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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 401-425 out of 845.

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Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Developmental Cell
An embryonic cell's fate is sealed by the speed of a signal
Early in development, chemical signals tell cells whether to turn into muscle, bone, brain or other tissue. By tracking cells' responses to signals, researchers found the speed at which the signal arrives has an unexpected influence on that decision.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, European Molecular Biology Organization, Human Frontier Science Program

Contact: Zach Veilleux
Rockefeller University

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Newly discovered juvenile whale shark aggregation in Red Sea
Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) -- which grow more than 30 feet long -- are the largest fish in the world's ocean, but little is known about their movements on a daily basis or over years. A newly discovered juvenile whale shark aggregation off Saudi Arabia is giving researchers a rare glimpse into the lives of these gentle giants.
National Science Foundation, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

Contact: WHOI Media Office
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
UTSA, Alamo Colleges partnership provides summer research opportunities for students
The University of Texas at San Antonio and Alamo Colleges have launched a new partnership this summer that is giving community college students the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in top-tier research laboratories.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kris Rodriguez
University of Texas at San Antonio

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
No-power Wi-Fi connectivity could fuel internet of things reality
University of Washington engineers have designed a new communication system that uses radio frequency signals as a power source and reuses existing Wi-Fi infrastructure to provide Internet connectivity to battery-free devices.
University of Washington Commercialization Gap Fund, Qualcomm Innovation Fellowship, Washington Research Foundation, National Science Foundation, University of Washington

Contact: Michelle Ma
University of Washington

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Transportation Research Record
CU Denver study shows excess parking at some Denver sports stadiums
Sports stadiums in Denver suffer from excess parking, creating unattractive concrete spaces, heat islands, and missed economic opportunities, according to a new study from the University of Colorado Denver.
National Science Foundation

Contact: david kelly
University of Colorado Denver

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Tricking plants to see the light may control the most important twitch on Earth
Copious corn growing in tiny backyard plots? Roses blooming in December? Thanks to technology that the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Richard Vierstra has been developing for years, these things may soon be possible. And now, new findings out of the genetics professor's lab promise to advance that technology even further.
National Science Foundation, University of Wisconsin College of Agricultural and Life Sciences

Contact: Richard Vierstra
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Systematic Biology
GW researcher reveals how amphibians crossed continents
A George Washington University professor has succeeded in constructing a first-of-its-kind comprehensive diagram of the geographic distribution of amphibians, showing the movement of 3,309 species between 12 global ecoregions.
U.S. National Science Foundation

Contact: Kurtis Hiatt
George Washington University

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Learning how things fall apart
New research reveals how bonded materials, from airplane wings to dental crowns, lose their bonding.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andrew Carleen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
American Antiquity
WSU researchers see violent era in ancient Southwest
In numbers terms, the 20th Century was the most violent in history, with civil war, purges and two World Wars killing as many as 200 million people. But on a per-capita basis, Tim Kohler has documented a particularly bloody period more than eight centuries ago. Between 1140 and 1180, in the central Mesa Verde of southwest Colorado, four relatively peaceful centuries of pueblo living devolved into several decades of violence.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Kohler
Washington State University

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study traces evolutionary origins of migration in New World birds
A team of scientists from the University of Chicago have developed a new method to reveal the ancestral ranges of New World birds, and discovered that bird migration in the Americas evolved in species that resided in North America. Their work also offers evidence that many tropical bird species descended from migratory ancestors that lost migration. The study was published Aug. 4 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Jiang
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 4-Aug-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Sulfur signals in Antarctic snow reveal clues to climate, past and future
Atmospheric chemists were surprised to see anomalous ratios of sulfur isotopes in sulfate deposited during worldwide wildfires following the super ENSO of '97 to '98, an event that marked the beginning of an apparent hiatus in global warming. Their analysis of the photochemistry that left this trace also revealed the importance of an overlooked reaction that could alter ideas about the oxygen state of Earth's early atmosphere.
National Science Foundation, Agence Nationale de Recherche

Contact: Susan Brown
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 3-Aug-2014
Nature Climate Change
Atlantic origin of recent Pacific trade wind, sea level and temperature trends
Climate models predict that the equatorial Pacific trades should weaken with increasing greenhouse gases; yet since the 1990s, satellites and climate stations show they have strengthened, resulting in accelerated sea level rise in the western Pacific and in both Pacific and global climate change. According to work published by an Australian-US team of climate researchers in this week's Nature Climate Change, these Pacific trends stem from a rapid warming of the Atlantic Ocean.
Australian Research Council, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association

