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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 551-575 out of 896.

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Public Release: 11-Feb-2016
Physical Review Letters
Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein's prediction
For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime, called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein's 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Alison Satake
Louisiana State University

Public Release: 11-Feb-2016
By switching 'bait,' IU biologists trick plants' bacterial defense into attacking virus
Scientists at Indiana University have modified a plant gene that normally fights bacterial infection to confer resistance to a virus. The method, described in a paper to be published Feb. 12 in the journal Science, is the first time a plant's innate defense system has been altered to deliver resistance to a new disease.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kevin D. Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Geophysical Research Letters
Southwest sliding into a drier climate
The weather patterns that typically bring moisture to the southwestern United States are becoming more rare, an indication that the region is sliding into the drier climate state predicted by global models, according to a new study.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Snider
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Experiments in Fluids
Sneezing produces complex fluid cascade, not a simple spray
New high-speed videos captured by MIT researchers show that as a person sneezes, they launch a sheet of fluid that balloons, then breaks apart in long filaments that destabilize, and finally disperses as a spray of droplets, similar to paint that is flung through the air.
National Science Foundation and MIT/Reed and Edgerton Funds

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Fish fins can sense touch
The human fingertip is a finely tuned sensory machine, and even slight touches convey a great deal of information about our physical environment. It turns out, some fish use their pectoral fins in pretty much the same way. And do so through a surprisingly similar biological mechanism to mammals -- humans included.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Jiang
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Geophysical Research Letters
Study challenges widely accepted theory of Yellowstone formation
Understanding the complex geological processes that form supervolcanoes could ultimately help geologists determine what triggers their eruptions. A new study using an advanced computer model casts doubt on previously held theories about the Yellowstone supervolcano's origins, adding to the mystery of Yellowstone's formation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Banducci
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Molecular Biology and Evolution
Genetics help fish thrive in toxic environments, collaborative study finds
A 10-year collaborative project led by biologists from Kansas State University and Washington State University has discovered how the Atlantic molly is able to live in toxic hydrogen sulfide water.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michael Tobler
Kansas State University

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Biology Letters
Study of Asian common toad reveals 3 divergent groups
A research project by Bryan L. Stuart, Research Curator of Herpetology at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, and colleagues, tested the hypothesis that Asian common toad populations across Southeast Asia are genetically similar owing to their commensal nature and high dispersive ability. To the researchers' surprise, three genetically divergent groups of toads were found, each in a different geographic area (mainland Southeast Asia, coastal Myanmar and the islands of Java and Sumatra).
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jonathan Pishney
North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences

Public Release: 10-Feb-2016
Journal of Physiology
Faulty bioelectric signal responsible for facial defects caused by rare genetic disorder
Tufts University biologists have discovered that faulty bioelectric signaling is responsible for the skull and facial abnormalities that characterize the rare genetic disorder Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS). The finding shows it may be possible to alter bioelectrical signaling to correct effects of fetal alcohol syndrome and other developmental defects or genetic mutations.
National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kim Thurler
Tufts University

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
UC's Arlitt Center awarded $1.6 million NSF grant
The great outdoors becomes a federally funded lesson in teaching and learning for preschoolers and their teachers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dawn Fuller
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Environmental Science & Policy
Behind the levees
The long-term damage of levees can be far worse for those living behind them than if those levees were not there, a UC Davis case study of the Sny Island levee district found.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicholas Pinter
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Journal of Insect Science
Rare bumble bee may be making a comeback in Pacific northwest
Bombus occidentalis used to be the most common bumble bee species in the Pacific Northwest, but in the mid 1990s it became one of the rarest. Now, according to an article in the Journal of Insect Science offers, it may be making a comeback.
National Science Foundation, North Coast and Cascades Science Learning Network

Contact: Richard Levine
Entomological Society of America

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
UMass Amherst cyber security expert receives $580,000 grant to fight Internet censorship
Internet security expert Amir Houmansadr at the University of Massachusetts Amherst recently received a five-year, $581,458 CAREER grant from the National Science Foundation to combat Internet censorship by analyzing current censor-circumvention systems and designing a model that will lead to new anti-blocking tools.
NSF/Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Agewandte Chemie
Iowa State engineers develop hybrid technology to create biorenewable nylon
Iowa State's Zengyi Shao and Jean-Philippe Tessonnier are combining the tools of biology and chemistry to create new biorenewable products. Their hybrid conversion technology is featured on the cover of the Feb. 12 issue of the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.
NSF/Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals, National Science Foundation, Iowa State/Plant Sciences Institute and DOE/Ames Laboratory

