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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 501-525 out of 805.

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Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Biomedical Optics Express
How do you feel? Video of your face may tell all
Rice University researchers are developing a touch-free system that monitors patients' vital signs via video while compensating for skin tone, lighting and movement.
National Science Foundation, Texas Instruments Fellowship, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Rice University

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
BMC Systems Biology
Cells exercise suboptimal strategy to survive
Analysis of suboptimal metabolic pathways gives a more realistic picture of why organisms are able to adapt to new environments, according to researchers at Rice University studying systemic response to hypoxia and exercise.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Ecology Letters
Northern coastal marshes more vulnerable to nutrient pollution
Salt marshes at higher latitudes, including those in densely populated coastal regions of New England and Europe, are more vulnerable to the effects of eutrophication, which, if left unchecked, can trigger intense overgrazing by marsh herbivores that can destabilize marshes and reduce their ability to defend shorelines from erosion. Geography and evolution both play roles in making these marshes more susceptible to nutrient loading and overgrazing than their counterparts in the tropics.
National Science Foundation, Edward S. Stolarz Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Device extracts rare tumor cells using sound
A simple blood test may one day replace invasive biopsies thanks to a new device that uses sound waves to separate blood-borne cancer cells from white blood cells. Carnegie Mellon University President Subra Suresh and fellow researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Pennsylvania State University report the latest advancement that brings their device one step closer to clinical use in a paper published this week in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Institutes of Health, Penn State Center for Nano Scale Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Teams with a critical mass of women lets them 'lean in' and aim for science careers
For years, educators and have sounded an alarm about the fact that fewer girls and women enter STEM fields than their male peers, and more girls and women leave. Now a team led by Nilanjana Dasgupta at UMass Amherst reports one promising intervention: women, particularly first-year students, participate more actively and feel less anxious in small groups that are mostly female or that have equal numbers of men and women compared to mostly male groups.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Nature Biotechnology
Pulling the strings of our genetic puppetmasters
Researchers have developed a new method to activate genes by synthetically creating a key component of the epigenome that controls how our genes are expressed. The new technology allows researchers to turn on specific gene promoters and enhancers -- pieces of our genomes that control our genes' activity -- by chemically manipulating proteins that package our DNA.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study of vehicle emissons will aid urban sustainability efforts
Boston University researchers have created DARTE (Database of Road Transportation Emissions), a new nationwide data inventory that can help to provide this crucial information.
NASA, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Kira Jastive
Boston University

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Discovery by Virginia Tech may be breakthrough for hydrogen cars
Unlike other hydrogen fuel production methods that rely on highly processed sugars, the Virginia Tech team used dirty biomass -- the husks and stalks of corn plants -- to create their fuel. This not only reduces the initial expense of creating the fuel, it enables the use of a fuel source readily available near the processing plants, making the creation of the fuel a local enterprise.
Shell GameChanger Initiative, National Science Foundation

Contact: Zeke Barlow
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 6-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Sea sponge anchors are natural models of strength
The Venus' flower basket sea sponge has hair-like appendages that hold it in place on the sea floor. Research led by Brown University engineers shows that the internal structure of those fibers is fine-tuned for strength. The findings from this natural system could inform the engineering of load-bearing structural members.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 3-Apr-2015
UCLA research links HIV to age-accelerating cellular changes
People undergoing treatment for HIV-1 have an increased risk for earlier onset of age-related illnesses such as some cancers, renal and kidney disease, frailty, osteoporosis and neurocognitive disease. But is it because of the virus that causes AIDS or the treatment? New research suggests that HIV itself accelerates these aging related changes by more than 14 years.
NIH/National Institute on Aging grant, UCLA AIDS Institute/CFAR seed grant from the National Institutes of Health, NIH T032 training grant, National Science Foundation grant

Contact: Enrique Rivero
University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences

Public Release: 3-Apr-2015
OU physicists first to create new molecule with record-setting dipole moment
A proposed pathway to construct quantum computers may be the outcome of research by a University of Oklahoma physics team that has created a new molecule based on the interaction between a highly-excited type of atom known as a Rydberg atom and a ground-state atom. A unique property of the molecule is the large permanent dipole moment, which reacts with an electric field much like a bar magnet reacts with a magnetic field.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 3-Apr-2015
Frustrated magnets -- new experiment reveals clues to their discontent
An experiment conducted by Princeton researchers has revealed an unlikely behavior in a class of materials called frustrated magnets, addressing a long-debated question about the nature of these discontented quantum materials. The work represents a surprising discovery that down the road may suggest new research directions for advanced electronics. Published this week in the journal Science, the study also someday may help clarify the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity, the frictionless transmission of electricity.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, DOE/Division of Basic Energy Sciences

