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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 626-650 out of 743.

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Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Journal of Cell Biology
Penn researchers show nuclear stiffness keeps stem cells and cancer cells in place
Adult stem cells and cancer cells have many things in common, including an ability to migrate through tiny gaps in tissue. Both types of cells also experience a trade-off when it comes to this ability; having a flexible nucleus makes migration easier but is worse at protecting the nucleus' DNA compared to a stiffer nucleus. Nuclear proteins that regulate nuclear stiffness are therefore thought to control processes as diverse as tissue repair and tumor growth.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Nature Communications
Novel optical fibers transmit high-quality images
Engineers at University of Wisconsin Milwaukee have found that a new kind of optical fiber they designed can not only transmit more data than single core optical fibers but also transmit images with less pixelation and higher contrast than the current commercial endoscopy imaging fibers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Arash Mafi
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Real time forecast of Hurricane Sandy had track and intensity accuracy
A real-time hurricane analysis and prediction system that effectively incorporates airborne Doppler radar information may accurately track the path, intensity and wind force in a hurricane, according to Penn State meteorologists. This system can also identify the sources of forecast uncertainty.
National Science Foundation, NOAA, US Office of Naval Research

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Network Distributed System Security Symposium 2014
Using stolen computer processing cycles to mine Bitcoin
A team of computer scientists at the University of California, San Diego, has taken an unprecedented, in-depth look at how malware operators use the computers they infect to mine Bitcoin, a virtual currency whose value is highly volatile. Researchers examined more than 2,000 pieces of malware used by Bitcoin mining operations in 2012 and 2013. They were able to estimate how much money operators made off their operations and which countries were most affected.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ioana Patringenaru
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 25-Feb-2014
Biology Letters
'Team of rivals' approach works for sparrows defending territories
About one time out of five, a neighboring male flew into the territory of the study male and helped him repel the simulated intruder. 'What was really noticeable was that neighbors were also displaying aggressively towards the simulated intruder, and the resident tolerated the helpful neighbor's intrusion,' Goodwin says. 'This behavior, the formation of territorial defense coalitions, has been very rarely documented in birds.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Water is detected in a planet outside our solar system
Water has been detected in the atmosphere of a planet outside our solar system with a new technique that could help researchers to learn how many planets with water, like Earth, exist throughout the universe.
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Penn State University Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Nature Chemistry
Building artificial cells will be a noisy business
If one wants to make something work using nanoscale components -- the size of proteins, antibodies, and viruses -- mimicking the behavior of cells is a good place to start. Getting tiny things to behave is, however, a daunting task. A central problem bioengineers face when working at this scale is that when biochemical circuits are restricted to an extremely small volume, they may cease to function as expected, even though the circuit works well in a regular test tube.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Physical Review E
In the eye of a chicken, a new state of matter comes into view
Along with eggs, soup and rubber toys, the list of the chicken's most lasting legacies may eventually include advanced materials, according to researchers from Princeton University and Washington University in St. Louis. The researchers report that the unusual arrangement of cells in a chicken's eye constitutes the first known biological occurrence of a potentially new state of matter known as 'disordered hyperuniformity,' which has been shown to have unique physical properties.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Cancer Institute, and others

Contact: Morgan Kelly
Princeton University

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Nature Physics
Researchers find flowing water can slow down bacteria
In a surprising new discovery, scientists show that microbes are more likely to adhere to tube walls when water is moving.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Marine Microbial Initiative Investigator Award

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Physical Review Letters
Penn researchers 'design for failure' with model material
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have devised a method to study stress at the macro and micro scales at the same time, using a model system in which microscopic particles stand in for molecules. This method has allowed the researchers to demonstrate an unusual hybrid behavior in their model material: a reversible rearrangement of its particles that nevertheless has the characteristics of plastic deformation on the macroscale.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Forest Ecology and Management
Gauging what it takes to heal a disaster-ravaged forest
Recovering from natural disasters usually means rebuilding infrastructure and reassembling human lives. Yet ecologically sensitive areas need to heal, too, and scientists are pioneering new methods to assess nature's recovery and guide human intervention.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Sue Nichols
Michigan State University

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting
Vitamin water: Measuring essential nutrients in the ocean
Oceanographers have found that archaea, a type of marine microbe, can produce B-12 vitamins in the open ocean.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
A paper diagnostic for cancer
A low-cost urine test developed by MIT engineers amplifies signals from growing tumors to detect disease.
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, Mazumdar-Shaw International Oncology Fellowship, National Institutes of Health, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, NIH/National Cancer Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
WSU researcher creates cooking-oil-based 'bioasphalt'
A Washington State University researcher has developed a way to use restaurant cooking oil in a type of asphalt that looks and handles just like its petroleum-based counterpart.
US Federal Highway Administration, National Science Foundation

