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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 401-425 out of 812.

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Public Release: 28-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ancient connection between the Americas enhanced extreme biodiversity
Species migrations across the Isthmus of Panama began about 20 million years ago, some six times earlier than commonly assumed, a new study by Smithsonian scientists and colleagues published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows.
Smithsonian Institution, Wenner-Gren and Carl Tryggers Foundations, Autoridad del Canal de Panama, Mark Tupper Smithsonian Fellowship, Ricardo Perez, S.A., National Science Foundation, Swedish Research Council, European Research Council and others

Contact: Beth King
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 28-Apr-2015
Water companies license 2 UW-Milwaukee sensor technologies
Two novel water-sensing technologies that offer low-cost, immediate protection from the threat of contaminated water supplies were developed at UWM and have subsequently been licensed to four water-related companies. The products came from collaborative research at the Water Equipment and Policy Center, which is helping Milwaukee snare its part of the $500 billion global freshwater technology market.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Junhong Chen
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Public Release: 28-Apr-2015
DIS 2015 XXIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects
First proton collisions at world's largest science experiment should start in early June
First collisions of protons at the world's largest science experiment should start the first or second week of June, said CERN Large Hadron Collider senior research scientist Albert DeRoeck, speaking at the DIS 2015 international physics workshop, Southern Methodist University, Dallas. The LHC restarted is second run in early April. There are no significant signs of new physics yet, but DeRoeck said it will take only one significant deviation in the data to change everything.
SMU, US Department of Energy, CERN, National Science Foundation, Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Jefferson Lab, DESY

Contact: Margaret Allen
Southern Methodist University

Public Release: 28-Apr-2015
Nature Communications
UT research uncovers lakes, signs of life under Antarctica's dry valleys
Many view Antarctica as a frozen wasteland. Turns out there are hidden interconnected lakes underneath its dry valleys that could sustain life and shed light on ancient climate change. Jill Mikucki, a University of Tennessee, Knoxville, microbiology assistant professor, was part of a team that detected extensive salty groundwater networks in Antarctica using a novel airborne electromagnetic mapping sensor system called SkyTEM.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lola Alapo
University of Tennessee at Knoxville

Public Release: 28-Apr-2015
Nature Communications
Scientists discover salty aquifer, previously unknown microbial habitat under Antarctica
Using an airborne imaging system for the first time in Antarctica, scientists have discovered a vast network of unfrozen salty groundwater that may support previously unknown microbial life deep under the coldest, driest desert on our planet. The findings shed new light on ancient climate change on Earth and provide strong evidence that a similar briny aquifer could support microscopic life on Mars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Nature Geoscience
Tidal tugs on Teflon faults drive slow-slipping earthquakes
Teasing out how slow, silent earthquakes respond to tidal forces lets researchers calculate the friction inside the fault, which could help understand when and how the more hazardous earthquakes occur.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
Time to move Lyme Disease Awareness Month to April?
The month of May brings many things, among them Mother's Day, tulips, and Lyme Disease Awareness campaigns. But according to Dr. Richard S. Ostfeld, a disease ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, N.Y., if we want to get a leg up on tick-borne illness we need to become vigilant earlier in the season.
National Science Foundation, US Environmental Protection Agency

Contact: Lori Quillen
845-677-7600 x121
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Astrophysical Journal
Strange supernova is 'missing link' in gamma-ray burst connection
Astronomers find that 'central engines' in supernova explosions can come in different strengths, and include those that produce powerful blasts of gamma rays, and weaker versions that produce no such bursts.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ocean bacteria get 'pumped up'
Scientists at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and their Rutgers University colleague discovered a surprising new short-circuit to the biological pump. They found that sinking particles of stressed and dying phytoplankton release chemicals that have a steroid-like effect on marine bacteria feeding on the particles. The chemicals juice up the bacteria's metabolism causing them to more rapidly convert organic carbon in the particles back into CO2 before they can sink to the deep ocean.
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research

Contact: WHOI Media Office
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
International research team discovers new mechanism behind malaria progression
A team of researchers from four universities, including Carnegie Mellon, has pinpointed one of the mechanisms responsible for the progression of malaria, providing a new target for possible treatments. Using computer modeling, the group found that nanoscale knobs, which form at the membrane of infected red blood cells, cause the cell stiffening that is in part responsible for the reduced blood flow that can turn malaria deadly.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
MobiSYS 2015
New UW app can detect sleep apnea events via smartphone
The gold standard for diagnosing sleep apnea -- a disease which affects roughly 1 in 13 Americans -- requires an overnight hospital stay and costs thousands of dollars. A new smartphone app developed at the University of Washington can wirelessly test for sleep apnea events in a person's own bedroom without needing special sensors attached to the body.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Model uncovers malaria parasite causes red blood cell changes
A model of a malaria-infected red blood cell may lead to better ways to treat malaria, according to a team of engineers and molecular biologists who investigated how this parasite infection causes the red blood cells to stiffen.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Two-dimensional semiconductor comes clean
Columbia Engineering Professor James Hone led a team in 2013 that dramatically improved the performance of graphene by encapsulating it in boron nitride. They've now shown they can similarly improve the performance of another 2-D material, molybdenum disulfide. Their findings provide a demonstration of how to study all 2-D materials and hold great promise for a broad range of applications including high-performance electronics, detection and emission of light, and chemical/bio-sensing.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Nature Materials
More is less in novel electronic material
A team reports the first quantum evidence of system-shrinking negative electronic compressibility in a novel insulator.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, W. M. Keck Foundation

