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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 551-575 out of 938.

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Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Ocean heat content reveals secrets of fish migration behaviors
Researchers at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science developed a new method to estimate fish movements using ocean heat content images, a dataset commonly used in hurricane intensity forecasting. With Atlantic tarpon as the messenger, this is the first study to quantitatively show that large migratory fishes, such as yellowfin and bluefin tunas, blue and white marlin, and sailfish have affinities for ocean fronts and eddies.
Bonefish and Tarpon Trust, Robertson Foundation, National Science Foundation, McDaniel Charitable Foundation, Billfish Foundation, Adopt-A-Billfish Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Diana Udel
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
University of Houston awarded $246,000 NSF grant for US-China collaboration on landslides
University of Houston professor Guoquan 'Bob' Wang has been awarded a three-year, $245,945 National Science Foundation International Research Experience for Students grant to support US-China collaboration on landslide research. This grant will fully fund summer research opportunities for UH geoscience majors to conduct landslide studies in collaboration with the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, Hubei Province.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lisa Merkl
University of Houston

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Dynamic social-network analysis reveals animal social behaviors
Two closely related species, the endangered Grevy's zebra of Africa -- the largest surviving wild equid -- and the onager, a wild ass of Asia have radically different social behaviors and community structures. A new, dynamic social-network analysis tool makes this discovery possible.
Princeton University, McMaster University, Smithsonian Institution, Denver Zoological Foundation, Wildlife Conservation Society, UIC, Microsoft, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeanne Galatzer-Levy
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Journal of Environmental Quality
Beavers take a chunk out of nitrogen in Northeast rivers
Beavers, once valued for their fur, may soon have more appreciation in the Northeastern United States. There they are helping prevent harmful levels of nitrogen from reaching the area's vulnerable estuaries. By creating ponds that slow down the movement of water, they aid in removing nitrogen from the water.
USDA-NRCS, Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station, National Science Foundation EPSCoR

Contact: Susan Fisk
American Society of Agronomy

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
The International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
Dive of the RoboBee
For the first time, researchers at SEAS have demonstrated a flying, swimming, insect-like robot -- paving the way for future duel aerial aquatic robotic vehicles.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Caltech scientists find cells rhythmically regulate their genes
Even in a calm, unchanging environment, cells are not static. Among other actions, cells activate and then deactivate some types of transcription factors -- proteins that control the expression of genes -- in unpredictable and intermittent pulses. A Caltech study shows that pulsing can allow two proteins to interact in a rhythmic fashion that allows them to control genes. These rhythms may underlie core processes in the cells of organisms across the kingdoms of life.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Study in mice shows how brain ignores distractions
In a study of mice, scientists discovered that a brain region called the thalamus may be critical for filtering out distractions. The study, published in Nature and partially funded by the National Institutes of Health, paves the way to understanding how defects in the thalamus might underlie symptoms seen in patients with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, Simons Foundation, Sloan Foundation, Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, Feldstein Medical Foundation

