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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 376-400 out of 838.

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Public Release: 8-Jun-2015
Scientific Reports
Crossing a critical threshold in optical communications
Researchers from Lehigh University, Japan and Canada have advanced a step closer to the dream of all-optical data transmission by building and demonstrating what they call the 'world's first fully functioning single crystal waveguide in glass.' In an article published in Scientific Reports, the group said it had employed ultrafast femtosecond lasers to produce a three-dimensional single crystal capable of guiding light waves through glass with little loss of light.
National Science Foundation, Lehigh University's International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass

Contact: Jordan Reese
jor310@lehigh.edu
610-758-6656
Lehigh University

Public Release: 8-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences
California Academy of Sciences discovers 100 new species in the Philippines
Scientists from the California Academy of Sciences are celebrating World Ocean's Day with a slew of brand new marine discoveries -- more than 100 species that are likely new to science. Mysterious live animals from dimly-lit, deep-water reefs were also collected for a new exhibit at the Academy's Steinhart Aquarium, expected to open in the summer of 2016.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Haley Bowling
hbowling@calacademy.org
415-379-5123
California Academy of Sciences

Public Release: 8-Jun-2015
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nanomaterial self-assembly imaged in real time
A team of researchers from UC San Diego, Florida State University and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has for the first time visualized the growth of 'nanoscale' chemical complexes in real time, demonstrating that processes in liquids at the scale of one-billionth of a meter can be documented as they happen.
US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim McDonald
kmcdonald@ucsd.edu
858-534-7572
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 8-Jun-2015
Scientific Reports
The shape of a perfect fire
In a study published in Nature Scientific Reports, Adrian Bejan of Duke University shows that, all other variables being equal, the best fires are roughly as tall as they are wide. This is why, he argues, everyone has built fires that basically look the same since the dawn of time, allowing humanity to master fire and migrate across the globe.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
ken.kingery@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University

Public Release: 5-Jun-2015
PLOS ONE
Fruit fly genetics reveal pesticide resistance and insight into cancer
Thomas Werner at Michigan Technological University has bridged the miniscule and the massive in an effort to better understand the mechanisms behind several unique features of fruit fly genes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Thomas Werner
twerner@mtu.edu
906-487-1209
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 5-Jun-2015
Science Advances
Diverse coral communities persist, but bioerosion escalates in Palau's low-pH waters
A new study led by scientists at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) found that the coral reefs in Palau seem to be defying the odds, showing none of the predicted responses to low pH except for an increase in bioerosion -- the physical breakdown of coral skeletons by boring organisms such as mollusks and worms. The paper is published June 5 in the journal Science Advances.
National Science Foundation's Division of Ocean Sciences, The Dalio Foundation, Inc., The Tiffany & Co. Foundation, The Nature Conservancy, the WHOI Access to the Sea Fund

Contact: WHOI Media Relations Office
media@whoi.edu
508-289-3340
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 5-Jun-2015
Science Advances
Paleo-engineering: New study reveals complexity of Triceratops' teeth
When it comes to the three-horned dinosaur called the Triceratops, science is showing the ancient creatures might have been a little more complex than we thought. In fact, their teeth were far more intricate than any reptile or mammal living today.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Haughney
khaughney@fsu.edu
850-644-1489
Florida State University

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Nature Materials
Penn engineers show how 'perfect' materials begin to fail
Until recently, making a defect-free material was impossible. Now that nanotechnological advances have made such materials a reality, however, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and Germany's Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems have shown how these defects first form on the road to failure.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New tropical tree species await discovery
Scientists raised the estimated number of tropical tree species to at least 40,000 to 53,000, the Smithsonian reports. Many tropical tree species risk extinction because of their rarity and restriction to small geographic areas, reaffirming the need for comprehensive, pan-tropical conservation efforts.
National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Contact: Beth King
kingb@si.edu
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
28th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
New website can identify birds using photos
In a breakthrough for computer vision and for bird watching, researchers and bird enthusiasts have enabled computers to achieve a task that stumps most humans -- identifying hundreds of bird species pictured in photos.
Google, Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute at Cornell Tech, National Science Foundation

Contact: Pat Leonard
pel27@cornell.edu
607-254-2137
Cornell University

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Clues to the Earth's ancient core
Old rocks hold on to their secrets. Now, a geophysicist at Michigan Technological University has unlocked clues trapped in the magnetic signatures of mineral grains in those rocks. These clues will help clear up the murky history of the Earth's early core.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Aleksey Smirnov
asmirnov@mtu.edu
906-487-2365
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Nature
How dividing cells end up the same size
A new study from Duke University shows that how much a cell grows before it splits into two depends on its initial size. The finding goes against recent publications suggesting cells always add the same amount of mass, with some random fluctuations, before beginning division.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, DuPont, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Burroughs Wellcome Fund

