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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 51-75 out of 826.

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Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function
A study indicates that both a high-fat and a high-sugar diet, compared to a normal diet, cause changes in gut bacteria that appear related to a significant loss of 'cognitive flexibility,' or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations. This effect was most serious on the high-sugar diet, which also showed an impairment of early learning for both long-term and short-term memory.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathy Magnusson
Oregon State University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Island rodents take on nightmarish proportions
Duke University researchers have analyzed size data for rodents worldwide to distinguish the truly massive mice and giant gerbils from the regular-sized rodents. They found that the furry animals with chisel-like teeth are 17 times more likely to evolve to nightmarish proportions on islands than elsewhere. The results are in keeping with an idea called the 'island rule,' which previous studies claimed didn't apply to rodents.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IU biologists find mistletoe species lacks genes found in all other complex organisms
IU scientists have discovered the first known instance of a plant or animal lacking several key genes involved in energy production in cells.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Journal of Theoretical Biology
Model could help counteract poisoning from popular painkiller
New research could help reverse deadly side effects caused by excessive doses of the drug acetaminophen, the major ingredient in Tylenol and many other medicines. Duke University researchers have developed a mathematical model of acetaminophen metabolism based on data from rats. The findings suggest that giving patients glutamine -- a common amino acid in the body -- alongside the standard antidote for acetaminophen overdose could prevent liver damage and boost the body's ability to recover.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
Study takes close look at formidable camel spider jaws
For the first time, researchers have created a visual atlas and dictionary of terms for the many strange features on the fearsome-looking jaws of a little known group of arachnids. Called camel spiders, baardskeerders [beard-cutters], sun spiders, wind scorpions, and other colorful names, Solifugae are an order of arachnids that are neither spiders nor scorpions. In research out today, scientists present the first comprehensive analysis of jaw morphology across Solifugae.
National Science Foundation, JRS Biodiversity Foundation, Lund University, AMNH Collections Study Grant, AMNH Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Fund, Ernst Mayr Travel Grant

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Physical Review Letters
Destructive power of bubbles could lead to new industrial applications
Cavitation bubbles can kill fish and damage boat propellers. Virginia Tech researcher say learning more about them could harness that power for industrial uses, like safer cleaning processes.
National Science Foundation, Virginia Tech Institute of Critical Technology and Applied Science

Contact: Eleanor Nelsen
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Scientific Reports
Iowa State engineers develop micro-tentacles so tiny robots can handle delicate objects
Iowa State University's Jaeyoun Kim and his research group have developed microrobotic tentacles that can be the hands and fingers of small robots designed to safely handle delicate objects. The engineers describe their micro-tentacles in the journal Scientific Reports.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jaeyoun (Jay) Kim
Iowa State University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
California's wildflowers losing diversity in face of warmer, drier winters
Fifteen years of warmer, drier winters are affecting California's wildflower diversity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kat Kerlin
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists create synthetic membranes that grow like living cells
Chemists and biologists at UC San Diego have succeeded in designing and synthesizing an artificial cell membrane capable of sustaining continual growth, just like a living cell.
US Army Research Laboratory, US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim McDonald
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Bass use body's swimming muscles to suck in food
Bass are strong swimmers but they can't capture prey without also exerting a powerful suction into their mouths. A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that the power to form that vacuum comes from the very same muscles they use to swim.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 19-Jun-2015
Journal of Biological Rhythms
Access to electricity is linked to reduced sleep
New research comparing traditional hunter-gatherer living conditions to a more modern setting shows that access to artificial light and electricity has shortened the amount of sleep humans get each night.
Leakey Foundation, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: James Urton
University of Washington

Public Release: 19-Jun-2015
Engineer develops real-time listeria biosensor prototype
A Texas A&M AgriLife Research engineer and a Florida colleague have developed a biosensor that can detect listeria bacterial contamination within two or three minutes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Burns
Texas A&M AgriLife Communications

Public Release: 19-Jun-2015
Cell Reports
Supercomputers surprisingly link DNA crosses to cancer
Supercomputers have helped scientists find a surprising link between cross-shaped (or cruciform) pieces of DNA and human cancer, according to a study at The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin).
National Science Foundation

