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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 551-575 out of 829.

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Public Release: 9-Mar-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Innovative light therapy reaches deep tumors
Using a mouse model of cancer, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have devised a way to apply light-based therapy to deep tissues never before accessible. Instead of shining an outside light, they delivered light directly to tumor cells, along with a photosensitive source of free radicals that can be activated by the light to destroy cancer. And they accomplished this using materials already approved for use in cancer patients.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Julia Evangelou Strait
Washington University School of Medicine

Public Release: 9-Mar-2015
Nature Geoscience
Oregon researchers detail new insights on arsenic cycling
University of Oregon geologist Qusheng Jin initially labeled his theory 'A Wild Hypothesis.' Now his study of arsenic cycling in a southern Willamette Valley aquifer is splashing with potential significance for arsenic-compromised aquifers around the world.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 9-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
One step closer to artificial photosynthesis and 'solar fuels'
A new thin-film coating developed at Caltech solves a major problem in the development of artificial photosynthetic systems that can replicate the natural process of photosynthesis to harness sunlight to generate fuels.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Beckman Institute, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 9-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Centuries-old DNA helps identify origins of slave skeletons found in Caribbean
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of Copenhagen have extracted and sequenced tiny bits of DNA remaining in the teeth of 300-year-old skeletons in the Caribbean. From this data, they were able to determine where in Africa the individuals likely lived before they were captured and enslaved.
Danish National Research Foundation, Directorate General for Research and Innovation of the European Commission, European Research Council, National Science Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation, Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship

Contact: Krista Conger
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 9-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Early herders' grassy route through Africa
A University of Utah study of nearly 2,000-year-old livestock teeth show that early herders from northern Africa could have traveled past Kenya's Lake Victoria on their way to southern Africa because the area was grassy -- not tsetse fly-infested bushland as previously believed.
National Science Foundation, Geological Society of America, University of Utah Global Change and Sustainability Center

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 9-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Methane in Arctic lake traced to groundwater from seasonal thawing
Global warming may ramp up the flow of methane from groundwater into Arctic lakes, allowing more of the potent greenhouse gas to bubble out into the atmosphere, according to a new study led by researchers at UC Santa Cruz.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
American Naturalist
Female fish that avoid mating with related species also shun some of their own
A new study offers insight into a process that could lead one species to diverge into two, researchers report in The American Naturalist. The study found that female killifish that avoid mating with males of a closely related species also are less likely to mate with males of their own species -- if those males come from an unfamiliar population.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
Evolutionary Applications
Evolving to cope with climate change
Researchers have successfully measured the potential of the Atlantic Silverside to adapt to ocean acidification. This is the first such measurement for a vertebrate animal.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Miller
University of Connecticut

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
NYU chemists develop 'looking glass' for spotting sound molecular structures
NYU chemists have developed a computational approach for determining the viability and suitability of complex molecular structures -- an advancement that could aid in the development of pharmaceuticals as well as a range of other materials.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
New detector sniffs out origins of methane
An instrument identifies methane's origins in mines, deep-sea vents, and cows.
National Science Foundation, Shell Oil, Deep Carbon Observatory, National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, German Research Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
Nutrient pollution damages streams in ways previously unknown, ecologists find
An important food resource has been disappearing from streams without anyone noticing until now. In a new study published March 6 in the journal Science, a team of researchers led by University of Georgia ecologists reports that nutrient pollution causes a significant loss of forest-derived carbon from stream ecosystems, reducing the ability of streams to support aquatic life.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Gavrilles
University of Georgia

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
Nature Communications
3-D imaging reveals hidden forces behind clogs, jams, avalanches, earthquakes
When you walk on the beach, the sand supports your weight like a solid. What happens to the forces between the sand grains when you step on them to keep you from sinking? Researchers have developed a new way to measure the forces inside materials such as sand, soil or snow under pressure. The technique uses lasers coupled with force sensors, cameras and advanced computer algorithms to measure the forces between neighboring particles in 3-D.
National Science Foundation, NASA, US Army Research Office

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 5-Mar-2015
Distant supernova split 4 ways by gravitational lens
Astronomers now use massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies as magnifying lenses to study the early universe, but until now had never observed the brief flash of a supernova. UC Berkeley postdoc Patrick Kelly found such a supernova in images taken last year by the Hubble Space Telescope. The exploding star, about 9.3 billion light years from Earth, was split into a rare 'Einstein Cross,' a four-part image predicted by the General Theory of Relativity.
Christopher R. Redlich Fund, TABASGO Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 4-Mar-2015
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Usual prey gone, a fish survives by changing predictably
Without the Bahamas mosquitofish to eat, bigmouth sleepers slide down the food chain and survive on insects, snails and crustaceans. And, in so doing, sleepers' behaviors, ratio of males to females and physical appearance change, too.
National Science Foundation, University of Oklahoma, North Carolina State University

