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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 551-575 out of 749.

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Public Release: 5-Dec-2013
How mosquitoes are drawn to human skin and breath
Scientists at the University of California, Riverside have found that the very receptors in the mosquito's maxillary palp that detect carbon dioxide are ones that detect skin odors as well, thus explaining why mosquitoes are attracted to skin odor -- smelly socks, worn clothes, bedding -- even in the absence of carbon dioxide. Using a chemical computational method they developed, the researchers identified affordable, safe and pleasant-smelling compounds that could find use in mosquito control.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Science Foundation, University of California Global Health Institute, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Study gives new meaning to 'let your fingers do the walking'
A psychological study has found that skilled typists can't identify the positions of many of the keys on the QWERTY keyboard and probably didn't memorize them even when they first learned to type.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Rising ocean acidification leads to anxiety in fish
A new research study combining marine physiology, neuroscience, pharmacology, and behavioral psychology has revealed a surprising outcome from increases of carbon dioxide uptake in the oceans: anxious fish. Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego and MacEwan University in Edmonton, Canada, have shown for the first time that rising acidity levels increase anxiety in juvenile rockfish, an important commercial species in California.
National Science Foundation, UCSD Academic Senate, Scripps Oceanography, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, MacEwan Research

Contact: Mario Aguilera
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Experimental Biology and Medicine
Successful repair of bone defects using a novel tissue engineered bone graft
In this study, we engineered a novel biomimetic tissue engineered bone graft with MSCs isolated from rabbit adipose, using collagen I hydrogel to encapsulate the β-TCP scaffolds designed to enlarge the cells adhesion. The results demonstrated that the rabbit critical-sized bone defect could be completely repaired by the novel construct.
National Science Foundation of China

Contact: Kunzheng Wang
Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Madagascar Conservation & Development
CU-Boulder-led team finds first evidence of primates regularly sleeping in caves
Scientists have discovered that some ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar regularly retire to limestone chambers for their nightly snoozes, the first evidence of the consistent, daily use of the same caves and crevices for sleeping among the world's wild primates.
Primate Conservation Inc., International Primate Society, National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation

Contact: Michelle Sauther
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Carnegie Mellon scheme uses shared visual cues to help people remember multiple passwords
It turns out that the way to keep track of your many passwords to online accounts is the same as how to get to Carnegie Hall -- practice, practice, practice. So researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have devised a scheme that enables users to create 100 or more passwords by remembering -- and regularly rehearsing -- a small number of one-sentence stories. The story sentences become the basis for password fragments that are randomly combined to create unique, strong passwords for multiple accounts.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Byron Spice
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
MU researcher develops virtual wall which could stop the spread of oil and could help build invisible barrier for oil spills
Researchers at the University of Missouri have developed a technique to form a virtual wall for oily liquids that will help confine them to a certain area, aiding researchers who are studying these complex molecules. This development will have future implications in the guided delivery of oil and effective blockage of oil spreading.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Storing carbon in the Arctic
As Arctic sea ice shrinks, the ocean stores more carbon, study finds.
National Science Foundation, NOAA

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Industrial age helps some coastal regions capture carbon dioxide
Coastal portions of the world's oceans, once believed to be a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, are now thought to absorb as much as two-thirds more carbon than they emitted in the preindustrial age, researchers estimate.
National Science Foundation, NASA, NOAA, Georgia Sea Grant, European Union GEOCARBON, Brussels-Capital Region

Contact: James Bauer
Ohio State University

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Humans threaten wetlands' ability to keep pace with sea-level rise
Left to themselves, coastal wetlands can withstand rapid levels of sea-level rise. But humans could be sabotaging some of their best defenses, according to a Nature review paper published Thursday from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.
National Science Foundation, United States Global Change Research Program

Contact: David Malmquist
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Journal of Materials Chemistry
New method for stabilizing hemoglobin could lead to stable vaccines, artificial blood
A UConn research team has found a way to stabilize hemoglobin, the oxygen carrier protein in the blood, a discovery that could lead to the development of stable vaccines and affordable artificial blood substitutes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Challa V. Kumar
University of Connecticut

Public Release: 4-Dec-2013
Journal of Experimental Biology
Building better high-speed robots with the help of cockroaches
Sensing the environment is difficult for cockroaches running at high speeds as their nervous systems are challenged by the rate of information. Jean-Michel Mongeau from the University of California, Berkeley, USA, wondered whether mechanical systems could be used to share the processing needs. In collaboration with Noah Cowan's group at Johns Hopkins University, USA, Mongeau finds that bending of the antenna by small hairs helps cockroaches, which translates into use in a robotic antenna.
National Science Foundation, US Army Research Laboratory