Contact: Ed Hayward
Boston College

Public Release: 27-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Combining ecology and human needs, researchers assess sustainability of Baja fisheries
The waters of Baja California Sur are both ecosystems and fisheries where human needs meet nature. In a new study, researchers assessed the capacity to achieve sustainability by applying a framework that accounts for both ecological and human dimensions of environmental stewardship.
National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Brown University, Walton Family Foundation, World Wildlife Fund Fuller Fellowship Program

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 24-Apr-2015
Nature Communications
Northwestern scientists develop first liquid nanolaser
Northwestern University scientists have developed the first liquid nanoscale laser. And it's tunable in real time, meaning you can quickly and simply produce different colors, a unique and useful feature. The laser technology could lead to practical applications, such as a new form of a 'lab on a chip' for medical diagnostics. In addition to changing color in real time, the liquid nanolaser has additional advantages: it is simple to make, inexpensive to produce and operates at room temperature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 24-Apr-2015
The Review of Higher Education
To improve STEM diversity, fix higher education, scholar says
To increase diversity in US STEM workforce, policymakers and educators need to address factors in college programs that discourage minority students, contribute to their noncompletion of degrees.
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sharita Forrest
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 24-Apr-2015
Generating broadband terahertz radiation from a microplasma in air
Researchers have shown that a laser-generated microplasma in air can be used as a source of broadband terahertz radiation. In a paper published this week in Optica, they demonstrate that an approach for generating terahertz waves using intense laser pulses in air can be done with much lower power lasers, a major challenge until now. Lead author Fabrizio Buccheri explains that they exploited the underlying physics to reduce the necessary laser power for plasma generation.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office

Contact: Leonor Sierra
University of Rochester

Public Release: 24-Apr-2015
Nature Communications
Biodiversity promotes multitasking in ecosystems
A worldwide study of the interplay between organisms and their environment bolsters the idea that greater biodiversity helps maintain more stable and productive ecosystems.
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California -- Santa Barbara, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Malmquist
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 23-Apr-2015
Soil Science Society of America Journal
Going with the flow?
Soil scientists have struggled with accurately measuring water flow through soil for years. Even the smallest soil details can sway water's path from the straight, sequential line gravity alone might demand. These minute differences contribute to water's 'preferential flow.' This study examined methods to scale up observations from the smallest, basic unit of soil to the larger landscape and found the unique water patterns depended small-scale elements.
National Science Foundation Hydrologic Sciences Program, Critical Zone Observatory Program

Contact: Susan Fisk
American Society of Agronomy

Public Release: 23-Apr-2015
Researchers add a new wrinkle to cell culture
Using a technique that introduces tiny wrinkles into sheets of graphene, researchers from Brown University have developed new textured surfaces for culturing cells in the lab that better mimic the complex surroundings in which cells grow in the body.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 23-Apr-2015
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2015)
Resilience, not abstinence, may help teens battle online risk
Boosting teenagers' ability to cope with online risks, rather than trying to stop them from using the Internet, may be a more practical and effective strategy for keeping them safe, according to a team of researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 23-Apr-2015
Revolutionary discovery leads to invention of new 'building blocks'
Taking a revolutionary 'building blocks' approach, a research team led by Stephen Z.D. Cheng at the University of Akron invented a new thinking pathway in the design and synthesis of macromolecules by creating an original class of giant tetrahedra. Through a reaction called 'click chemistry,' these tetrahedron building blocks can then be precisely manipulated to unite with other tetrahedrons.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lisa Craig
University of Akron

Public Release: 23-Apr-2015
PLOS Computational Biology
Finding new life for first-line antibiotics
Researchers have identified a single, simple measure -- recovery time -- to guide antibiotic dosing that could bring an entire arsenal of first-line antibiotics back into the fight against drug-resistant pathogens.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, DuPont Young Professorship Award, David and Lucile Packard Fellowship, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, Howard G. Clark Fellowship

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 23-Apr-2015
Study: Photosynthesis has unique isotopic signature
Photosynthesis leaves behind a unique calling card, a chemical signature that is spelled out with stable oxygen isotopes, according to a new study in Science. The findings suggest isotopic signatures could exist for many biological and geological processes, including some that are difficult to observe with current tools.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Deep Carbon Observatory

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Showing releases 401-425 out of 812.

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