustainable ways. That is the idea behind a new Urban Resilience to Extreme Weather-Related Events Sustainability Research Network, recently funded by the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Skip Derra
Arizona State University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Developmental Neuropsychology
Babies' brains show that social skills linked to second language learning
Babies learn language best by interacting with people rather than passively through a video or audio recording. But it's been unclear what aspects of social interactions make them so important for learning. New findings by researchers at the Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences at the University of Washington demonstrate for the first time that an early social behavior called gaze shifting is linked to infants' ability to learn new language sounds.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Molly McElroy
University of Washington

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Nature Communications
Small genetic differences could spell life-and-death for gut infections
When it comes to fighting gut infections, we are not equal. EPFL scientists have shown how apparently insignificant genetic variation can lead to big differences in the gut's immunity. The study could change the way we treat gut disease.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Federation of European Biochemical Societies, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SystemsX

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Twin discoveries, 'eerie' effect may lead to manufacturing advances
The discovery of a previously unknown type of metal deformation -- sinuous flow -- and a method to suppress it could lead to more efficient machining and other manufacturing advances by reducing the force and energy required to process metals.
National Science Foundation

Contact: emil Venere
Purdue University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2015
PLOS Biology
Some vaccines support evolution of more-virulent viruses
Scientific experiments with the herpesvirus such as the one that causes Marek's disease in poultry have confirmed, for the first time, the highly controversial theory that some vaccines could allow more-virulent versions of a virus to survive, putting unvaccinated individuals at greater risk of severe illness. The research has important implications for food-chain security and food-chain economics, as well as for other diseases that affect humans and agricultural animals.
NIH/National Institutes of Health Institute of General Medical Sciences, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, NSF-NIH-USDA/Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Program

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Jul-2015
Parasitic flatworms flout global biodiversity patterns
The odds of being attacked and castrated by a variety of parasitic flatworms increases for marine horn snails the farther they are found from the tropics. A Smithsonian-led research team discovered this exception to an otherwise globally observed pattern -- usually biodiversity is greatest in the tropics and decreases toward the poles.
Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Smithsonian Marine Science Network, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows to OM), NSF-NIH Ecology of Infectious Diseases grant

Contact: Beth King
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 24-Jul-2015
Journal of Wildlife Management
Inbreeding not to blame for Colorado's bighorn sheep population decline
The health of Colorado's bighorn sheep population remains as precarious as the steep alpine terrain the animals inhabit, but a new study led by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder has found that inbreeding -- a common hypothesis for a recent decline -- likely isn't to blame.
National Park Service, Rocky Mountain National Park, National Science Foundation, Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Indian Peaks Wilderness Alliance, University of Colorado Boulder

Contact: Catherine Driscoll
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 24-Jul-2015
Simulated map of missing satellite galaxies could answer dark matter puzzle
Rochester Institute of Technology scientist is hunting for dark matter and hidden dwarf galaxies. She is making the first 'mock' map and catalog of satellite populations from analyzing extended atomic hydrogen disks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Gawlowicz
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Quaternary Science Reviews
Study finds abrupt climate change may have rocked the cradle of civilization
New research reveals that some of the earliest civilizations in the Middle East and the Fertile Crescent may have been affected by abrupt climate change. These findings show that while socio-economic factors were traditionally considered to shape ancient human societies in this region, the influence of abrupt climate change should not be underestimated.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Udel
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science

Public Release: 23-Jul-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Scripps researchers map out trajectory of April 2015 earthquake in Nepal
Researchers from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego have accurately mapped out the movement of the devastating 7.8-magnitude Nepal earthquake that killed over 9,000 and injured over 23,000 people. Scientists have determined that the earthquake was a rupture consisting of three different stages. The study could help a rapidly growing region understand its future seismic risks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Christina Wu or Mario Aguilera
University of California - San Diego

Showing releases 376-400 out of 858.

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