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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 601-625 out of 741.

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Public Release: 22-Nov-2013
Angewandte Chemie
Copper promises cheaper, sturdier fuel cells
Duke chemists are exploring the use of copper nanowires in fuel cells to convert solar energy into storable fuel. Copper nanowire catalysts cost less to produce than their indium tin oxide counterparts because they can be "printed" on pieces of glass or plastic in a liquid ink form, using a machine that functions much like a printing press. The nanowires can also be incorporated into transparent, flexible films.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Erin Weeks
erin.weeks@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Nov-2013
Molecular Ecology
Biodiversity higher in the tropics, but species more likely to arise at higher latitudes
A study of 2300 species of mammals and 6700 species of birds helps explain why there are more species in the tropics than at higher latitudes. Researchers found that while the tropics harbor more species, the number of subspecies increases in the harsher environments typical of higher latitudes. The results suggest that the latitudinal diversity gradient may be due higher species turnover -- speciation counterbalanced by extinction -- towards the poles than near the equator.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
rsmith@nescent.org
919-668-4544
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 21-Nov-2013
Science
Pre-industrial rise in greenhouse gases had natural and anthropogenic causes
For years scientists have intensely argued over whether increases of potent methane gas concentrations in the atmosphere -- from about 5,000 years ago to the start of the industrial revolution -- were triggered by natural causes or human activities. A new study, published Friday in the journal Science, suggests the increase in methane likely was caused by both.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mark Floyd
mark.floyd@oregonstate.edu
541-737-0788
Oregon State University

Public Release: 21-Nov-2013
Biomacromolecules
Research paves path for hybrid nano-materials that could replace human tissue or today's pills
A team of researchers has uncovered critical information that could help scientists understand how protein polymers interact with other self-assembling biopolymers. The research helps explain naturally occurring nano-material within cells and could one day lead to engineered bio-composites for drug delivery, artificial tissue, bio-sensing, or cancer diagnosis. The collaborative research was centered in the Polytechnic Institute of New York University Montclare Lab for Protein Engineering and Molecular Design.
National Science Foundation, Society of Plastics Engineers, Swiss National Science Foundation, Adolphe-Merkle Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
hamilton@poly.edu
718-260-3792
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering

Public Release: 21-Nov-2013
Science
Searching for cosmic accelerators via IceCube
New results from IceCube, the neutrino observatory buried at the South Pole, may show the way to locating and identifying cosmic accelerators in our galaxy that are 40 million times more powerful than the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lynn Yarris
lcyarris@lbl.gov
510-486-5375
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 21-Nov-2013
Science
Cosmic finding ushers in 'new age of astronomy'
Neutrinos can zip right through your body, the walls of your house, entire planets, even emerging from near the surface of fascinating and frightening black holes. And now, an international scientific collaboration that includes researchers from the University of Delaware has taken an astronomical step forward in unmasking the origins of some of these high-energy particles, the so-called "messengers of the universe."
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andrea Boyle Tippett
aboyle@udel.edu
302-831-1421
University of Delaware

Public Release: 21-Nov-2013
Science
Improve learning by taming instructional complexity
From using concrete or abstract materials to giving immediate or delayed feedback, there are rampant debates over the best teaching strategies to use. But, in reality, improving education is not as simple as choosing one technique over another. Carnegie Mellon University and Temple University researchers scoured the educational research landscape and found that because improved learning depends on many different factors, there are actually more than 205 trillion instructional options available.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Education

Contact: Shilo Rea
shilo@cmu.edu
412-268-6094
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 21-Nov-2013
Science
IceCube pushes neutrinos to the forefront of astronomy
The IceCube Collaboration announces the observation of 28 very high-energy particle events that constitute the first solid evidence for astrophysical neutrinos from cosmic accelerators. "This is the first indication of very high-energy neutrinos coming from outside our solar system, with energies more than one million times those observed in 1987 in connection with a supernova seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud," says Francis Halzen, principal investigator of IceCube.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Francis Halzen
halzen@icecube.wisc.edu
608-513-9815
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scripps oceanography researchers engineer breakthrough for biofuel production
Researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego have developed a method for greatly enhancing biofuel production in tiny marine algae. As reported in this week's online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Scripps graduate student Emily Trentacoste led the development of a method to genetically engineer a key growth component in biofuel production.
National Institutes of Health, California Energy Commission, Air Force, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mario Aguilera
scrippsnews@ucsd.edu
858-534-3624
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Brain Sciences
Connections in the brains of young children strengthen during sleep, CU-Boulder study finds
While young children sleep, connections between the left and the right hemispheres of their brain strengthen, which may help brain functions mature, according to a new study by the University of Colorado Boulder.
NIH/National Insitute of Mental Health, Seprarcor Inc., Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Salome Kurth
Salome.Kurth@colorado.edu
303-492-4584
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Nature
Texas A&M: 24,000-year-old skeletal remains raise new questions about first Americans
Results from a DNA study of a young boy's skeletal remains believed to be 24,000 years old could turn the archaeological world upside down -- it's been proven that nearly 30 percent of modern Native-Americans' ancestry came from this youngster's gene pool, suggesting First Americans came directly from Siberia, according to a research team that includes a Texas A&M University professor.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Keith Randall
keith-randall@tamu.edu
979-845-4644
Texas A&M University