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 2-Apr-2015
American Naturalist
Being born in lean times is bad news for baboons
The saying 'what doesn't kill you makes you stronger' may not hold up to scientific scrutiny. Baboons born in times of famine are more vulnerable to food shortages later in life, finds a new study. The findings are important because they help explain why people who are malnourished in early childhood often experience poor health as adults.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute on Aging, Duke University, Princeton University, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 2-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Deconstructing brain systems involved in memory and spatial skills
In work that reconciles two competing views of brain structures involved in memory and spatial perception, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have conducted experiments that suggest the hippocampus -- a small region in the brain's limbic system -- is dedicated largely to memory formation and not to spatial skills, such as navigation. The study is published in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
US Department of Veterans Affairs, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health

Contact: Christina Johnson
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 2-Apr-2015
Physical Review Letters
Black holes don't erase information, scientists say
Some physicists have argued that black holes are the ultimate vault, sucking in information and then evaporating without leaving behind any clue as to what they once contained. A new University at Buffalo study shows this perspective may be wrong. The research finds that information is not lost once it has entered a black hole, and presents explicit calculations showing how information is, in fact, preserved.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Charlotte Hsu
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 2-Apr-2015
Microbes scared to death by virus presence
University of Illinois researchers found the microbe Sulfolobus islandicus can go dormant, ceasing to grow and reproduce, in order to protect themselves from infection by Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 9 (SSV9). The dormant microbes are able to recover if the virus goes away within 24 to 48 hours -- otherwise they die.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicholas Vasi
Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 2-Apr-2015
Element of surprise helps babies learn
Infants have innate knowledge about the world and learn best when their expectations are defied.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jill Rosen
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 2-Apr-2015
Astronomers watch unfolding saga of massive star formation
Astronomers are getting a unique, real-time look as a massive young star develops, with the promise of greatly improved understanding of the process.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 1-Apr-2015
ACS Nano
A novel way to apply drugs to dental plaque
Therapeutic agents intended to reduce dental plaque and prevent tooth decay are often removed by saliva and the act of swallowing before they take effect. But a team of researchers has developed a way to keep the drugs from being washed away.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Peter Iglinski
University of Rochester

Public Release: 1-Apr-2015
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Drop the bounce test: A common battery test often bounces off target
The battery bounce test, popularized in online videos, has led to the common conclusion that a high bounce means a dead battery. But researchers at Princeton University have found that bouncing is not actually an effective way to check a battery's charge.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory

Contact: Steven Schultz
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 1-Apr-2015
New instrument dates old skeleton; 'Little Foot' 3.67 million years old
A skeleton named Little Foot is among the oldest hominid skeletons ever dated at 3.67 million years old, according to an advanced dating method. Little Foot is a rare, nearly complete skeleton of Australopithecus first discovered 21 years ago in a cave at Sterkfontein, in central South Africa. Stone tools found at a different level of the Sterkfontein cave also were dated at 2.18 million years old, making them among the oldest known stone tools in South Africa.
National Science Foundation, Palaeontological Scientific Trust, National Research Foundation

Contact: Elizabeth K. Gardner
Purdue University

Public Release: 1-Apr-2015
ICSE 2015: 37th International Conference on Software Engineering
Study: Ads in free mobile apps have hidden costs for both users and developers
Advertising may allow developers to make smartphone apps free, but it has hidden costs -- draining batteries, eating up network data, and using more memory.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Perkins
University of Southern California

Public Release: 1-Apr-2015
Springing ahead of nature: Device increases walking efficiency
It's taken millions of years for humans to perfect the art of walking. But research results published today in the journal Nature show that humans can get better 'gas mileage' using an unpowered exoskeleton to modify the structure of their ankles. The device puts an extra spring in each human step, reducing metabolic energy consumption by 7 percent below walking in normal athletic shoes.
U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Nursing Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Dr. Greg Sawicki
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 31-Mar-2015
Palaeogeoraphy, Palaeocilmatology, Palaeoecology
Discovering missing body parts of ancient fossils
Certain specimens of the fossil Dickinsonia are incomplete because ancient currents lifted them from the sea floor, a team of researchers led by paleontologists at the University of California, Riverside has found. Sand then got deposited beneath the lifted portion, the researchers report, strongly suggesting that Dickinsonia was mobile, easily separated from the sea floor and not attached to the substrate on which it lived.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 31-Mar-2015
Weather and Forecasting
Better method for forecasting hurricane season
A better method for predicting the number of hurricanes in an upcoming season has been developed by a team of University of Arizona atmospheric scientists. The UA team's new model improves the accuracy of seasonal hurricane forecasts for the North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico by 23 percent. The team's research paper was published online in the journal Weather and Forecasting on March 25.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Science Foundation Arizona

Contact: Mari N. Jensen
University of Arizona

Showing releases 501-525 out of 805.

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