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  News From the National Science Foundation
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NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 376-400 out of 816.

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Public Release: 9-Feb-2015
Nature Geoscience
Reduced rainfall in the northern tropics linked to industrial emissions, research suggests
Scientists have produced a rainfall record strongly suggesting that man-made industrial emissions have contributed to less rainfall in the northern tropics.
European Research Council, National Science Foundation, Alphawood Foundation, Schweizer National Fund, Sinergia

Contact: Leighton Kitson
Durham University

Public Release: 9-Feb-2015
Nature Geoscience
Earth's surprise inside: Geologists unlock mysteries of the planet's inner core
Seismic waves are helping scientists to plumb the world's deepest mystery: the planet's inner core. Thanks to a novel application of earthquake-reading technology, a research team at the University of Illinois and colleagues at Nanjing University in China have found that the Earth's inner core has an inner core of its own, which has surprising properties that could reveal information about our planet.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Liz Ahlberg
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 9-Feb-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
F-bombs notwithstanding, all languages skew toward happiness
Arabic movie subtitles, Korean tweets, Russian novels, Chinese websites, English lyrics, and even the war-torn pages of the New York Times -- Big Data research from the University of Vermont, examining billions of words, shows that these sources -- and all human language -- skews toward the use of happy words. This study confirms the 1969 Pollyanna Hypothesis that there is a universal human tendency to 'look on and talk about the bright side of life.'
National Science Foundation, The Mitre Corporation

Contact: Joshua Brown
University of Vermont

Public Release: 9-Feb-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Earliest evidence of large-scale human-produced air pollution in South America found
Researchers have uncovered the earliest evidence of widespread, human-produced air pollution in South America -- from the Spanish conquest of the Inca.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 5-Feb-2015
A nanoscale solution to the big problem of overheating in microelectronic devices
Currently, microelectronic device manufacturers must rely on simulations alone to understand the temperatures inside individual devices. A team of USC and UCLA researchers has developed a way to determine actual temperatures within these devices by using material within them as its own thermometer.
National Science Foundation, Function Accelerated nanoMaterial Engineering, United States Department of Energy

Contact: Megan Hazle
University of Southern California

Public Release: 5-Feb-2015
Physical Review Letters
Cesium atoms shaken, not stirred, to create elusive excitation in superfluid
In 1941, future Nobel laureate Lev Landau predicted that superfluid helium-4 should contain an exotic, particle-like excitation called a roton. Roton structure has been a matter of debate ever since. University of Chicago physicists have now created roton structure in the laboratory.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, University of Chicago's Materials Research Science and Engineering Center.

Contact: Steve Koppes
University of Chicago

Public Release: 5-Feb-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Seafloor volcano pulses may alter climate
A new study shows that undersea volcanoes flare up on strikingly regular cycles, ranging from two weeks to 100,000 years -- and, that they erupt almost exclusively during the first six months of each year. The pulses -- apparently tied to short- and long-term changes in earth's orbit, and to sea levels -- may help trigger natural climate swings.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Krajick
The Earth Institute at Columbia University

Public Release: 5-Feb-2015
MRI technique developed for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children
Between 5 and 8 million children in the United States have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), yet most cases go undiagnosed. To help address this issue, researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine have developed a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique to help clinicians and researchers better detect and evaluate NAFLD in children.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Biological Conservation
Shade coffee is for the birds
The conservation value of growing coffee under trees instead of on open farms is well known, but hasn't been studied much in Africa. So a University of Utah-led research team studied birds in the Ethiopian home of Arabica coffee and found that 'shade coffee' farms are good for birds, but some species do best in forest.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, VLIR-Belgian Research Cooperation, Christensen Fund, University of Utah.

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Nature Geoscience
Inhospitable climate fosters gold ore formation
South Africa's Witwatersrand is the site of the world's largest and richest gold deposit. In order to explain its formation, ETH professor Christoph Heinrich took a look back into the Earth's early climatic history.
ETH Zurich, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Christoph Heinrich
ETH Zurich

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Scientists reprogram plants for drought tolerance
A team led by a University of California, Riverside plant biologist reports that drought tolerance in plants can be improved by engineering them to activate water-conserving processes in response to an agrochemical already in use -- an approach that could be broadly applied to other parts of the same drought-response pathway and a range of other agrochemicals. The finding illustrates the power of synthetic biological approaches for manipulating crops, opening new doors for crop improvement.
National Science Foundation, Syngenta

