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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 626-650 out of 854.

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Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
IUPUI mathematician receives prestigious NSF Early Career Development Award
Dr. Roland Roeder, a mathematician from the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, will receive $460,000 over the next five years from the National Science Foundation's Division of Mathematical Sciences to support his research in pure math and the training of students from the graduate to high school levels.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cindy Fox Aisen
caisen@iupui.edu
317-843-2276
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Immunity
Experiments prove 'stemness' of individual immune memory cells
Researchers in Germany and the US have proven for the first time that specific individual immune cells, termed 'central memory T cells,' have all the essential characteristics of adult tissue stem cells. Such cells can perpetuate themselves indefinitely and generate diverse offspring that can reconstitute 'tissue' function. These findings indicate that it should be possible to fully restore specific immunity to pathogens in immunocompromised patients by substitution of small numbers of these T cells.
German Research Foundation, Helmholtz Alliance on Immunotherapy of Cancer, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Vera Siegler
vera.siegler@tum.de
49-892-892-2731
Technische Universitaet Muenchen

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Science
Synchronization of North Atlantic, North Pacific preceded abrupt warming, end of ice age
Scientists have long been concerned that global warming may push Earth's climate system across a 'tipping point,' where rapid melting of ice and further warming may become irreversible -- a hotly debated scenario with an unclear picture of what this point of no return may look like. A new study suggests that combined warming of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans thousands of years ago may have provided the tipping point for abrupt warming and rapid melting of the northern ice sheets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Summer Praetorius
spraetorius@coas.oregonstate.edu
541-737-6159
Oregon State University

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Genome Biology
Monitoring the rise and fall of the microbiome
Close analysis of bacteria in the human digestive tract reveals links to diet and other lifestyle factors.
National Science Foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
s_mcd@mit.edu
617-253-8923
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Science
Global wildlife decline driving slave labor, organized crime
Global decline of wildlife populations is driving increases in violent conflicts, organized crime and child labor around the world, according to a policy paper led by UC Berkeley researchers. The authors call for biologists to join forces with experts such as economists, political scientists, criminologists, public health officials and international development specialists to collectively tackle a complex challenge.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
scyang@berkeley.edu
510-643-7741
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 24-Jul-2014
Science
Jackson Laboratory researchers find new mechanism for neurodegeneration
A research team led by Jackson Laboratory professor and Howard Hughes investigator Susan Ackerman, Ph.D., have pinpointed a surprising mechanism behind neurodegeneration in mice, one that involves a defect in a key component of the cellular machinery that makes proteins, known as transfer RNA or tRNA.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Joyce Peterson
joyce.peterson@jax.org
207-288-6058
Jackson Laboratory

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
Nature Scientific Data
Nearly 50 years of lemur data now available online
A 48-year archive of life history data for the world's largest and most diverse collection of endangered primates is now digital and available online. The Duke Lemur Center database allows visitors to view and download data for more than 3600 animals representing 27 species of lemurs, lorises and galagos -- distant primate cousins who predate monkeys and apes -- with more data to be uploaded in the future.
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
ras10@duke.edu
919-668-4544
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society A
Discovery is key to metal wear in sliding parts
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown mechanism for wear in metals: a swirling, fluid-like microscopic behavior in a solid piece of metal sliding over another. The findings could be used to improve the durability of metal parts in numerous applications.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Emil Venere
venere@purdue.edu
765-494-4709
Purdue University

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
Nature
Spinach could lead to alternative energy more powerful than Popeye
Spinach gave Popeye super strength, but it also holds the promise of a different power for a group of scientists: the ability to convert sunlight into a clean, efficient alternative fuel. Purdue physicists are using spinach to study the proteins involved in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert the sun's energy into carbohydrates used to power cellular processes. Artificial photosynthesis could allow for the conversion of solar energy into renewable, environmentally friendly hydrogen-based fuels.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy

Contact: Elizabeth K. Gardner
ekgardner@purdue.edu
765-494-2081
Purdue University

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
Nature Climate Change
Climate change and the soil
The planet's soil releases about 60 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere each year, which is far more than that released by burning fossil fuels. Short-term warming studies have documented that rising temperatures increase the rate of soil respiration. As a result, scientists have worried that global warming would accelerate the decomposition of carbon in the soil, releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and accelerating global warming.
National Science Foundation, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Carnegie Institution for Science

Contact: Greg Asner
gpa@carnegiescience.edu
650-380-2828
Carnegie Institution

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
Nature
The birth of topological spintronics
The discovery of a new material combination that could lead to a more efficient approach to computer memory and logic is the first promising indication that it may be possible to build a practical technology with a novel material known as a 'topological insulator.' The research team's results show that such a scheme can be 10 times more efficient for controlling magnetic memory or logic than any other combination of materials measured to date.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Office of Naval Research, MARCO, National Science Foundation

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
science@psu.edu
814-863-4682
Penn State