Contact: Gisela Speidel
University of Hawaii ‑ SOEST

Public Release: 3-Aug-2014
Human Ecology
Kangaroos win when Aborigines hunt with fire
Australia's Aboriginal Martu people hunt kangaroos and set small grass fires to catch lizards, as they have for at least 2,000 years. A University of Utah researcher found such man-made disruption boosts kangaroo populations -- showing how co-evolution helped marsupials and made Aborigines into unintentional conservationists.
National Science Foundation, Stanford University Woods Institute for the Environment

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 3-Aug-2014
Uncovering the 3-D structure of a key neuroreceptor
EPFL scientists reveal for the first time the 3-D structure of a crucial neuroreceptor. The achievement has great implications for understanding the basic mechanism of electrical signal transmission between neurons and might help to design novel medicines to treat various neurological diseases.
Swiss National Science Foundation, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, EC-FP7, Human Science Frontier Program, Agence Nationale de la Recherche

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
A hellacious two weeks on Jupiter's moon Io
During a year-long series of observations of Jupiter's volcanically active moon, Io, UC Berkeley astronomers Imke de Pater and graduate student Katherine de Kleer observed within a two week period in August 2013 three of the largest outbursts ever seen on the moon, all probably involving lava erupting through fissures in curtains of fire. The observations by the Keck and Gemini telescopes in Hawaii suggest that outbursts are more common than previously thought.
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Physical Review Letters
On-chip topological light
First came the concept of topological light. Then came images of topological light moving around a microchip. Now full measurements of the transmission of light around and through the chip.
European Research Council, US Army, National Science Foundation

Contact: Phillip F. Schewe
Joint Quantum Institute

Public Release: 1-Aug-2014
Current Anthropology
Society bloomed with gentler personalities and more feminine faces
A Duke University study finds that human skulls changed in ways that indicate a lowering of testosterone levels at around the same time that culture was blossoming. Heavy brows were out, rounder heads were in. Technological innovation, making art and rapid cultural exchange probably came at the same time that we developed a more cooperative temperament by dialing back aggression with lower testosterone levels.
National Science Foundation, Leakey Foundation, University of Iowa/Orthodontics Department

Contact: Karl Leif Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Companion planets can increase old worlds' chance at life
Having a companion in old age is good for people -- and, it turns out, might extend the chance for life on certain Earth-sized planets in the cosmos as well.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Kelley
University of Washington

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers uncover clues to flu's mechanisms
Scientists calculate the transformation of a protein associated with influenza and discover details of intermediate states that may be treated with new drugs.
National Science Foundation, Welch Foundation, National Institutes for Health, Gillson-Longenbaugh Foundation, Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas

Contact: Jeff Falk
Rice University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Study finds physical link to strange electronic behavior
Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have revealed the first evidence of physical properties that correspond with a directionally dependent electronic phase in the iron-based high-temperature superconductor barium iron nickel arsenide. The evidence is presented online this week in Science Express.
Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Robert A. Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Carnegie Mellon chemists create nanofibers using unprecedented new method
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University have developed a novel method for creating self-assembled protein/polymer nanostructures that are reminiscent of fibers found in living cells. The work offers a promising new way to fabricate materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Carnegie Mellon's Controlled Radical Polymerization, Oregon State University

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Refocusing research into high-temperature superconductors
Scientists around the globe are trying to understand the phenomenon of loss-free electric power transmission by high-temperature superconductors. Materials that exhibit this effect at room temperature would bear huge technical potential. Recently symmetry changes in the electronic phases of high-temperature superconductors near their transition temperature had been attributed to doping effects. But an international team of scientists has now discovered that solely spin dynamics of the electrons are responsible for these spontaneous changes.
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science Foundation, R.A. Welch Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Dr. Andreas Battenberg
Technische Universitaet Muenchen

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Strict genomic partitioning by biological clock separates key metabolic functions
Much of the liver's metabolic function is governed by circadian rhythms -- our own body clock -- and UC Irvine researchers have now found two independent mechanisms by which this occurs.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Engineering a protein to prevent brain damage from toxic agents
New research may help prevent brain damage for those exposed to pesticides and chemical weapons. The work centers on proteins called phosphotriesterases, which are able to degrade chemicals known as organophosphates -- found in everything from industrial pesticides to sarin gas. They permanently bond to neurotransmitters in the brain, interfering with their ability to function and causing irreversible damage. The researchers re-engineered the protein to make it sufficiently stable to be used therapeutically.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering

Public Release: 31-Jul-2014
Chemical Communications
Chemists demonstrate 'bricks-and-mortar' assembly of new molecular structures
Chemists at Indiana University Bloomington have described the self-assembly of large, symmetrical molecules in bricks-and-mortar fashion, a development with potential value for the field of organic electronic devices such as field-effect transistors and photovoltaic cells.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Steve Hinnefeld
Indiana University

Showing releases 401-425 out of 845.

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