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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 451-475 out of 750.

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Public Release: 31-Dec-2013
Astrophysical Journal
New studies give strong boost to binary-star formation theory
Recent studies with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array add strong, new evidence to the theory that binary stars form when the disk of gas and dust orbiting one young star gravitationally fragments, forming a second young star.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 31-Dec-2013
American Journal of Botany
Competition in a rough neighborhood: Plant success in a desert environment
In deserts, variable weather is common so that plant community patterns can change between wet and dry years, with high densities and a diversity of plants in wet years, and a reduction in both quantity and number of species in dry years. The effect that two important variables have on plant communities -- competition and water usage -- was investigated in the Sonoran Desert by a research group at the University of Arizona.
National Science Foundation, Philecology Foundation of Fort Worth Texas

Contact: Richard Hund
American Journal of Botany

Public Release: 31-Dec-2013
Researchers use Hubble Telescope to reveal cloudy weather on alien world
A team of scientists led by researchers in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago report they have definitively characterized the atmosphere of a super-Earth class planet orbiting another star for the first time.
NASA, National Science Foundation, Sloan Foundation, European Research Council

Contact: Steve Koppes
University of Chicago

Public Release: 30-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
With few hard frosts, tropical mangroves push north
Cold-sensitive mangrove forests doubled in area along N. Florida's Atlantic Coast as the frequency of killing frosts waned, according to a study based on 28 years of satellite data from the University of Maryland and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.
NASA Climate and Biological Response Program, National Science Foundation

Contact: Heather Dewar
University of Maryland

Public Release: 30-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Mangroves expand north as Florida freezes decline
Climate change appears to have paved the way for a northward march of mangrove forest along Florida's Atlantic coast, but not because mean temperatures are rising. Instead a new analysis of satellite images and other data over a 28-year span attributes the dramatic expansion of mangrove to a decline in frequency of days where the temperature dips below negative 4 degrees Celsius (25 degrees Farenheit).
NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 26-Dec-2013
PLOS Genetics
Genetic discovery points the way to much bigger yields in tomato, other flowering food plants
CSHL researchers announced that they have determined a way to dramatically increase tomato production. Their research has revealed a genetic mechanism for hybrid vigor, a property of plant breeding that has long been exploited to boost yield. Teasing out the hidden subtleties of a type of hybrid vigor involving just one gene has provided the scientists with means to extend the length of time that specific tomato varieties can produce flowers, substantially raising fruit yield.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jaclyn Jansen
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Public Release: 23-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Walking the walk: What sharks, honeybees and humans have in common
In the first study of human hunter-gatherer movement patterns, a team led by UA anthropologist David Raichlen has found that the tribe's movements while foraging can be described by a mathematical pattern called a Lévy walk -- a pattern that also is found in the movements of many other animals, from sharks to honey bees.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Raichlen
University of Arizona

Public Release: 23-Dec-2013
British Medical Journal
Role of chronic medical conditions in readmissions
In new findings from Brigham and Women's Hospital, researchers find that the most frequent reasons for readmission were often related, either directly or indirectly, to patients' underlying chronic medical conditions (comorbidities), providing a new opportunity for focus in reducing readmission rates.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Foundation for Medical-Biological Scholarships

Contact: Lori J Schroth
Brigham and Women's Hospital

Public Release: 22-Dec-2013
Nature Photonics
Solitons in a crystal
By creating an optical soliton in a microresonator, EPFL scientists have found a new light source that could serve in geo-navigation, telecommunications, spectroscopy and the hunt for new Earth-like planets.
Swiss National Science Foundation, ESA, Marie Curie, ussian Foundation for Basic Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency-Quantum-Assisted Sensing and Readout

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 22-Dec-2013
Nature Geoscience
Scientists anticipated size and location of 2012 Costa Rica earthquake
Scientists using GPS to study changes in the Earth's shape accurately forecasted the size and location of the magnitude 7.6 Nicoya earthquake that occurred in 2012 in Costa Rica.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andrew Newman
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-Dec-2013
Researchers create largest evolutionary 'timetree' of land plants to investigate traits that permit survival in cold climates
A team of researchers studying plants has assembled the largest dated evolutionary tree, using it to show the order in which flowering plants evolved specific strategies, such as the seasonal shedding of leaves, to move into areas with cold winters. The researchers, including University of Minnesota professor Peter Reich, will publish their findings Sunday, Dec. 22, in the journal Nature.
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, National Science Foundation, Macquarie University's Genes to Geoscience Research Centre

Contact: Patty Mattern
University of Minnesota

Public Release: 22-Dec-2013
Nature Geoscience
Greenland ice stores liquid water year-round
Researchers have found an extensive reservoir in the Greenland Ice Sheet that holds water year round. A surprising discovery, the existence of the 27,000 square mile aquifer adds important information to sea level rise calculations.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Richard R. Forster
University of Utah

