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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 51-75 out of 819.

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Public Release: 18-May-2015
ACS Central Science
New link between ocean microbes and atmosphere uncovered
Few things are more refreshing than the kiss of sea spray on your face. You may not realize it, but that cool, moist air influences our climate by affecting how clouds are formed and how sunlight is scattered over the oceans. Today, in ACS Central Science, researchers demonstrate that microbes in seawater can control the chemistry of sea spray ejected into the atmosphere.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michael Bernstein
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 18-May-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Agriculture, declining mobility drove humans' shift to lighter bones
Modern lifestyles have famously made humans heavier, but, in one particular way, noticeably lighter weight than our hunter-gatherer ancestors: in the bones. Now a new study of the bones of hundreds of humans who lived during the past 33,000 years in Europe finds the rise of agriculture and a corresponding fall in mobility drove the change, rather than urbanization, nutrition or other factors.
National Science Foundation, Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, Academy of Finland, Finnish Cultural Foundation

Contact: Shawna Williams
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 15-May-2015
Scientific Reports
New screening method for prostate cancer recurrence
Researchers in the Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois used spatial light interference microscopy in order to identify patients at higher risk for prostate cancer recurrence.
National Science Foundation, Agilent Laboratories

Contact: Maeve Reilly
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology

Public Release: 15-May-2015
Science Translational Medicine
Antiviral compound may protect brain from pathogens, West Nile virus study shows
Researchers have found that an antiviral compound may protect the brain from invading pathogens. Studying West Nile virus infection in mice, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis showed that interferon-lambda tightens the blood-brain barrier, making it harder for the virus to invade the brain.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Judy Martin Finch
Washington University School of Medicine

Public Release: 15-May-2015
Scientific Reports
Random nanowire configurations increase conductivity over heavily ordered configurations
Researchers at Lehigh University have identified for the first time that a performance gain in the electrical conductivity of random metal nanowire networks can be achieved by slightly restricting nanowire orientation. The most surprising result of the study is that heavily ordered configurations do not outperform configurations with some degree of randomness; randomness in the case of metal nanowire orientations acts to increase conductivity.
National Science Foundation, Daniel E. '39 and Patricia M. Smith Endowed Chair Professorship Fund, Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics at Lehigh University

Contact: Jordan Reese
Lehigh University

Public Release: 15-May-2015
Ecology Letters
It's best to make friends of friends
Bonding with a friend of a friend is something most humans gravitate toward naturally, or at least Facebook likes to think so every time it suggests friends for you to 'friend.' But a certain four-legged predator, the spotted hyena, seems to know the benefits of this type of social bonding instinctively, according to a new study from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis.
National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, National Science Foundation

Contact: Catherine Crawley
National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS)

Public Release: 14-May-2015
PLOS Pathogens
Antibody's unusual abilities might inspire vaccine strategies
The recent discovery of a novel antibody that works in an unusual way could inspire new vaccine strategies. The antibody appears to have properties that might keep bacteria like disease-causing E. coli from adhering to human cell surfaces and also dislodge those already attached. Among the common pathogens for which researchers are seeking more effective methods to prevent adherence to human cell surfaces are the forms of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

Public Release: 14-May-2015
Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth
Earthquakes reveal deep secrets beneath East Asia
A new supercomputer model combined earthquake data to create 3-D tomographic images to depths of 900 km, or 560 miles below East Asia. The XSEDE Campus Champions, Stampede and Lonestar4 supercomputers of TACC provided computational experts and resources to develop model. Notable features found include a high velocity structure beneath Tibetan Plateau; and a deep mantle upwelling under Hangai dome in Mongolia. This research could help find hidden hydrocarbon resources and explore deep structures elsewhere.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jorge Salazar
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 14-May-2015
Nano Letters
CLAIRE brings electron microscopy to soft materials
Berkeley Lab researchers, working at the Molecular Foundry, have invented a technique called 'CLAIRE' that extends the incredible resolution of electron microscopy to the noninvasive nanoscale imaging of soft matter, including biomolecules.
US Department of Energy Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lynn Yarris
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 14-May-2015
Revealing the ocean's hidden fertilizer
Phosphorus is one of the most common substances on Earth. An essential nutrient for every living organism -- humans require approximately 700 milligrams per day -- we are rarely concerned about consuming enough of it because it is present in most of the foods we eat. Despite its ubiquity and living organisms' utter dependence on it, we know surprisingly little about how it moves, or cycles, through the ocean environment.
National Science Foundation, Simons Foundation