Contact: Jean-Philippe Tessonnier
Iowa State University

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Developmental Cell
Ancient gene network helps plants adapt to their environments
A team at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory has discovered the purpose of a highly conserved genetic tool that is present in both mosses and flowering plants, organisms whose common ancestor dates back 450 million years. As they report in Developmental Cell, the gene network, which comprising a snippet of non-coding genetic material called a small RNA and the protein it regulates, has been used over the eons to make plants more sensitive to environmental cues and facilitate robust, yet flexible, responses to those cues.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan, Watson School of Biological Sciences, Professorship

Contact: Peter Tarr
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Molecular Ecology
The herbivore dilemma: How corn plants fights off simultaneous attacks
BTI researchers discover that when some maize varieties generate defensive compounds against caterpillars they become more susceptible to aphids.
National Science Foundation, Vaadia-BARD Postdoctoral Fellowship Award

Contact: Patricia Waldron
Boyce Thompson Institute

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Nature Communications
Duplicate DNA a hallmark of tick genome
Researchers have sequenced the genetic blueprint of one of the most prolific pathogen-transmitting agents on the planet -- the Lyme-disease-spreading tick (Ixodes scapularis) that bites humans. The findings could lead to advances in not only disrupting the tick's capacity to spread diseases but also in eradicating the pest.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Mick Kulikowski
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 9-Feb-2016
Molecular Biology and Evolution
Biologists find genetic mechanism for 'extremophile' fish survival
A Washington State University biologist has found the genetic mechanisms that lets a fish live in toxic, acidic water. The discovery opens the door to new insights into the functioning of other 'extremophiles' and how they adapt to their challenging environments.
National Science Foundation, US Army Research Office, L'Oreal Fellowship for Women in Science, Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Contact: Joanna Kelley, WSU assistant professor
Washington State University

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
UTA engineer earns NSF grant to develop optofluidic laser to better detect diseases
An electrical engineer at The University of Texas at Arlington is developing an all-liquid optofluidic laser that could better detect cancer in the comfort of a doctor's office.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
Clemson researchers receive $1.8 million for root study with broad implications for agriculture
Julia Frugoli, Alex Feltus and Victoria Corbin are the recipients of the three-year National Science Foundation grant. Their project will focus on legumes (such as peas and beans).
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Melvin
Clemson University

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
National Science Foundation award will secure microchip design and manufacturing
The National Science Foundation selected Siddharth Garg, a member of the New York University computer hardware security research team, to receive a prestigious award for promising young faculty. He will use the accompanying grant to develop IC logic encryption and split manufacturing techniques that could secure microchips. The design and production of microchips is a highly decentralized process, much of it done offshore. This increases the possibilities of pirating, counterfeiting, and inserting malicious adaptations.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
UK partnership will prepare high school students for geosciences careers
Addressing the growing need for geoscientists and an approaching workforce shortage, the 'Full STEAM Ahead' program will not only aim to attract more students into the field, but also more diverse students, a challenge geosciences has dealt with for years.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Whitney Harder
University of Kentucky

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
Advanced Healthcare Materials
Cotton candy machines may hold key for making artificial organs
Vanderbilt engineers have modified the cotton candy machine to create complex microfluidic networks that mimic the capillary system in living tissue and have demonstrated that these networks can keep cells alive and functioning in an artificial three-dimensional matrix.
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, National Science Foundation

Contact: David F Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
Nature Chemical Biology
Researchers create synthetic biopathway to turn agriculture waste into 'green' products
Researchers at the University of Minnesota have engineered a new synthetic biopathway that can more efficiently and cost-effectively turn agricultural waste, like corn stover and orange peels, into a variety of useful products ranging from spandex to chicken feed. The groundbreaking study was published today in the journal Nature Chemical Biology.
National Science Foundation, University of Minnesota

Contact: Rhonda Zurn
University of Minnesota

Public Release: 8-Feb-2016
International Conference on Computer Vision
New algorithm improves speed and accuracy of pedestrian detection
Electrical engineers at the University of California, San Diego have developed a pedestrian detection system that performs in near real-time (two-four frames per second) and with higher accuracy (close to half the error) compared to existing systems. The technology, which incorporates deep learning models, could be used in 'smart' vehicles, robotics and image and video search systems.
National Science Foundation, Northrop Grumman

Contact: Liezel Labios
University of California - San Diego

Showing releases 551-575 out of 896.

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