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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 576-600 out of 819.

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Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Nature Communications
Penn research shows relationship critical for how cells ingest matter
To survive and fulfill their biological functions, cells need to take in material from their environment. In this process, proteins within the cell pull inward on its membrane, forming a pit that eventually encapsulates the material in a bubble called a vesicle. Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania have now revealed a relationship that governs this process, known as endocytosis.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Nature Communications
Researchers at Penn, UC Berkeley and Illinois use oxides to flip graphene conductivity
A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania; University of California, Berkeley; and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has demonstrated a new way to change the amount of electrons that reside in a given region within a piece of graphene, they have a proof-of-principle in making the fundamental building blocks of semiconductor devices using the 2-D material.
Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Electronic circuits with reconfigurable pathways closer to reality
Multitasking circuits capable of reconfiguring themselves in real time and switching functions as the need arises -- this is the promising application stemming from a discovery made at EPFL and published in Nature Nanotechnology. Other potential uses: miniaturizing our electronic devices and developing resilient circuits.
European Research Council-EU 7th Framework Program, Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Office of Education and Science

Contact: Leo Mc Gilly
leo.mcgilly@epfl.ch
41-216-931-043
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Journal of Geophysical Research
Climate models disagree on why temperature 'wiggles' occur
Most climate models likely underestimate the degree of decade-to-decade variability occurring in mean surface temperatures as Earth's atmosphere warms. They also provide inconsistent explanations of why these wiggles occur in the first place, a Duke-led study finds. These inconsistencies may undermine the models' reliability for projecting the short-term pace and extent of future warming, and indicate that we shouldn't over-interpret recent temperature trends. The study analyzed 34 models used in the most recent IPCC assessment report.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
tdlucas@duke.edu
919-613-8084
Duke University

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
How cancer turns good cells to the dark side
Rice University biophysicists reveal how cancer uses notch-signaling pathways to promote metastasis. Their computer models provide a fresh theoretical framework for scientists who study ways to target cancer progression.
National Science Foundation, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, The Keck Center for Interdisciplinary Bioscience Training of the Gulf Coast Consortia, The Sao Paulo Research Foundation, The Welch Foundation, The Tauber Family Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Scientists identify new mechanism to aid cells under stress
A team of biologists has identified new details in a cellular mechanism that serves as a defense against stress. The findings potentially offer insights into tumor progression and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's -- the cell's inability to respond to stress is a major cause of these diseases.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: James Devitt
james.devitt@nyu.edu
212-998-6808
New York University

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Nanoshuttle wear and tear: It's the mileage, not the age
As nanomachine design advances, researchers are moving from wondering if the nanomachine works to how long it will work -- an important question as there are so many potential applications, e.g., for medical uses including drug delivery and early diagnosis. Columbia Engineering Professor Henry Hess observed a molecular shuttle powered by kinesin motor proteins and found it to degrade when operating, marking the first time degradation has been studied in detail in an active, autonomous nanomachine.
National Science Foundation, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Labs

Contact: Holly Evarts
holly.evarts@columbia.edu
347-453-7408
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Nature Methods
Ribose-seq identifies and locates ribonucleotides in genomic DNA
Researchers have developed and tested a new technique known as ribose-seq that allows them to determine the full profile of ribonucleotides -- RNA fragments -- embedded in genomic DNA.
National Science Foundation, Georgia Research Alliance, American Cancer Society, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation

Contact: John Toon
jtoon@gatech.edu
404-894-6986
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
3-D enzyme model provides new tool for anti-inflammatory drug development
To better understand PLA2 enzymes and help drive therapeutic drug development, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine developed 3-D computer models that show exactly how two PLA2 enzymes extract their substrates from cellular membranes. The new tool is described in a paper published online the week of Jan. 26 by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Heather Buschman
hbuschman@ucsd.edu
619-543-6163
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 26-Jan-2015
Journal of General Physiology
Leaky channels could contribute to unusual heart arrhythmias
Leaks are not just problems for plumbers and politicians; researchers reveal how leaky trans-membrane channels could cause disruptions in normal heart function. The study suggests that ion leaks in mutant sodium channels might contribute to an unusual set of cardiac arrhythmias.
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Quebec, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Rita Sullivan King
news@rupress.org
212-327-8603
Rockefeller University Press

Public Release: 23-Jan-2015
Physical Review Letters
Researchers make magnetic graphene
Graphene has many desirable properties. Magnetism alas is not one of them. Magnetism can be induced in graphene by doping it with magnetic impurities, but this tends to disrupt graphene's electronic properties. Now a team of UC Riverside physicists has found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene's electronic properties. They have accomplished this by bringing a graphene sheet very close to a magnetic insulator -- an electrical insulator with magnetic properties.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 23-Jan-2015
UTSA and Indiana University partner on $6.6 million NSF cloud-based advanced computing systems grant
The University of Texas at San Antonio is partnering with Indiana University on a $6.6 million National Science Foundation grant to build cloud-based advanced computing systems for the science and engineering community.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kris Rodriguez
kris.rodriguez@utsa.edu
210-458-5116
University of Texas at San Antonio

Public Release: 23-Jan-2015
Science
Diaper compound may expand power of microscopes
A study, partially funded by the National Institutes of Health, showed that a modified form of the superabsorbent chemical used in disposable diapers can expand brain structures to four and a half times their original size. The process called expansion microscopy will allow scientists to take super-resolution pictures of healthy and diseased tissue throughout the body using common microscopes.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, New York Stem Cell Foundation, Jeremy & Joyce Wertheimer, Google, MIT Synthetic Intelligence Project, MIT Media Lab, MIT McGoveran Institute, MIT Neurotechnology Fund, and others