Contact: Haifang Wen
Washington State University

Public Release: 24-Feb-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Seed dispersal gets a test in carved-out 'habitat corridors'
Field ecologists go to great lengths to get data: radio collars and automatic video cameras are only two of their creative techniques for documenting the natural world. So when a group of ecologists set out to see how wind moves seeds through isolated patches of habitat carved into a longleaf pine plantation in South Carolina, they twisted colored yarn to create mock seeds that would drift with the wind much like native seeds.
National Science Foundation, US Forest Service

Contact: Ellen Damschen
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 23-Feb-2014
Nature Geoscience
Oldest bit of crust firms up idea of a cool early Earth
With the help of a tiny fragment of zircon extracted from a remote rock outcrop in Australia, the picture of how our planet became habitable to life about 4.4 billion years ago is coming into sharper focus.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, NASA Astrobiology Institute

Contact: John Valley
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 21-Feb-2014
New, inexpensive production materials boost promise of hydrogen fuel
In a study published last week in the journal Science, Choi and postdoctoral researcher Tae Woo Kim combined cheap, oxide-based materials to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gases using solar energy with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 1.7 percent, the highest reported for any oxide-based photoelectrode system.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kyoung-Shin Choi
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Physical Review Letters
Nanoscale pillars could radically improve conversion of heat to electricity
University of Colorado Boulder scientists have found a creative way to radically improve thermoelectric materials, a finding that could one day lead to the development of improved solar panels, more energy-efficient cooling equipment, and even the creation of new devices that could turn the vast amounts of heat wasted at power plants into more electricity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mahmoud Hussein
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
American Journal of Botany
Sequencing hundreds of nuclear genes in the sunflower family now possible
Researchers have developed an efficient approach for sequencing hundreds of nuclear genes across members of the Compositae (sunflower family) to better-resolve phylogenetic relationships within the family, as well as a bioinformatic workflow for processing and analyzing the resulting sequence data. This method, available in the February issue of Applications in Plant Sciences, can be applied to any taxonomic group of interest and could serve as a model for phylogenetic investigations of other major plant groups.
National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Institution, Genome BC, Genome Canada

Contact: Beth Parada
American Journal of Botany

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Social Science and Medicine
Multilevel approach to coping with stigmas identified
Socially stigmatized groups have poorer health than non-stigmatized groups, but a team of researchers believes that more emphasis on two-way and multidisciplinary interventions will have a greater and more successful impact on relieving many health issues.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Victoria M. Indivero
Penn State

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Case Western Reserve grants exclusive license to Compadre; AeroClay LLC is formed
Compadre, a company best known for transit packaging solutions, has obtained an exclusive license to pursue commercial uses for AeroClay, an innovative technology developed in a Case Western Reserve University materials lab. AeroClay technology uses freeze-drying and polymer additives to turn clay into a versatile material that is sturdy, malleable, heat- and flame-resistant and eco-friendly.
Case Western Reserve University Technology Transfer Office

Contact: Marv Kropko
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Nature Communications
Roots to shoots: Hormone transport in plants deciphered
A new study from a research team led by biochemist Chang-Jun Liu at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory identifies the protein essential for relocating cytokinins from roots to shoots.
DOE/Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Chelsea Whyte
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Physical Review Letters
Researchers say distant quasars could close a loophole in quantum mechanics
MIT researchers propose using distant quasars to test Bell's theorem.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Mega-bucks from Russia seed development of 'big data' tools
The Russian Ministry of Education and Science awarded a $3.4 million 'mega-grant' to Alexei Klimentov, Physics Applications Software Group Leader at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, to develop new 'big data' computing tools for the advancement of science. The project builds on the success of a workload and data management system built by Klimentov and collaborators to process huge volumes of data from the ATLAS experiment at Europe's Large Hadron Collider.
Russian Ministry of Education and Science, DOE/Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Justin Eure
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 20-Feb-2014
Bioengineered growth factors lead to better wound healing
Scientists at Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne have greatly improved the effectiveness of clinical growth factors, paving new strategies for regenerative medicine.
Angioscaff, Swiss National Science Foundation, Fondation Bertarelli

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Showing releases 626-650 out of 743.

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