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  News From the National Science Foundation
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NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 626-650 out of 920.

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Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study calculates the speed of ice formation
Researchers at Princeton University have for the first time directly calculated the rate at which water crystallizes into ice in a realistic computer model of water molecules. Understanding ice formation adds to our knowledge of how cold temperatures affect both living and non-living systems, including how living cells respond to cold and how ice forms in clouds at high altitudes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
LSU faculty lead efforts to win $20 million grant to form Louisiana Advanced Manufacturing Consortium
Faculty from LSU's Colleges of Engineering and Science spearheaded efforts through the Louisiana Board of Regents to win a $20 million grant from the National Science Foundation, or NSF, to create a national consortium supporting advanced manufacturing research. The Louisiana Board of Regents submitted the grant on behalf of Louisiana with support from five state universities: LSU, Louisiana Tech, Grambling, Southern and University of New Orleans.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ernie Ballard
Louisiana State University

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Journal of the American Chemical Society
NYU scientists bring order, and color, to microparticles
A team of New York University scientists has developed a technique that prompts microparticles to form ordered structures in a variety of materials. The advance offers a method to potentially improve the makeup and color of optical materials used in computer screens along with other consumer products.
US Army Research Office, National Research Foundation of Korea, National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Nature Neuroscience
Character traits outweigh material benefits in assessing value others bring us
When it comes to making decisions involving others, the impression we have of their character weighs more heavily than do our assessments of how they can benefit us, a team of NYU researchers has found.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Small tilt in magnets makes them viable memory chips
Engineers have found a new way to switch the polarization of nanomagnets without the need for an external magnetic field. The advance brings the semiconductor industry a major step closer to moving high-density storage from hard disks onto integrated circuits, and could soon lead to instant-on computers that operate with far greater speed and use significantly less power.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Semiconductor Technology Advanced Research Network's Function Accelerated nanoMaterial Engineering Center

Contact: Sarah Yang
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ocean changes are affecting salmon biodiversity and survival
What happens at the Equator, doesn't stay at the Equator. El Niņo-associated changes in the ocean may be putting the biodiversity of two Northern Pacific salmon species at risk, according to a UC Davis study.
National Science Foundation, National Marine Fisheries Service/Sea Grant

Contact: Patrick Kilduff
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Genetic adaptation keeps Ethiopians heart-healthy despite high altitudes
Ethiopians have lived at high altitudes for thousands of years, providing a natural experiment for studying human adaptations to low oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia. One factor that may enable Ethiopians to tolerate high altitudes and hypoxia is the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine now find that mice with lower-than-normal levels of EDNRB protein are remarkably tolerant to hypoxia.
NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 3-Aug-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
4 million years at Africa's salad bar
As grasses grew more common in Africa, most major mammal groups tried grazing on them at times during the past 4 million years, but some of the animals went extinct or switched back to browsing on trees and shrubs, according to a study led by the University of Utah.
Fulbright Foundation, University of Utah, Geological Society of America, National Science Foundation, Packard Foundation and National Geographic Society.

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 31-Jul-2015
Starvation effects handed down for generations
Starvation early in life can alter an organism for generations to come, according to a new Duke study in nematodes. The epigenetic effects are a 'bet-hedging strategy.' Famine survivors are smaller and less fertile, and they acquire a toughness that lasts at least two generations. The mechanism of the epigenetic inheritance has not been identified, however.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Karl Leif Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Self-assembling, biomimetic membranes may aid water filtration
A synthetic membrane that self assembles and is easily produced may lead to better gas separation, water purification, drug delivery and DNA recognition, according to an international team of researchers.
National Science Foundation, US Army Corps of Engineers, Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Allocation, Blue Waters

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
A cheaper, high-performance prosthetic knee
Researchers design cheap prosthetic knee that mimics normal walking motion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andrew Carleen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
Evolutionary war between microorganisms affecting human health, IU biologist says
Health experts have warned for years that the overuse of antibiotics is creating 'superbugs' able to resist drugs treating infection. Now scientists at Indiana University and elsewhere have found evidence that an invisible war between microorganisms may also be catching humans in the crossfire.
National Science Foundation Division of Environmental Biology

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
PLOS Pathogens
Waking up HIV
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has helped millions survive the human immunodeficiency virus. Unfortunately, HIV has a built-in survival mechanism, creating reservoirs of latent, inactive virus that are invisible to both HAART and the immune system. But now, researchers at UC Davis have identified a compound that activates latent HIV, offering the tantalizing possibility that the virus can be flushed out of the silent reservoirs and fully cured.
National Institues of Health, UC Davis Research Investments, CAPES/Brazil, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Satya Dandekar
University of California - Davis Health System