Contact: Christopher G. Thomas
thomaschr@ninds.nih.gov
301-496-5751
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 23-Jan-2015
Nano Letters
Silver nanowires demonstrate unexpected self-healing mechanism
Northwestern University researchers find that silver nanowires can withstand strong cyclic loads, which is a key attribute needed for flexible electronics.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Megan Fellman
fellman@northwestern.edu
847-491-3115
Northwestern University

Public Release: 23-Jan-2015
Advanced Functional Materials
New technique helps probe performance of organic solar cell materials
Researchers have developed a technique for determining the role that a material's structure has on the efficiency of organic solar cells, which are candidates for low-cost, next generation solar power. The researchers used the technique to determine that materials with a highly organized structure at the nanoscale are not more efficient at creating free electrons than poorly organized structures -- a finding which will guide future research and development efforts.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Physical Review A
Scientists set quantum speed limit
The flip side of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the energy time uncertainty principle, establishes a speed limit for transitions between two states. UC Berkeley physical chemists have now proved this principle for transitions between states that are not entirely distinct, allowing the calculation of speed limits for processes such as quantum computing and tunneling. The proof puts on sound footing a relationship that most physicists use daily.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Syracuse geologists receive federal grant to study tectonic uplift
Earth scientists in Syracuse University's College of Arts and Sciences have received a major grant to test a new technique for measuring tectonic uplift.
NSF/Early-Concept Grant for Exploratory Research

Contact: Rob Enslin
rmenslin@syr.edu
315-443-3403
Syracuse University

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Low-income boys fare worse in wealth's shadow
Low-income boys fare worse, not better, when they grow up alongside more affluent neighbors, according to new research from Duke University. The greater the economic distance between boys and their neighbors, the worse the effects. In mixed-income neighborhoods, poor boys showed more antisocial behavior, such as lying, cheating, swearing and fighting. The findings reflect a dozen years of research on mixed-income neighborhoods in the UK.
NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Economic and Social Research Council, National Science Foundation

Contact: Alison Jones
Alison.jones@duke.edu
919-681-8052
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Physical Review Letters
Exotic, gigantic molecules fit inside each other like Russian nesting dolls
University of Chicago scientists have experimentally observed for the first time a phenomenon in ultracold, three-atom molecules predicted by Russian theoretical physicsist Vitaly Efimov in 1970.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office

Contact: Steve Koppes
skoppes@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366
University of Chicago

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
NSF projects offer research experience for undergraduates at UT Dallas
Professors in the Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science lead research projects for undergraduate students sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: LaKisha Ladson
lakisha.ladson@UTDallas.edu
972-883-4183
University of Texas at Dallas

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Boston's leaky pipes release high levels of heat-trapping methane
A Harvard-led research team estimates that each year about 15 billion cubic feet of natural gas, worth some $90 million, escapes the Boston region's delivery system.
TomKat Charitable Trust, Boston University College of Arts and Sciences, National Science Foundation, NASA, Environmental Defense Fund

Contact: Paul Karoff
karoff@seas.harvard.edu
617-496-0450
Harvard University

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Science
Rosetta data reveals more surprises about comet 67P
As the Rosetta spacecraft orbits comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, an international team of scientists have discovered that the comet's atmosphere, or coma, is much less homogenous than expected and comet outgassing varies significantly over time, as reported in a paper published in the Jan. 23, 2015, issue of Science. Dr. Myrtha Hässig is lead author of the paper titled 'Time Variability and Heterogeneity in the Coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko' and a postdoctoral researcher at Southwest Research Institute.
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, State of Bern, Swiss National Science Foundation, European Space Agency PRODEX Program, and others

Contact: Deb Schmid
dschmid@swri.org
210-522-2254
Southwest Research Institute

Public Release: 22-Jan-2015
Cell
Enzymes believed to promote cancer actually suppress tumors
Upending decades-old dogma, a team of scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say enzymes long categorized as promoting cancer are, in fact, tumor suppressors and that current clinical efforts to develop inhibitor-based drugs should instead focus on restoring the enzymes' activities.
National Institutes of Health, James S. McDonnell Foundation, UCSD/Graduate Training Program in Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, National Science Foundation/Graduate Research Fellowship, Cancer Research UK

Contact: Scott LaFee
slafee@ucsd.edu
619-543-6163
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 21-Jan-2015
BMC Evolutionary Biology
Most endangered chimpanzees have complex evolutionary past, perilous future
Complementary analyses of population genetics, geographical distribution and habitat use paint a new picture of the evolutionary past and potentially bleak future of the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti), already the most endangered chimp subspecies. There are unexpectedly two distinct populations of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee which have closer ties to their habitats than previously anticipated. And climate change could cause them significant and rapid harm.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Geographic, Offield Family Foundation, USFWS Great Apes Conservation Fund, Arcus Foundation

Contact: Rachel Ewing
re39@drexel.edu
215-895-2614
Drexel University

Public Release: 21-Jan-2015
Annals of Glaciology
UNL drillers help make new Antarctic discoveries
Expedition to Antarctica yields new information about how climate change affects Antarctic glaciers; new ecosystem discovered in estuary beneath the ice.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Frank Rack
frack2@unl.edu
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Showing releases 576-600 out of 819.

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