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 4-Mar-2015
Why isn't the universe as bright as it should be?
This study explains why galaxies don't churn out as many stars as they should.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 4-Mar-2015
Earliest known fossil of the genus Homo dates to 2.8 to 2.75 million years ago
The earliest known record of the genus Homo -- the human genus -- represented by a lower jaw with teeth, recently found in the Afar region of Ethiopia, dates to between 2.8 and 2.75 million years ago, according to an international team of geoscientists and anthropologists. They also dated other fossils to between 2.84 and 2.58 million years ago, which helped reconstruct the environment in which the individual lived.
National Science Foundation, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Geological Society of America, Philanthropic Education Organization, Marie Curie CIG, A.v. Humboldt, Fyssen

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 4-Mar-2015
Discovery of jaw by ASU team sheds light on early Homo
For decades, scientists have been searching for African fossils documenting the earliest phases of the Homo lineage, but specimens recovered from the critical time interval between 3 and 2.5 million years ago have been frustratingly few and often poorly preserved. However, a fossil lower jaw found in the Ledi-Geraru research area, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia, pushes back evidence for the human genus -- Homo -- to 2.8 million years ago.
National Science Foundation, Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University, George Washington University Selective Excellence Program, AAPG, SE

Contact: William Kimbel
Arizona State University

Public Release: 3-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Pennies reveal new insights on the nature of randomness
Researchers at Princeton University have developed an algorithm that creates truly disordered packings of pennies for the first time.
National Science Foundation, Simons Foundation

Contact: Tien Nguyen
Princeton University

Public Release: 3-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Breakthrough in particle control creates special half-vortex rotation
A breakthrough in the control of a type of particle known as the polariton has created a highly specialized form of rotation.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Corporate Comms
University of Strathclyde

Public Release: 3-Mar-2015
The Cryosphere
Combined Arctic ice observations show decades of loss
Historic submarine and modern satellite records show that average ice thickness in the central Arctic Ocean dropped by 65 percent from 1975 to 2012. September ice thickness, when the ice cover is at a minimum, dropped by 85 percent.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 3-Mar-2015
Communication Research
Vaccine skeptics aren't swayed by emotional scare tactics
On the heels of a nationwide measles outbreak comes a report that campaigns aimed at scaring people about the consequences of non-vaccination might not be as effective as many think. An upcoming article in the journal Communication Research challenges the popular assumption that emotional appeals have a wide, sweeping effect on people's health beliefs.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Graham Dixon
Washington State University

Public Release: 2-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Some tropical plants pick the best hummingbirds to pollinate flowers
Rather than just waiting patiently for any pollinator that comes their way to start the next generation of seeds, some plants appear to recognize the best suitors and 'turn on' to increase the chance of success. Being picky may increase access to genetic diversity and thus give the plants a competitive advantage over their neighbors
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Betts
Oregon State University

Public Release: 2-Mar-2015
Nature Materials
The rub with friction
In a new paper in Nature Materials, Brandeis University professor Zvonomir Dogic and his lab explored friction at the microscopic level. They discovered that the force generating friction is much stronger than previously thought. The discovery is an important step toward understanding the physics of the cellular and molecular world and designing the next generation of microscopic and nanotechnologies.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Brandeis University

Public Release: 2-Mar-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New technique improves forecasts for Canada's prized salmon fishery
A method developed by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego researchers for analyzing and predicting nature's dynamic and interconnected systems has improved forecasts of populations of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon, a highly prized fishery in British Columbia.
National Science Foundation, Foundation for the Advancement of Outstanding Scholarship and Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, NSF NOAA Comparative Analysis of Marine Ecosystem Organization Program

Contact: Mario Aguilera or Robert Monroe
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 2-Mar-2015
Current Biology
Sizing up cells: Study finds possible regulator of growth
Modern biology has attained deep knowledge of how cells work, but the mechanisms by which cellular structures assemble and grow to the right size largely remain a mystery. Now, Princeton University researchers may have found the key in a dynamic agglomeration of molecules inside cells.
National Institutes of Health, Searle Scholars Program, National Science Foundation, Damon Runyon Postdoctoral Fellowship

Contact: John Sullivan
Princeton University, Engineering School

Showing releases 551-575 out of 829.

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