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Environmental Research Letters
Framework could improve southeast rainfall forecasts
A new study by two Duke University scientists may help improve seasonal forecasts in the Southeastern US by providing a new Bayesian statistical "framework" that meteorologists can use to predict the likely intensity of rainfall for the coming summer.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
tdlucas@duke.edu
919-613-8084
Duke University

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Science, Technology and Human Values
Engineering education may diminish concern for public welfare issues
Collegiate engineering education may foster a "culture of disengagement" regarding issues of public welfare, according to new research by a sociologist at Rice University.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Roman emperor's virtual villa to be unveiled Friday
Indiana University's first archaeo-informaticist, Bernie Frischer, will bring to life one of the Roman Empire's best-known and best-preserved imperial villas -- Hadrian's Villa -- during a public launch of the Digital Hadrian's Villa Project on Friday, Nov. 22, in Washington, D.C.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Stephen Chaplin
stjchap@iu.edu
812-856-1896
Indiana University

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
USF researchers show invasive sparrows immune cells sharpen as they spread
Researchers find the immune systems of house sparrows at the edge of the species' range in Kenya were more attuned to finding dangerous parasites than birds from older sites in the same country. These differences may help keep invading birds from becoming sick in new areas where pathogens are more likely novel.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Vickie Chachere
vchachere@usf.edu
813-974-6251
University of South Florida (USF Health)

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
ASME's 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
USC Viterbi engineers cut time to 3-D print heterogeneous objects from hours to minutes
Three-dimensional printing has long had the potential to revolutionize manufacturing, but so far its application in the marketplace has been held back by slow fabrication, especially for heterogeneous objects. Many objects comprise more than one material, which allows for certain parts to be rigid while other parts remain flexible (e.g., tweezers, prosthetics). Dr. Yong Chen and his team have now developed a 3-D printing process that fabricates such objects very time and cost efficiently.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Hazle
hazle@usc.edu
213-821-1887
University of Southern California

Public Release: 20-Nov-2013
Nature
BU, MIT team engineers add new wrinkles to waterproofing
Intuition tells us that a smooth surface should shed water faster than a textured one. But a team of engineers from Boston University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have engineered a wrinkled surface that sheds liquid much faster than a smooth one, an innovation that has implications for a wide variety of materials that work better when dry.
National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: Mike Seele
mseele@bu.edu
617-353-9766
Boston University College of Engineering

Public Release: 19-Nov-2013
Animal Cognition
Monkeys can point to objects they do not report seeing
Are monkeys, like humans, able to ascertain where objects are located without much more than a sideways glance? Quite likely, says Lau Andersen of the Aarhus University in Denmark, lead author of a study conducted at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, published in Springer's journal Animal Cognition. The study finds that monkeys are able to localize stimuli they do not perceive.
NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Center for Research Resources

Contact: Alexander Brown
alexander.brown@springer.com
212-620-8063
Springer Science+Business Media

Public Release: 19-Nov-2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
People with highly superior powers of recall also vulnerable to false memories
People who can accurately remember details of their daily lives going back decades are as susceptible as everyone else to forming fake memories, UC Irvine psychologists and neurobiologists have found.
National Science Foundation, Sigma Xi Grants, Ralph W. & Leona Gerard Family Trust, Unither

Contact: Tom Vasich
tmvasich@uci.edu
949-824-6455
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 19-Nov-2013
Quaternary Geochronology
New study determines more accurate method to date tropical glacier moraines
A Dartmouth-led team has found a more accurate method to determine the ages of boulders deposited by tropical glaciers, findings that will likely influence previous research of how climate change has impacted ice masses around the equator.
Gary C. Comer Science and Education Foundation, Lamont Climate Center, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
john.cramer@dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 19-Nov-2013
Icarus
Asteroids' close encounters with Mars
MIT scientists find that Mars, not Earth, shakes up some near-Earth asteroids.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
s_mcd@mit.edu
617-253-8923
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 19-Nov-2013
Chemistry of Materials
New technique controls dimensions of gold nanorods while manufacturing on a large scale
North Carolina State University researchers have a developed a technique for efficiently producing nanoscale gold rods in large quantities while simultaneously controlling the dimensions of the nanorods and their optical properties. The optical properties of gold nanorods make them desirable for use in biomedical applications ranging from imaging technologies to cancer treatment.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 19-Nov-2013
Psychological Science
Liberals aren't like the rest, or so they think
Liberals tend to underestimate the amount of actual agreement among those who share their ideology, while conservatives tend to overestimate intra-group agreement, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
amikulak@psychologicalscience.org
202-293-9300
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 18-Nov-2013
London Mathematical Society - EPSRC Durham Symposia
A vexing math problem finds an elegant solution
A famous math problem that has vexed mathematicians for decades has met an elegant solution by Cornell University researchers. Graduate student Yash Lodha, working with Justin Moore, professor of mathematics, has described a geometric solution for the von Neumann-Day problem, first described by mathematician John von Neumann in 1929.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Syl Kacapyr
vpk6@cornell.edu
607-255-7701
Cornell University

Public Release: 18-Nov-2013
ACS Nano
Penn produces graphene nanoribbons with nanopores for fast DNA sequencing
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have made an advance towards realizing a new gene sequencing technique based on threading DNA through a tiny hole in a layer of graphene. Earlier versions of the technique only made use of graphene's unbeatable thinness, but the Penn team's research shows how the material's unique electrical properties may be employed to make faster and more sensitive sequencing devices.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Showing releases 601-625 out of 741.

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