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
Astrophysical Journal
A new approach in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence: targeting alien polluters
Humanity is on the threshold of being able to detect signs of alien life on other worlds. By studying exoplanet atmospheres, we can look for gases like oxygen and methane that only coexist if replenished by life. But those gases come from simple life forms like microbes. What about advanced civilizations? Would they leave any detectable signs? They might, if they spew industrial pollution into the atmosphere.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Christine Pulliam
cpulliam@cfa.harvard.edu
617-495-7463
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Public Release: 23-Jul-2014
PLOS ONE
15-year analysis of blue whale range off California finds conflict with shipping lanes
A comprehensive analysis of the movements of blue whales off the West Coast found that their favored feeding areas are bisected by heavily used shipping lanes, increasing the threat of injury and mortality. But moving the shipping lanes off Los Angeles and San Francisco to slightly different areas -- at least, during summer and fall when blue whales are most abundant -- could significantly decrease the probability of ships striking the whales.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Bruce Mate
bruce.mate@oregonstate.edu
541-867-0202
Oregon State University

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Journal of Experimental Biology
Alaska frogs reach record lows in extreme temperature survival
'Alaska wood frogs spend more time freezing and thawing outside than a steak does in your freezer and the frog comes back to life in the spring in better shape than the steak,' said Don Larson, University of Alaska Fairbanks graduate student and lead author on a recent paper demonstrating that freeze tolerance in Alaska wood frogs is more extreme than previously thought.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Marie Thoms
methoms@alaska.edu
907-474-7412
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Journal of Clinical Investigation
The dopamine transporter
Michelle Sahai of the Weill Cornell Medical College uses the XSEDE-allocated Stampede supercomputer to study the dopamine transporter. Stampede is ranked seventh on the Top 500 list of supercomputers. Her research links altered dopamine signaling and dopamine transporter function to neurological and psychiatric diseases including early-onset Parkinsonism, ADHD, and cocaine addiction.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Faith Singer-Villalobos
faith@tacc.utexas.edu
512-232-5771
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
UT Arlington big data team wins $600,000 NSF grant to build gene expression database
Heng Huang, an associate professor of computer and science engineering at UT Arlington, and professor Chris Ding, also of the UT Arlington Computer Science and Engineering department, will develop an interactive database of gene expressions of the fruit fly.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Traci Peterson
tpeterso@uta.edu
817-521-5494
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Scientists to investigate effects of climate change on Chesapeake Bay
A Virginia Tech researcher will examine the effects of climate change on water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. A multi-university team will answer the ongoing questions of how the impacts of man-made stressors such as agricultural use and burgeoning populations work in concert with a warming planet on water systems.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Zeke Barlow
bzeke@vt.edue
540-231-5417
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Search for more accurate system reliability and failure prediction in auto industry
A team of researchers from Wayne State University recently received a $350,000 award from the National Science Foundation for the project, 'Failure Prediction and Reliability Analysis of Ultra-High Strength Steel Autobody Manufacturing Systems by Utilizing Material Microstructure Properties.' The research is the first attempt to incorporate material microstructure and micro-damage information into a reliability study that fundamentally improves the accuracy of failure and reliability prediction.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie O'Connor
julie.oconnor@wayne.edu
313-577-8845
Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Biology Letters
New model helps explain how provisions promote or reduce wildlife disease
Scientists have long known that providing supplemental food for wildlife, or resource provisioning, can sometimes cause more harm than good. University of Georgia ecologists have developed a new mathematical model to tease apart the processes that help explain why. Their research, which has implications for public health and wildlife conservation, appears in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters.
University Of Georgia, National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel Becker
dbecker@uga.edu
706-542-3485
University of Georgia

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
Technique simplifies the creation of high-tech crystals
Researchers propose a method to create precision crystals by adding polymer to a chemical mixture.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Sullivan
js29@princeton.edu
609-258-4597
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Psychological Science
Preschoolers can reflect on what they don't know
Contrary to previous assumptions, researchers find that preschoolers are able to gauge the strength of their memories and make decisions based on their self-assessments. The study findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
amikulak@psychologicalscience.org
202-293-9300
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Journal of Applied Physics
Law of physics governs airplane evolution
Scientists have found that a law of physics predicts the evolution of commercial airliners and also provides guidelines for future designs.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
ken.kingery@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Jul-2014
Optica
Creating optical cables out of thin air
Imagine being able to instantaneously run an optical cable or fiber to any point on earth, or even into space. In a paper published in the July 2014 issue of the journal Optica, researchers report using an 'air waveguide' to enhance light signals collected from distant sources. These air waveguides could have many applications, including long-range laser communications, detecting pollution in the atmosphere, making high-resolution topographic maps and laser weapons.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Robinson
abbyr@umd.edu
301-405-5845
University of Maryland

Public Release: 21-Jul-2014
Nano Letters
Penn study: Understanding graphene's electrical properties on an atomic level
For the first time, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania have used a cutting-edge microscope to study the relationship between the atomic geometry of a ribbon of graphene and its electrical properties.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Department of Energy, Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, South Korea's Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and National Research Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 21-Jul-2014
Inorganic Chemistry
Oregon chemists eye improved thin films with metal substitution
The yield so far is small, but chemists at the University of Oregon have developed a low-energy, solution-based mineral substitution process to make a precursor to transparent thin films that could find use in electronics and alternative energy devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
jebarlow@uoregon.edu
541-346-3481
University of Oregon

Showing releases 626-650 out of 854.

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