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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 601-625 out of 919.

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Public Release: 2-May-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Californian sudden oak death epidemic 'unstoppable,' new epidemics must be managed earlier
New research shows the sudden oak death epidemic in California cannot now be stopped, but that its tremendous ecological and economic impacts could have been greatly reduced if control had been started earlier. The research also identifies new strategies to enhance control of future epidemics, including identifying where and how to fell trees, as 'there will be a next time.'
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Hayward
jennifer.hayward@admin.cam.ac.uk
122-374-8174
University of Cambridge

Public Release: 2-May-2016
Nature Physics
How DNA can take on the properties of sand or toothpaste
When does DNA behave like sand or toothpaste? When the genetic material is so densely packed within a virus, it can behave like grains of sand or toothpaste in a tube. That's essentially what biophysicists at UC San Diego discovered when they began closely examining the physical properties of DNA jammed inside viruses
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kim McDonald
kmcdonald@ucsd.edu
858-534-7572
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 2-May-2016
Nature Neuroscience
Neuroscientists find evidence for 'visual stereotyping'
The stereotypes we hold can influence our brain's visual system, prompting us to see others' faces in ways that conform to these stereotypes, neuroscientists at New York University have found.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
james.devitt@nyu.edu
212-998-6808
New York University

Public Release: 2-May-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Indiana University researchers find Earth may be home to 1 trillion species
Earth could contain nearly 1 trillion species, with only one-thousandth of 1 percent now identified, according to a study from biologists at Indiana University. The estimate, based on the intersection of large datasets and universal scaling laws, appears today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Science Foundation, US Army Research Office

Contact: Kevin Fryling
kfryling@iu.edu
812-856-2988
Indiana University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2016
Advanced Optical Materials
Light-powered 3-D printer creates terahertz lens
Created from a 3-D printed metamaterial, the new lens could be used for biomedical research and security imaging.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
fellman@northwestern.edu
847-491-3115
Northwestern University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nanoparticles present sustainable way to grow food crops
Engineers at Washington University in St. Louis are using nanoparticle technology in an effort to meet the ever-increasing demand for food. Their innovative technique boosts the growth of a protein-rich bean by improving the way it absorbs nutrients, while reducing the need for fertilizer.
National Science Foundation, National Agricultural Innovation Project, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Government of India

Contact: Erika Ebsworth-Goold
eebsworth-goold@wustl.edu
314-935-2914
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 28-Apr-2016
Journal of Cell Biology
A cell senses its own curves: New research from the MBL Whitman Center
Septin proteins in human and fungal cells can sense micron-scaled curves in the cell membrane, scientists from Dartmouth College and the Marine Biological Laboratory discover.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Diana Kenney
dkenney@mbl.edu
508-289-7139
Marine Biological Laboratory

Public Release: 28-Apr-2016
Advanced Materials
Personal cooling units on the horizon
Firefighters entering burning buildings, athletes competing in the broiling sun and workers in foundries may eventually be able to carry their own, lightweight cooling units with them, thanks to a nanowire array that cools, according to Penn State materials researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 28-Apr-2016
Nature Materials
Shape of tumor may affect whether cells can metastasize
Only a few cells in a cancerous tumor are able to break away and spread to other parts of the body, but the curve along the edge of the tumor may play a large role in activating these tumor-seeding cells, according to a new University of Illinois study.
American Cancer Society, National Science Foundation

Contact: Liz Ahlberg
eahlberg@illinois.edu
217-244-1073
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 28-Apr-2016
Molecular Systems Biology
Scientists predict cell changes that affect breast cancer growth
Using a broad spectrum of analytical tools, scientists from the Florida campus of the Scripps Research Institute have shown how sometimes small, often practically imperceptible, structural changes in a key breast cancer receptor are directly linked to regulating molecules and can produce predictable effects in curbing or accelerating cancer growth.
National Institutes of Health, Frenchman's Creek Women for Cancer Research, BallenIsles Men's Golf Association, National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation of China, Key Project of Ministry of Education, and others

Contact: Eric Sauter
esauter@scripps.edu
267-337-3859
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 28-Apr-2016
Annals of Glaciology
Ice loss accelerating in Greenland's coastal glaciers, Dartmouth study finds
Surface meltwater draining through and underneath Greenland's tidewater glaciers is accelerating their loss of ice mass, according to a Dartmouth study that sheds light on the relationship between meltwater and subglacial discharge.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
john.cramer@dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 28-Apr-2016
Science
New study exposes growing problem of patent aggregators and negative impact on innovation
In theory, the rise in patent litigation could reflect growth in the commercialization of technology and innovation, as lawsuits increase proportionately as more and more companies turn to intellectual property (IP) protection to safeguard their competitive advantages. In reality, however, it's a very different story. The authors point out that the majority of recent patent litigation has been driven by 'nonpracticing entities' (NPEs) -- firms that generate no products but instead amass patent portfolios just for the sake of enforcing IP rights.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Aisner
jaisner@hbs.edu
617-495-6157
Harvard Business School

