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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 601-625 out of 749.

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Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Forget the needle consider the haystack
Computer scientists at Princeton University have developed a method to uncover hidden patterns in huge data collections. Using a mathematical method that calculates the likelihood of a pattern repeating throughout a subset of data, the researchers have been able to cut dramatically the time needed to find patterns in large collections of information such as social networks.
US Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Alfred. P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: John Sullivan
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers revise Darwin's thinking on invasive species
Rebutting Charles Darwin, researchers writing in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences say the relatedness of native and introduced species is not as important as the details of how they go about doing their business. The model they've developed in analyzing Darwin's "naturalization conundrum" could lead to a new way of gauging the potential of invasive species, a major ecological and economic concern as plants and animals have spread into new habitats around the planet.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Emily Jones
Washington State University

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Secrets to 'extreme adaptation' found in Burmese python genome
The Burmese python's ability to ramp up its metabolism and enlarge its organs to swallow and digest prey whole can be traced to unusually rapid evolution and specialized adaptations of its genes and the way they work, an international team of biologists says in a new paper set to be published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Todd Castoe, of the University of Texas at Arlington, is lead author.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, 454 Life Sciences

Contact: Traci Peterson
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 2-Dec-2013
Psychological Science
To boost concern for the environment, emphasize a long future, not impending doom
Looking back on a nation's past can prompt action that leads to a greener future, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The research, conducted by NYU Stern researcher Hal Hershfield and colleagues H. Min Bang and Elke U. Weber of Columbia University, suggests that one strong way to encourage environmentally-friendly behavior is to emphasize the long life expectancy of a nation, and not necessarily its imminent downfall.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 1-Dec-2013
The mystery of neutron stars heats up
Until now, scientists were pretty sure they knew how the surface of a neutron star -- a super dense star that forms when a large star explodes and its core collapses into itself -- can heat itself up. However, research by a team of scientists led by a Michigan State University physicist has researchers rethinking that.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Oswald
Michigan State University

Public Release: 1-Dec-2013
Nature Nanotechnology
'Nanosponge vaccine' fights MRSA toxins
Nanosponges that soak up a dangerous pore-forming toxin produced by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) could serve as a safe and effective vaccine against this toxin. This "nanosponge vaccine" enabled the immune systems of mice to block the adverse effects of the alpha-haemolysin toxin from MRSA -- both within the bloodstream and on the skin. Nanoengineers from UC San Diego described the safety and efficacy of this nanosponge vaccine in the Dec. 1 issue of Nature Nanotechnology.
NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel Kane
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 28-Nov-2013
Quantitative approaches provide new perspective on development of antibiotic resistance
Using quantitative models of bacterial growth, a team of UC San Diego biophysicists has discovered the bizarre way by which antibiotic resistance allows bacteria to multiply in the presence of antibiotics, a growing health problem in hospitals and nursing homes across the United States.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim McDonald
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 27-Nov-2013
Circadian timing may give edge to West Coast NFL teams in night games
A new analysis of National Football League results suggests that the body's natural circadian timing gives a performance advantage to West Coast teams when they play East Coast teams at night.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lynn Celmer
American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Public Release: 27-Nov-2013
Current Biology
New clues to memory formation may help better treat dementia
Do fruit flies hold the key to treating dementia? Biologists at the University of Houston have taken a significant step forward in unraveling the mechanisms of Pavlovian conditioning. Their work will help them understand how memories form and, ultimately, provide better treatments to improve memory in all ages. Gregg Roman and Shixing Zhang describe their findings in a paper in the Nov. 27 issue of Current Biology, a scientific bimonthly journal published by Cell Press.
National Science Foundation, Norman Hackerman Program

Contact: Lisa Merkl
University of Houston

Public Release: 27-Nov-2013
Science Translational Medicine
Clinical trial shows tongue-controlled wheelchair outperforms popular wheelchair navigation system
Individuals with paralysis in a new clinical trial were able to use a tongue-controlled technology to access computers and execute commands for their wheelchairs at speeds that were significantly faster than those recorded in sip-and-puff wheelchairs, but with equal accuracy. The new study is the first to show that the wireless and wearable Tongue Drive System outperforms sip-and-puff in controlling wheelchairs. Sip-and-puff is the most popular assistive technology for controlling a wheelchair.
NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Science Foundation

Contact: Brett Israel
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 26-Nov-2013
FSU engineers net more than $1 million for materials research
Florida State researchers have been awarded more than $1.4 million from the National Science Foundation to develop a system that will produce large amounts of a state-of-the-art material made from carbon nanotubes that researchers believe could transform everything from the way airplanes are built to how prosthetic limbs fit the human body.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Butler
Florida State University