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 4-Feb-2015
Cheap and abundant chemical outperforms precious metals as a catalyst
Caltech chemists discover that a cheap, safe, and abundant potassium compound can be used instead of rare precious metals as a catalyst in the production of chemicals important for drug discovery, agricultural science, medical imaging, and the creation of new materials.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Bell
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Rediscovering spontaneous light emission
LEDs could replace lasers for short-range optical communications with the use of an optical antenna that enhances the spontaneous emission of light from atoms, molecules and semiconductor quantum dots.
NSF/Center for Energy Efficient Electronics Science

Contact: Lynn Yarris
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Astrophysical Journal Letters
CWRU astronomers find new details in first known spiral galaxy
Case Western Reserve University astronomers discovered faint plumes extending from the northeast and south of the nearby spiral galaxy M51a, also called the 'Whirlpool Galaxy,' by taking what is essentially a photograph made by a 20-hour exposure.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
PLOS Genetics
Fruitful collaboration yields insight on the tomato genome
Plant biologists Julin Maloof and Neelima Sinha collaborate to understand how wild and cultivated tomato species thrive in disparate environments. Using resources at the iPlant Collaborative, the researchers managed their increasing data and perform analyses on big datasets in a collaborative environment. Maloof and Sinha's work will not only advance the scientific community, but can also help the crop industry develop crops that can withstand periods of prolonged heat or drought.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Faith Singer-Villalobos
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Arthritis & Rheumatology
Seeing the knee in a new light: Fluorescent probe tracks osteoarthritis development
A harmless fluorescent probe injected into a joint may make it easier to diagnose and monitor osteoarthritis, leading to better patient care. A new study led by biomedical researchers at Tufts University reports that such a probe successfully tracked the development of early to moderate osteoarthritis in male mice.
NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: Siobhan Gallagher
Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015
Journal of Neuroscience
New findings on how the brain ignores distractions
By scanning the brains of people engaged in selective attention to sensations, researchers have learned how the brain appears to coordinate the response needed to ignore distractors. They are now studying whether that ability can be harnessed, for instance to suppress pain.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Rivers might constitute just 20 percent of continental water flowing into oceans
The Amazon, Nile and Mississippi are mighty rivers, but they and all their worldwide brethren might be a relative trickle compared with an unseen torrent below the surface. New research shows that rivers might constitute as little as 20 percent of the water that flows yearly into the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans from the continents. The rest flows through what is termed the 'subterranean estuary,' which some researchers think supply the lion's share of terrestrial nutrients to the oceans.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Steven Powell
University of South Carolina

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
NSF grant awarded to Wake Forest University to fund summer research program
A National Science Foundation grant will support summer research program for undergraduates interested in number theory research.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bonnie Davis
Wake Forest University

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Nature Geoscience
Tree species influence boreal forest fire behavior and subsequent effects on climate
For a better understanding of how forest fires behave and interact with climate, scientists are turning to the trees. A new study out of UC Irvine shows that differences in individual tree species between Eurasia and North America alter the continental patterns of fire -- and that blazes burning the hottest actually cool the climate.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Cathy Lawhon
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society A
To save your energy while strolling, walk this sway
The first people to walk across the original Millennium Bridge may have been unnerved when it began to sway, but the bridge was actually doing them a favor: the swaying enabled them to walk the distance with 5 percent less effort, a new study shows.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Nature Geoscience
Study supplies insight into behavior of African monsoon
A new study published in Nature Geoscience suggests that the African monsoon's response to climate forcing is more complicated than previously understood. Current climate models don't do a great job of simulating the complex mechanisms behind the changes. Understanding how the monsoon will respond to gradual increases in greenhouse gases will require a better understanding of the processes.
National Science Foundation, NOAA/Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship

Contact: Anton Caputo
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Nature Materials
Wrinkle predictions
A new mathematical theory may explain patterns in fingerprints, raisins, and microlenses.
National Science Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation, MIT Solomon Buchsbaum Fund

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Soft Matter
NYU's microscopic monitoring may yield advances in production of products, pharmaceuticals
A team of NYU physicists has developed a method to monitor the properties of microscopic particles as they grow within a chemical reaction vessel, creating new opportunities to improve the quality and consistency of a wide range of industrial and consumer products.
Procter & Gamble, NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 2-Feb-2015
Freshwater Science
Researchers introduce a macrosystems approach to study stream ecology
Scientists have developed the Stream Biome Gradient Concept, a new method for studying a variety of streams across continents. It allows comparisons of streams in different climates and different continents and can improve how researchers study streams worldwide. The method is introduced in the Freshwater Science article 'The Stream Biome Gradient Concept: factors controlling lotic systems across broad biogeographic scales', available online now and published in the March 2015 issue of the journal.
National Science Foundation, Konza Long-Term Ecological Research program, International Grasslands Center

Contact: Emily Murphy
University of Chicago Press Journals

Showing releases 376-400 out of 816.

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