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Conservation Physiology
New study exposes negative effects of climate change on Antarctic fish
Scientists at University of California Davis and San Francisco State University have discovered that the combination of elevated levels of carbon dioxide and an increase in ocean water temperature has a significant impact on survival and development of the Antarctic dragonfish (Gymnodraco acuticeps). The research article was published today in the journal Conservation Physiology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Chloe Foster
Oxford University Press

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Cell Reports
Genetic tug of war in the brain influences behavior
Researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine report on a version of genetic parental control that is more nuanced, and specialized, than classic genomic imprinting. Published in Cell Reports, so-called noncanonical imprinting is particularly prevalent in the brain, and skews the genetic message in subpopulations of cells so that mom, or dad, has a stronger say. The mechanism can influence offspring behavior, and because it is observed more frequently than classic imprinting, appears to be preferred.
New York Stem Cell foundation, National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, The Klarman Foundation for Eating Disorders

Contact: Julie Kiefer
University of Utah Health Sciences

Public Release: 30-Jul-2015
Drought's lasting impact on forests
In a global study of drought impacts, forest trees took an average of two to four years to resume normal growth rates, a revelation indicating that Earth's forests are capable of storing less carbon than climate models have assumed.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Joe Rojas-Burke
University of Utah

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Researchers design first artificial ribosome
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins and enzymes within the cell. The engineered ribosome may enable the production of new drugs and next-generation biomaterials and lead to a better understanding of how ribosomes function.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation, David and Lucille Packard Foundation

Contact: Sam Hostettler
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Meet the high-performance single-molecule diode
Researchers from Berkeley Lab and Columbia University have created the world's highest-performance single-molecule diode. Development of a functional single-molecule diode is a major pursuit of the electronics industry.
US Department of Energy Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lynn Yarris
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Nature Photonics
Intracellular microlasers could allow precise labeling of a trillion individual cells
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators have induced structures incorporated within individual cells to produce laser light. The wavelengths of light emitted by these intracellular microlasers differ based on factors such as the size, shape and composition of each microlaser, allowing precise labeling of individual cells.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship

Contact: Cassandra Aviles
Massachusetts General Hospital

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
'Failed stars' host powerful auroral displays
By observing a brown dwarf 20 light-years away using both radio and optical telescopes, a team led by Gregg Hallinan, assistant professor of astronomy at Caltech, has found that such so-called failed stars host powerful auroras near their magnetic poles -- additional evidence that brown dwarfs are more like giant planets than small stars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Physical Review Letters
Dense star clusters shown to be binary black hole factories
The merger of two black holes is one of the most sought-after observations of modern astronomy. The first observatories capable of directly detecting gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime predicted by Albert Einstein -- will begin observing the universe later this year. When these waves rolling in from space are detected on Earth for the first time, Northwestern University astrophysicists predict astronomers will 'hear,' through these waves, five times more colliding black holes than previously expected.
National Science Foundation and NASA

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Acta Materialia
Boxfish shell inspires new materials for body armor and flexible electronics
The boxfish's unique armor draws its strength from hexagon-shaped scales and the connections between them, engineers at the University of California, San Diego, have found. They describe their findings and the carapace of the boxfish (Lactoria cornuta) in the July 27 issue of the journal Acta Materialia. Engineers also describe how the structure of the boxfish could serve as inspiration for body armor, robots and even flexible electronics.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Liezel Labios
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 29-Jul-2015
Astronomers discover powerful aurora beyond solar system
The first aurora discovered beyond our solar system is on a brown dwarf 18 light-years from Earth. Some 10,000 times more powerful than any seen before, it may be of a type possible to detect on extrasolar planets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
American Economic Review
Firms 'underinvest' in long-term cancer research
Pharmaceutical firms 'underinvest' in long-term research to develop new cancer-fighting drugs due to the greater time and cost required to conduct such research, according to a newly published study co-authored by MIT economists.
NIH/National Institute on Aging, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 28-Jul-2015
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Link between mood, pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients
Depressive symptoms and mood in the moment may predict momentary pain among rheumatoid arthritis patients, according to Penn State researchers.
NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Showing releases 626-650 out of 920.

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