Contact: Kathryn Knight
The Company of Biologists

Public Release: 3-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Scripps leads first global snapshot of key coral reef fishes
In the first global assessment of its kind, researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego have produced a landmark report on the impact of fishing on a group of fish known to protect the health of coral reefs. The report, published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), offers key data for setting management and conservation targets to protect and preserve fragile coral reefs.
National Science Foundation, NOAA Comparative Analysis of Marine Ecosystem Organization

Contact: Mario Aguilera
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 3-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Signalers vs. strong silent types: Sparrows exude personalities during fights
Some song sparrows are more effusive than others in defending territory. New University of Washington findings show consistent individual differences not only for how aggressive individual song sparrows are but also for how much they use signals to communicate aggressive intentions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Molly McElroy
University of Washington

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Airborne radar looking through thick ice during NASA polar campaigns
The bedrock hidden beneath the thick ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica has intrigued researchers for years. Scientists are interested in how the shape of this hidden terrain affects how ice moves -- a key factor in making predictions about the future of these massive ice reservoirs and their contribution to sea level rise in a changing climate.
NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: George Hale
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal
A living desert underground
UA researchers have discovered a surprisingly diverse ecosystem of microbes in a limestone cave near Tucson, Arizona, eking out a living from not much more than drip water, rock and air. The discovery not only expands our understanding of how microbes manage to colonize every niche on the planet but also could lead to applications ranging from environmental cleanup solutions to drug development.
National Science Foundation/Microbial Observatory grant, UA National Science Foundation IGERT Genomics Initiative Fellowship

Contact: Daniel Stolte
University of Arizona

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Illinois initiative creates futuristic facility
Through the CompGen initiative, the University of Illinois' Institute for Genomic Biology and the Coordinated Science Laboratory in the College of Engineering are bringing together top faculty in genomic and computational sciences to create a dynamic team that will develop new technology for genomic breakthroughs.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicholas Vasi
Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
ACS Nano
When aluminum outshines gold
Aluminum's plasmonic properties may make it far more valuable than gold and silver for certain applications. Rice University researchers provide experimental and theoretical proof of the metal's potential.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Army Research Office, Welch Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Army Research Lab

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Culling vampire bats to stem rabies in Latin America can backfire
Culling vampire bat colonies to stem the transmission of rabies in Latin America does little to slow the spread of the virus and could even have the reverse effect, according to University of Michigan researchers and their colleagues.
National Science Foundation, University of Georgia, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Contact: Jim Erickson
University of Michigan

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Forget the needle consider the haystack
Computer scientists at Princeton University have developed a method to uncover hidden patterns in huge data collections. Using a mathematical method that calculates the likelihood of a pattern repeating throughout a subset of data, the researchers have been able to cut dramatically the time needed to find patterns in large collections of information such as social networks.
US Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Alfred. P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: John Sullivan
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers revise Darwin's thinking on invasive species
Rebutting Charles Darwin, researchers writing in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences say the relatedness of native and introduced species is not as important as the details of how they go about doing their business. The model they've developed in analyzing Darwin's "naturalization conundrum" could lead to a new way of gauging the potential of invasive species, a major ecological and economic concern as plants and animals have spread into new habitats around the planet.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Emily Jones
Washington State University

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Secrets to 'extreme adaptation' found in Burmese python genome
The Burmese python's ability to ramp up its metabolism and enlarge its organs to swallow and digest prey whole can be traced to unusually rapid evolution and specialized adaptations of its genes and the way they work, an international team of biologists says in a new paper set to be published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Todd Castoe, of the University of Texas at Arlington, is lead author.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, 454 Life Sciences

Contact: Traci Peterson
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Psychological Science
To boost concern for the environment, emphasize a long future, not impending doom
Looking back on a nation's past can prompt action that leads to a greener future, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The research, conducted by NYU Stern researcher Hal Hershfield and colleagues H. Min Bang and Elke U. Weber of Columbia University, suggests that one strong way to encourage environmentally-friendly behavior is to emphasize the long life expectancy of a nation, and not necessarily its imminent downfall.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 1-Dec-2013
The mystery of neutron stars heats up
Until now, scientists were pretty sure they knew how the surface of a neutron star -- a super dense star that forms when a large star explodes and its core collapses into itself -- can heat itself up. However, research by a team of scientists led by a Michigan State University physicist has researchers rethinking that.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Oswald
Michigan State University

Public Release: 1-Dec-2013
Nature Nanotechnology
'Nanosponge vaccine' fights MRSA toxins
Nanosponges that soak up a dangerous pore-forming toxin produced by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) could serve as a safe and effective vaccine against this toxin. This "nanosponge vaccine" enabled the immune systems of mice to block the adverse effects of the alpha-haemolysin toxin from MRSA -- both within the bloodstream and on the skin. Nanoengineers from UC San Diego described the safety and efficacy of this nanosponge vaccine in the Dec. 1 issue of Nature Nanotechnology.
NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel Kane
University of California - San Diego

Showing releases 551-575 out of 749.

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