Contact: WHOI Media Relations Office
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 13-May-2015
Two Large Hadron Collider experiments first to observe rare subatomic process
Two experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, have combined their results and observed a previously unseen subatomic process.
DOE/Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Andre Salles
DOE/Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Public Release: 13-May-2015
Physical Review Letters
Researchers build new fermion microscope
A team of MIT physicists has built a microscope that is able to see up to 1,000 individual fermionic atoms. The researchers devised a laser-based technique to trap and freeze fermions in place, and image the particles simultaneously.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Naval Research, Army Research Office, David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 13-May-2015
ACS Nano
New nanomaterials inspired by bird feathers play with light to create color
Inspired by the way iridescent bird feathers play with light, scientists have created thin films of material in a wide range of pure colors -- from red to green -- with hues determined by physical structure rather than pigments. Chemists synthesized and assembled nanoparticles of a synthetic version of melanin to mimic the natural structures found in bird feathers.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Brown
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 13-May-2015
Study reveals how rivers regulate global carbon cycle
River transport of carbon to the ocean is not on a scale that will solve our CO2 problem, but we haven't known how much carbon the world's rivers routinely flush into the ocean, until now. A study by WHOI scientists calculated the first direct estimate of how much and in what form organic carbon is exported by rivers. The estimate will help modelers predict how this export may shift as Earth's climate changes.
National Science Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: WHOI Media Office
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 13-May-2015
Trap-jaw ants jump with their jaws to escape the antlion's den
Some species of trap-jaw ants use their spring-loaded mandibles to hurl themselves out of harm's way when an ant-trapping predator stalks, researchers report in the journal PLOS ONE. This dramatic maneuver doubles the ants' survival when other escape methods fail, the researchers found. (See video.)
National Geographic Society Committee for Research and Exploration, National Science Foundation, American Museum of Natural History

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 12-May-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Molecular switch that promotes heart cell maturation discovered
The difficulty in getting stem cells to mature into more adult-like heart cells has hindered the search for regenerative treatments for hearts damaged by disease. A molecular switch has now been discovered that appears to help embryonic heart cells switch from a glucose to fatty acid based metabolism. They become larger, stronger, and look and act like more mature heart cells. This discovery may lead to lab methods to grow heart cells that function more like those in adult hearts.
National Institutes of Health, Teitze Young Scientist Award, National Science Foundation, Hahn Family, University of Washington Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Research Institute

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

Public Release: 12-May-2015
Scientific Reports
Male hormones help lemur females rule
Lemur girls behave more like the guys, thanks to a little testosterone, finds a new study. When it comes to conventional gender roles, lemurs -- distant primate cousins of ours -- buck the trend. Duke University researchers say females have significantly lower testosterone levels than the males across the board. But when they compared six lemur species, they found that females of species where females dominate have higher testosterone than females of more egalitarian species.
National Science Foundation, Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 12-May-2015
NetSage tool will help us understand big data networks
Every day, scientists around the world rely on robust data networks to share petabytes of data with their colleagues. A new $5 million, five-year National Science Foundation grant, awarded to Indiana University, the UC Davis and the University of Hawaii at Manoa, seeks to bolster these networks by enabling unprecedented measurement and analysis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 12-May-2015
Cancer Research
siRNA-toting nanoparticles inhibit breast cancer metastasis
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University combined finely crafted nanoparticles with one of nature's potent disrupters to prevent the spread of triple-negative breast cancer in mouse models. The researchers are working toward clinical trials and exploring use of the technology for other cancers and diseases.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 12-May-2015
Protein & Cell
Exogenous microRNAs in maternal food pass through placenta, regulate fetal gene expression
In a new study published in the Protein & Cell, Chen-Yu Zhang's group at Nanjing University reports that small non-coding RNAs in maternal food can transfer through placenta to regulate fetal gene expression.
National Basic Research Program for China, National Science Foundation of China, Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education

Contact: Xi Chen
Nanjing University School of Life Sciences

Public Release: 12-May-2015
Optics Letters
CU Anschutz researchers create microscope allowing deep brain exploration
A team of neuroscientists and bioengineers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have created a miniature, fiber-optic microscope designed to peer deeply inside a living brain.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Kelly
University of Colorado Denver

Public Release: 12-May-2015
Unique program to use social media to develop computer model for Ebola spread
Identifying and tracking individuals affected by the Ebola virus in densely populated areas presents a unique and urgent set of challenges in public health surveillance. Currently, mapping the spread of the Ebola virus is done manually. An innovative model of Ebola spread will use massive amounts of data from various sources including Twitter feeds, Facebook and Google.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Gisele Galoustian
Florida Atlantic University

Public Release: 12-May-2015
The Cryosphere
New study shows Antarctic ice shelf is thinning from above and below
A decade-long scientific debate about what's causing the thinning of one of Antarctica's largest ice shelves is settled this week with the publication of an international study in the journal The Cryosphere.
Natural Environment Research Council, National Science Foundation

Contact: Athena Dinar
British Antarctic Survey

Public Release: 11-May-2015
Applied Physics Letters
New device could greatly improve speech and image recognition
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering and the Russian Academy of Sciences have successfully demonstrated pattern recognition using a magnonic holographic memory device, a development that could greatly improve speech and image recognition hardware.
National Science Foundation, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: Sean Nealon
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 11-May-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Tortoise approach works best -- even for evolution
When it comes to winning evolutionary fitness races, the tortoise once again prevails over the hare. In the current issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of BEACON scientists centered at Michigan State University found that limiting migrations among populations of bacteria produced better adaptations.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Showing releases 51-75 out of 819.

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