Contact: Faith Singer-Villalobos
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 18-Jun-2015
International Journal of Climatology
Jet contrails affect surface temperatures
High in the sky where the cirrus ice crystal clouds form, jet contrails draw their crisscross patterns. Now researchers have found that these elevated ice cloud trails can influence temperatures on the ground and affect local climate, according to a team of Penn State geographers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 18-Jun-2015
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Magnetic field discovery gives clues to galaxy-formation processes
Magnetic field structure of nearby galaxy provides new insights on how spiral arms form, and how gas can be funneled inward to fuel star formation at the galaxy's center.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 18-Jun-2015
Kennewick Man closely related to Native Americans, geneticists say
DNA from the 8,500-year-old skeleton of an adult man found in 1996, in Washington, is more closely related to Native American populations than to any other population in the world, according to an international collaborative study conducted by scientists at the University of Copenhagen and the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Danish Council for Independent Research, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología in Mexico, National Science Foundation and a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship.

Contact: Krista Conger
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 18-Jun-2015
Nature Communications
Faster, not stronger: How a protein regulates gene expression
By measuring the motion of single molecules, EPFL scientists have discovered how specialized proteins control gene expression by binding and compacting discrete parts of DNA inside the cell. The findings have significant implications for genetics and cancer research.
Sandoz Family Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 18-Jun-2015
Staying cool: Saharan silver ants
Researchers have discovered two strategies that enable Saharan silver ants to stay cool in one of the world's hottest environments. They are the first to demonstrate that the ants use a coat of uniquely shaped hairs to control electromagnetic waves over an extremely broad range from the solar spectrum to the thermal radiation spectrum and that different physical mechanisms are used in different spectral bands to realize the same biological function of reducing body temperature.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 18-Jun-2015
The majority rules when baboons vote with their feet
Olive baboon troops decide where to move democratically, despite their hierarchical social order, according to a new report in Science magazine by Smithsonian researchers and colleagues. At the Mpala Research Centre in Kenya, the team conducted the first-ever group-level GPS tracking study of primates, finding that any individual baboon can contribute to a troop's collective movement.
National Science Foundation, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Princeton University, National Institutes of Health, Biotechnology and Biosciences Research Council, Office of Naval Research, Army Research

Contact: Geetha Iyer
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 17-Jun-2015
Indiana University scientists create computational algorithm for fact-checking
Network scientists at Indiana University have developed a new computational method that can leverage any body of knowledge to aid in the complex human task of fact-checking.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Lilly Endowment, James S. McDonnell Foundation, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 17-Jun-2015
Acta Biomaterialia
Mantis shrimp inspires new body armor and football helmet design
The mantis shrimp is able to repeatedly pummel the shells of prey using a hammer-like appendage that can withstand rapid-fire blows by neutralizing certain frequencies of 'shear waves,' according to a new research paper by University of California, Riverside and Purdue University engineers.
National Science Foundation, US Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Sean Nealon
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 17-Jun-2015
Astrophysical Journal Letters
VLA reveals 'bashful' black hole in neighboring galaxy
Radio observations give new evidence for long-sought supermassive black hole in small satellite galaxy orbiting the Andromeda Galaxy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 17-Jun-2015
Nature Communications
A new way to image surfaces on the nanoscale
A multi-institutional team of scientists, including a Northwestern University professor of materials science and engineering, has taken an important step in understanding where atoms are located on the surfaces of rough materials, information that could be very useful in diverse commercial applications, such as developing green energy and understanding how materials rust. The team has developed a new imaging technique that uses atomic resolution secondary electron images in a quantitative way to determine the arrangement of atoms on the surface.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Science, Material Science and Engineering Division

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 17-Jun-2015
Fructose powers a vicious circle
ETH researchers have found a hitherto unknown molecular mechanism that is driven by fructose and can lead to cardiac enlargement and heart failure.
Sinergia Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Heart Foundation

Contact: Wilhelm Krek
ETH Zurich

Public Release: 17-Jun-2015
Network model for tracking Twitter memes sheds light on information spreading in the brain
An international team of researchers from Indiana University and Switzerland is using data mapping methods created to track the spread of information on social networks to trace its dissemination across a surprisingly different system: the human brain.
J.S. McDonnell Foundation, National Science Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Leenaards Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation, Microsoft Research Fellowship Program

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Showing releases 51-75 out of 826.

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