Contact: Ken Kingery
ken.kingery@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Science China: Earth Sciences
Comparative analyses of current three-dimensional numerical solar wind models
The world wide most advanced three-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulation solar wind models are assessed. These models can be classified into two categories: (1) theoretical, empirical and numerical based models and (2) self-consistent multi-dimensional numerical magnetohydrodynamic models.
National Science Foundation of China

Contact: Wu, Shi Tsan
wus@uah.edu
Science China Press

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
PLOS Pathogens
Shh! Don't wake the sleeping virus!
Scientists at Bar-Ilan University report on a novel experimental model that, for the first time, successfully mimics the 'sleeping' and 'waking' of the varicella-zoster virus. Based on neurons generated from human embryonic stem cells, and not requiring the use of experimental animals, the model allows scientists to test drugs and develop therapies to prevent shingles. It may also contribute to the fight against other viruses -- such as herpes and polio -- that target the human nervous system.
National Institutes of Health, Israel Academy of Sciences, US-Israel Binational Science Foundation

Contact: Elana Oberlander
elanadovrut@gmail.com
972-353-17395
Bar-Ilan University

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Science
Vanishing friction
Physicists at MIT have developed an experimental technique to simulate friction at the nanoscale. Using their technique, the researchers are able to directly observe individual atoms at the interface of two surfaces and manipulate their arrangement, tuning the amount of friction between the surfaces. By changing the spacing of atoms on one surface, they observed a point at which friction disappears.
National Science Foundation, National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Current Biology
Cheating amoebas reveal key to successful societies
Nobody likes a cheater. In a recent study, a University of Houston evolutionary biologist and her collaborators found that while cheaters do not take over populations, they also cannot ever fully be removed. Supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the findings are described in a paper appearing June 15 in Current Biology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lisa Merkl
lkmerkl@uh.edu
713-743-8192
University of Houston

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
Science
Warmer, lower-oxygen oceans will shift marine habitats
Warming temperatures and decreasing levels of dissolved oxygen will act together to create metabolic stress for marine animals. Habitats will shift to places in the ocean where the oxygen supply can meet the animals' increasing future needs.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Alfred Wegener Institute

Contact: Hannah Hickey
hickeyh@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 4-Jun-2015
PLOS Computational Biology
Planarian regeneration model discovered by artificial intelligence
An artificial intelligence system has for the first time reverse-engineered the regeneration mechanism of planaria -- the small worms whose power to regrow body parts makes them a research model in human regenerative medicine. The discovery presents the first model of regeneration discovered by a non-human intelligence and the first comprehensive model of planarian regeneration, which has eluded human scientists for a century.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Mathers Foundation

Contact: Kim Thurler
kim.thurler@tufts.edu
617-627-3175
Tufts University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
Nature
A check on runaway lake drainage
Draining lakes unlikely to worsen Greenland's contribution to sea levels.
National Science Foundation and NASA

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
Nature
Sudden draining of glacial lakes explained
In 2008 scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the University of Washington documented for the first time how the icy bottoms of lakes atop the Greenland Ice Sheet can crack open suddenly -- draining the lakes completely within hours and sending torrents of water to the base of the ice sheet thousands of feet below. Now they have found a surprising mechanism that triggers the cracks.
National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryospheric Sciences Program

Contact: WHOI Media Office
media@whoi.edu
508-289-3340
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
University of Houston receives $1.2 million for STEM scholarships
Two departments at the University of Houston have received a combined $1.2 million from the National Science Foundation to support scholarships for students in engineering technology and computer science.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeannie Kever
jekever@uh.edu
713-743-0778
University of Houston

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
ISME Journal
Protein identified in certain microalgae changes conversation about climate change
High-profile science behind climate change and carbon recycling takes a new turn as researchers find a protein in a major group of phytoplankton that keeps them alive in stressed environments in the ocean.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, NSF EAGER

Contact: Thania Benios
thania_benios@unc.edu
919-962-8596
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
Journal of Nanophotonics
World's smallest spirals could guard against identity theft
Vanderbilt researchers have made the world's smallest spirals and found they have unique optical properties that are nearly impossible to counterfeit if they were added to identity cards, currency and other objects.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Salisbury
david.salisbury@vanderbilt.edu
615-343-6803
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Paleo study shows how elevation may affect evolution
About 34 million years ago, global temperatures took a dive, causing a sudden wave of extinctions among European mammals. In North America, however, life went on largely unscathed. A new study explains why: the rise of the Rocky Mountains had forced North American mammals to adapt to a colder, drier world.
AV Humboldt, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2015
PLOS ONE
Trouble in the tide pools
A harmful algal bloom is the suspected culprit of a die-off in 2011 of millions of purple sea urchins and six-starred sea stars in Northern California. Their disappearance is predicted to have long-term ecological consequences on their populations. As algal blooms are expected to increase with climate change and ocean acidification, similar mass mortality events are expected to increase.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kat Kerlin
kekerlin@ucdavis.edu
530-752-7704
University of California - Davis

Showing releases 376-400 out of 838.

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