Public Release: 26-Nov-2013
Computers & Security
Finding hidden circles may improve social network privacy settings
Creating a computer program to find relationships in networks, such as Google Plus and Facebook, may help users more easily set up and maintain privacy settings, according to researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matthew Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 26-Nov-2013
Society for Personality and Social Psychology 15th Annual Meeting
Gratitude or guilt? People spend more when they 'pay it forward'
As shoppers across the nation prepare to pounce on Black Friday sales, researchers at UC Berkeley are looking at what happens to commerce when there's no set price tag. In an exhaustive study of consumer behavior, they found that shoppers spend more money when engaged in a chain of goodwill known as "pay-it-forward" than when they can name their own price.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Yasmin Anwar
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 26-Nov-2013
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Iron preserves, hides ancient tissues in fossilized remains
New research from North Carolina State University shows that iron may play a role in preserving ancient tissues within dinosaur fossils, but also may hide them from detection. The finding could open the door to the recovery of more ancient tissues from within fossils.
National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Contact: Tracey Peake
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 26-Nov-2013
Nature Communications
Seahorse heads have a 'no wake zone' that's made for catching prey
Seahorses are slow, docile creatures, but their heads are perfectly shaped to sneak up and quickly snatch prey, according to marine scientists from the University of Texas at Austin.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brad Gemmell
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 26-Nov-2013
Global Change Biology
Large study shows pollution impact on coral reefs -- and offers solution
One of the largest and longest experiments ever done to test the impact of nutrient loading on coral reefs today confirmed what scientists have long suspected -- that this type of pollution from sewage, agricultural practices or other sources can lead to coral disease and bleaching. But there was unexpectedly good news - when you cleaned up the water, the corals recovered.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Rebecca Vega-Thurber
Oregon State University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Bad proteins branch out
Rice University theorists find that misfolded proteins form branched structures, which may have implications for Alzheimer's and other aggregation diseases.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
Nano Letters
Nanotubes can solder themselves, markedly improving device performance
University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to heal gaps in wires too small for even the world's tiniest soldering iron. Junctions between nanotubes have high resistance, slowing down the current and creating hotspots. The researchers use these hot spots to trigger a local chemical reaction that deposits metal that nano-solders the junctions.
National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Liz Ahlberg
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
American Journal of Science
Ancient minerals: Which gave rise to life?
Life originated as a result of natural processes that exploited early Earth's raw materials. Scientific models of life's origins almost always look to minerals for such essential tasks as the synthesis of life's molecular building blocks or the supply of metabolic energy. But this assumes that the mineral species found on Earth today are much the same as they were during Earth's first 550 million years -- the Hadean Eon -- when life emerged. A new analysis of Hadean mineralogy challenges that assumption.
National Science Foundation, NASA Astrobiology Institute, Deep Carbon Observatory, Carnegie Institution

Contact: Robert Hazen
Carnegie Institution

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
The inner workings of a bacterial black box caught on time-lapse video
Using a pioneering visualization method, researchers from the UC Berkeley and the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute made movies of a complex and vital cellular machine called the carboxysome being assembled inside living cells. They observed that bacteria build these internal compartments in a way never seen in plant, animal and other eukaryotic cells. The findings, published Nov. 21, 2013, in the journal Cell, will illuminate bacterial physiology and may also influence nanotechnology development.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Gilbert
DOE/Joint Genome Institute

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
Scientific Reports
Flashes of brilliance
Spontaneous bursts of coherent light from solid-state materials shed new light on how particles interact and may lead to ultrahigh-speed optoelectronic devices for telecommunications.
National Science Foundation, State of Florida

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
NSF supports extreme black hole research at RIT with $525,000 grant
Rochester Institute of Technology scientists will simulate extreme black holes colliding -- and the gravitational waves produced from the impact -- to create blueprints for detecting gravity waves and verifying Einstein's theory of general relativity -- an event that could occur within the decade. They won a $525,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to advance their research, part of the international effort to confirm the existence of gravitational waves and black holes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Gawlowicz
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
Rice scientists ID new catalyst for cleanup of nitrites
Rice University researchers have found that gold and palladium nanoparticles can rapidly break down nitrites, a common contaminant in drinking water that often results from overuse of agricultural fertilizers. The nanoengineered catalysts were 7.5 times more efficient at reducing nitrites than previously studied catalysts made of palladium and aluminum oxide.
National Science Foundation, Rice University's Smalley Institute, Welch Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
Researchers use nanoscale 'patches' to sensitize targeted cell receptors
Researchers have developed nanoscale "patches" that can be used to sensitize targeted cell receptors, making them more responsive to signals that control cell activity. The finding holds promise for promoting healing and facilitating tissue engineering research.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
US methane emissions exceed government estimates
Emissions of methane from fossil fuel extraction and refining activities in the south-central United States are nearly five times higher than previous estimates, according to researchers at Harvard University and seven other institutions. Their study, published this week in PNAS, also suggests that the contribution from livestock operations may be twice as high as previously thought.
Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, NASA, NOAA, American Meteorological Society, Environmental Defense Fund

Contact: Caroline Perry
Harvard University

Showing releases 601-625 out of 749.

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