Public Release: 22-Dec-2013
'Be different or die' does not drive evolution
A new study has found that species living together are not forced to evolve differently to avoid competing with each other, challenging a theory that has held since Darwin's Origin of Species.
United States National Science Foundation, Oxford University John Fell Fund, and others

Contact: University of Oxford Press Office
University of Oxford

Public Release: 22-Dec-2013
Study offers clues to how plants evolved to cope with cold
Researchers have found new clues to how plants evolved to withstand wintry weather. In a study to appear in Nature, the team constructed an evolutionary tree of more than 32,000 species of flowering plants -- the largest time-scaled evolutionary tree to date. By combining their tree with freezing exposure records and leaf and stem data, the researchers were able to reconstruct how plants evolved to cope with cold as they spread across the globe.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kurtis Hiatt
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 20-Dec-2013
New DRI project aimed at understanding Mercury dynamics in the Arctic tundra
A new collaborative research project funded by the National Science Foundation and led by Daniel Obrist at the Desert Research Institute will attempt to characterize the complex dynamics of mercury in some of the Earth's northernmost and most fragile ecosystems.
National Science Foundation/Arctic Natural Sciences Program

Contact: Justin Broglio
Desert Research Institute

Public Release: 20-Dec-2013
Physical Review X
Penn researchers grow liquid crystal 'flowers' that can be used as lenses
A team of material scientists, chemical engineers and physicists from the University of Pennsylvania has made another advance in their effort to use liquid crystals as a medium for assembling structures. Their earlier studies produced patterns of "defects," useful disruptions in the repeating patterns found in liquid crystals, in nanoscale grids and rings. The new study adds a more complex pattern out of an even simpler template: a three-dimensional array shaped like a flower.
National Science Foundation, Simons Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies
Telecoupling science shows China's forest sustainability packs global impact
As China increases its forests, a Michigan State University sustainability scholar proposes a new way to answer the question: if a tree doesn't fall in China, can you hear it elsewhere in the world?
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Sue Nichols
Michigan State University

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
TB bacteria mask their identity to intrude into deeper regions of lungs
TB-causing bacteria appear to mask their identity to avoid recognition by infection-killing cells in the well-patrolled upper airways. The bacteria call up more permissive white blood cells in the deeper regions of the lungs and hitch a ride inside them to get into parts of the host's lungs that are under less surveillance.
National Science Foundation, American Lung Association, American Cancer Society, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
Nutrition influences metabolism through circadian rhythms, UCI study finds
A high-fat diet affects the molecular mechanism controlling the internal body clock that regulates metabolic functions in the liver, UC Irvine scientists have found. Disruption of these circadian rhythms may contribute to metabolic distress ailments, such as diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Merieux Research Institute, Sirtiris/GSK

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
Electron's shapeliness throws a curve at supersymmetry
A small band of particle-seeking scientists at Yale and Harvard has established a new benchmark for the electron's almost perfect roundness, raising doubts about certain theories that predict what lies beyond physics' reigning model of fundamental forces and particles, the Standard Model.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Contact: Eric Gershon
Yale University

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
Functional Ecology
Modern caterpillars feed at higher temperatures in response to climate change
Caterpillars of two species of butterflies in Colorado and California have evolved to feed rapidly at higher and at a broader range of temperatures in the past 40 years, suggesting that they are evolving quickly to cope with a hotter, more variable climate.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Thania Benios
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
Team finds new way to map important drug targets
Researchers have used new techniques and one of the brightest X-ray sources on the planet to map the 3-D structure of an important cellular gatekeeper in a more natural state than possible before.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mika Ono
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
The origin of flowers: DNA of storied plant provides insight into the evolution of flowering plants
The newly sequenced genome of the Amborella plant will be published in the journal Science on 20 December 2013. The genome sequence sheds new light on a major event in the history of life on Earth: the origin of flowering plants, including all major food crop species. The paper is among three on different research areas related to the Amborella genome that will be published in the same issue of the journal.
US National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Dec-2013
Gene transfer gone wild reveals driving force behind mitochondrial sex
Pioneering research led by Indiana University has identified genes from a number of plant species, including the entire mitochondrial genomes from three green algae and one moss, in the mitochondrial genome of Amborella trichopoda. The South Pacific shrub is considered to be the sole survivor -- the "last man standing" -- of one of the two oldest lineages of flowering plants, while the other lineage comprises the other 300,000 species of flowering plants.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Stephen Chaplin
Indiana University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2013
New study reveals the biomechanics of how marine snail larvae swim
Equipped with high-speed, high-resolution video, scientists have discovered important new information on how marine snail larvae swim, a key behavior that determines individual dispersal and ultimately, survival.
National Science Foundation, Croucher Foundation, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Contact: Media Relations Office
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Showing releases 451-475 out of 750.

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