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Bacteria beneficial to plants have spread across California
Scientists at the University of California, Riverside have discovered that a strain of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria has spread across California, demonstrating that beneficial bacteria can share some of the same features that are characteristic of pathogens. The bacteria, called Bradyrhizobium, form tumor-like nodules on the roots of plants and are able to 'fix' nitrogen by breaking it down and rendering it into forms that plants can easily metabolize.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Protecting diversity on coral reefs: DNA may hold the key
Research published today by a team of scientists discovered that large areas of intact coral reef with extensive live coral cover, not disturbed by humans or climate change, harbor the greatest amount of genetic diversity. With this work, the researchers uncovered a link between species diversity of an ecosystem and the genetic diversity encoded within the DNA of those species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: M
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Nature Communications
Study reveals COPD linked to increased bacterial invasion
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common smoking-related lung illness and the third leading cause of death in the United States. Scientists have long believed that inhaling toxic gases and particles from tobacco smoke causes inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, leading to the development of COPD. However, the theory doesn't explain why airway inflammation and disease progression continue even after the patient stops smoking.
National Institutes of Health, American Lung Association, National Science Foundation, Department of Veterans Affairs, Forest Research Institute

Contact: Craig Boerner
craig.boerner@vanderbilt.edu
615-322-4747
Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Widespread loss of ocean oxygen to become noticeable in 2030s
A reduction in the amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans due to climate change is already discernible in some parts of the world and should be evident across large regions of the oceans between 2030 and 2040, according to a new study led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Snider
lsnider@ucar.edu
303-497-8605
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Environmental Science & Technology
Contamination in North Dakota linked to fracking spills
Accidental wastewater spills from unconventional oil production in North Dakota have caused widespread water and soil contamination, a Duke study finds. Researchers found high levels of contaminants and salt in surface waters polluted by the brine-laden wastewater, which primarily comes from fracked wells. Soil at spill sites was contaminated with radium. At one site, high levels of contaminants were detected in residual waters four years after the spill occurred.
National Science Foundation, Natural Resources Defense Council

Contact: Tim Lucas
tdlucas@duke.edu
919-613-8084
Duke University

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Nature
Brain's 'thesaurus' mapped to help decode inner thoughts
What if a map of the brain could help us decode people's inner thoughts? Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have taken a step in that direction by building a 'semantic atlas' that shows in vivid colors and multiple dimensions how the human brain organizes language.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Yasmin Anwar
yanwar@berkeley.edu
510-643-7944
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 27-Apr-2016
Nature
Researchers create a better way to find out 'when'
A machine-learning algorithm created by a A research team has created an algorithm that improves the accuracy of dating past events by a factor of up to 300. The mathematical research, led by two UWM physicists, is featured in the journal Nature.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abbas Ourmazd
ourmazd@uwm.edu
414-430-2226
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Public Release: 26-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Coral 'toolkit' allows floating larvae to transform into reef skeletons
In a study published today, researchers from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Rutgers University, and the University of Haifa identified key and novel components of the molecular 'toolkit' that allow corals to build their skeletons (called biomineralization) and described when -- in the transformation from floating larvae to coral skeleton -- these components are used.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Marcie Workman
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 26-Apr-2016
Astrophysical Journal
Nearby massive star explosion 30 million years ago equaled detonation of 100 million suns
A giant star that exploded 30 million years ago in a galaxy near Earth had a radius prior to going supernova that was 200 times larger than our sun, say astrophysicists at Southern Methodist University, Dallas. The massive explosion, Supernova 2013ej, was one of the closest to Earth in recent years. Comprehensive analysis of the exploding star's light curve and color spectrum found its sudden blast hurled material outward at 10,000 kilometers a second.
NASA, National Science Foundation, Hungarian OTKA

Contact: Margaret Allen
mallen@smu.edu
214-768-7664
Southern Methodist University

Public Release: 26-Apr-2016
mSystems
Fermentation festival leads to rapid response system at Center for Microbiome Innovation
While technological advances have made it easier to map our microbiomes and metabolomes, these studies typically take too long for that data to be medically useful. Researchers at the University of California San Diego Center for Microbiome Innovation used the 2016 San Diego Fermentation Festival as a test case for a novel rapid response system. In the study, published in mSystems, the team collected samples, analyzed data and reported conclusions in an unprecedented 48 hours.
National Science Foundation, Sloan Foundation

Contact: Heather Buschman
hbuschman@ucsd.edu
619-543-6163
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 26-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
We share a molecular armor with coral reefs
A new study published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B has found that one particular molecule found in reef ecosystems plays a similar immunological role in corals as it does in humans. From an evolutionary standpoint, this suggests the molecule's immune function dates back at least 550 million years.
National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education, National Science Foundation Dimensions, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Cystic Fibrosis Research Inc

Contact: Michael Price
mprice@mail.sdsu.edu
619-594-0389
San Diego State University

Public Release: 25-Apr-2016
Journal of American Chemical Society
Flipping a chemical switch helps perovskite solar cells beat the heat
A simple chemical conversion could be another step toward making cheap, efficient and stable perovskite solar cells.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Kevin Stacey
kevin_stacey@brown.edu
401-863-3766
Brown University

Public Release: 25-Apr-2016
Scientific Reports
Patterns of glowing sharks get clearer with depth
A team of researchers has found that catsharks are not only able to see the bright green biofluorescence they produce, but that they increase contrast of their glowing pattern when deep underwater. The study, conducted with a custom-built 'shark-eye' camera that simulates how the shark sees underwater, shows that fluorescence makes catsharks more visible to neighbors of the same species at the depths that they live and may aid in communication between one another.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, and The Dalio Foundation

Contact: Kendra Snyder
ksnyder@amnh.org
212-496-3419
American Museum of Natural History

Showing releases 601-625 out of 919.

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