Contact: Christopher Thomas
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Nature Communications
Scientists predict cool new phase of superionic ice
Scientists have predicted a new phase of superionic ice, a special form of ice that could exist on Uranus and Neptune, in a theoretical study performed by a team of researchers at Princeton University.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Tien Nguyen
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Marine Policy
Analysts see nations' misuse of 'rational use' when it comes to fishing rights
The term 'rational use,' as applied to fishing rights in Antarctic waters, has been misused by certain countries, an analysis by a team of researchers has concluded. Its work, which comes ahead of the 34th international convention where these matters are negotiated, posits that some nations mistakenly see the term as a license for unrestricted fishing.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Biologists discover bacteria communicate like neurons in the brain
Biologists at UC San Diego have discovered that bacteria -- often viewed as lowly, solitary creatures -- are actually quite sophisticated in their social interactions and communicate with one another through similar electrical signaling mechanisms as neurons in the human brain.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Kim McDonald
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 21-Oct-2015
Journal of Experimental Biology
Dead men punching
University of Utah biologists used cadaver arms to punch and slap padded dumbbells in experiments supporting a hotly debated theory that our hands evolved not only for manual dexterity, but also so males could fistfight over females.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
New 'geospeedometer' confirms super-eruptions have short fuses
A new 'geospeedometer' that can measure the amount of time between the formation of an explosive magma melt and an eruption confirms that the process took less than 500 years in several ancient super-eruptions.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: David F. Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics
Tiny dancers: Can ballet bugs help us build better robots?
High-speed video breaks down the incredible leaping ability of basement-dwelling spider crickets and points the way toward development of robotic long jumpers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Phil Sneiderman
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mother-of-pearl's genesis identified in mineral's transformation
How nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is first deposited by the animals that make it has eluded discovery despite decades of scientific inquiry. Now, a team of Wisconsin scientists reports the first direct experimental observations of nacre formation at its earliest stages in a mollusk.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Pupa Gilbert
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
Formation of coastal sea ice in North Pacific drives ocean circulation and climate
An unprecedented analysis of North Pacific ocean circulation over the past 1.2 million years has found that sea ice formation in coastal regions is a key driver of deep ocean circulation, influencing climate on regional and global scales. Coastal sea ice formation takes place on relatively small scales, however, and is not captured well in global climate models.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
Researchers aim to make privacy second nature for software developers
Researchers from academia, and Microsoft, and Intel are developing training that will educate software developers on regulatory requirements related to user privacy. They hope to thereby transform privacy protection from its current status as an afterthought in the development process to an integral element of software design. The National Science Foundation awarded an EAGER grant, which supports early-stage research on untested, but potentially transformative, ideas and approaches.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Mosquitofish populations with more females have greater ecological impact
Female mosquitofish are not only bigger than the males, they have bigger impacts on freshwater ecosystems. In a controlled study conducted in experimental ponds, researchers found dramatic differences in pond ecosystems depending on the ratio of males to females in the mosquitofish populations. In ponds dominated by female fish, the researchers observed more pronounced ecological changes, including fewer zooplankton and a greater abundance of algae, than in male dominated ponds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 20-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Bees to scientists: 'We're more complicated than you think'
Chemical signaling among social insects, such as bees, ants and wasps, is more complex than previously thought, according to researchers at Penn State and Tel Aviv University, whose results refute the idea that a single group of chemicals controls reproduction across numerous species.
US - Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund, Vaadia - BARD Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, US-Israel Binational Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Cyclic healing removes defects in metals while maintaining strength
An international team of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, Xi'an Jiaotong University in China, MIT and Johns Hopkins University has developed a new technique called cyclic healing that uses repetitive, gentle stretching to eliminate pre-existing defects in metal crystals.
National Science Foundation, 973 Programs of China, US Department of Energy, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New mathematical method reveals structure in neural activity in the brain
A newly-developed mathematical method can detect geometric structure in neural activity in the brain. The method is a first step toward developing a new mathematical toolkit to uncover the structure of neural circuits with unknown function in the brain
National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Young Faculty Award, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New study explains near-annual Monsoon oscillations generated by El Niño
New research results show how interaction of the El Niņo phenomenon with the annual cycle of solar radiation in the western Pacific generates a suite of predictable wind and rainfall patterns associated with the Southeast Asian Monsoons. In contrast to the inter-annual timescales of El Niņo, monsoon oscillations occur on nearly annual timescales. The methodology provides a new way to explore atmosphere variability, as well as a number of other climate phenomena.
US National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Rachel Lentz
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Communications
Electronics get a power boost with the addition of a simple material
The tiny transistor is the heart of the electronics revolution, and Penn State materials scientists have just discovered a way to give this workhorse a big boost, using a new technique to incorporate vanadium oxide -- a functional oxide -- into the electronic devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Gene on-off switch works like backpack strap
A research team based in Houston's Texas Medical Center has found that loop-forming proteins inside the human chromosome appear to work like the sliding plastic adjusters on a grade-schooler's backpack. This discovery may allow researchers to reprogram human cells by directly modifying the loops that form in DNA.
Welch Foundation, IBM, Nvidia, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, McNair Medical Institute

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Climate Change
Study: Alaskan boreal forest fires release more carbon than the trees can absorb
A new analysis of fire activity in Alaska's Yukon Flats finds that so many forest fires are occurring there that the area has become a net exporter of carbon to the atmosphere. This is worrisome, the researchers say, because arctic and subarctic boreal forests like those of the Yukon Flats contain roughly one-third of the Earth's terrestrial carbon stores.The research is reported in the journal Nature Climate Change.
US Geological Survey, US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 19-Oct-2015
Nature Photonics
Researchers learn how to steer the heart -- with light
We depend on electrical waves to regulate the rhythm of our heartbeat. When those signals go awry, the result is a potentially fatal arrhythmia. Now, a team of researchers from Oxford and Stony Brook universities has found a way to precisely control these waves -- using light.
BHF Centre of Research Excellence Oxford, Medical Research Council, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, New York Stem Cell Foundation

Contact: Tom Calver
University of Oxford

Showing releases 551-575 out of 938.

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