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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 626-650 out of 879.

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Public Release: 19-Aug-2014
Environmental Science & Technology
Exporting US coal to Asia could drop emissions 21 percent
Under the right scenario, exporting US coal to power plants in South Korea could lead to a 21 percent drop in greenhouse gas emissions compared to burning it at less energy-efficient US plants. Other emissions, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter, could also drop. But this success, Duke researchers say, depends on which fuel source the coal replaces in South Korea, and which fuel is used to replace it in the US.
Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
tdlucas@duke.edu
919-613-8084
Duke University

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
International Journal of Climatology
UM research improves temperature modeling across mountainous landscapes
New research by University of Montana doctoral student Jared Oyler provides improved computer models for estimating temperature across mountainous landscapes.
USGeological Survey North Central Climate Science Center, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jared Oyler
jared.oyler@ntsg.umt.edu
406-243-6311
The University of Montana

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Trees and shrubs invading critical grasslands, diminish cattle production
Half of the Earth's land mass is made up of rangelands, which include grasslands and savannas, yet they are being transformed at an alarming rate. Woody plants, such as trees and shrubs, are taking over, leading to a loss of critical habitat and causing a drastic change in the ability of ecosystems to produce food -- specifically meat. Researchers with Arizona State University have quantified this loss. Findings appear in today's issue of PNAS.
National Academies Keck Futures Initiative, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sandra Leander
sandra.leander@asu.edu
480-965-9865
Arizona State University

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
Psychophysiology
Taking the pulse of aging
In an effort to identify how the elasticity of the arteries in the brain correlates with aging well, researchers at the Beckman Institute used optical methods developed in their lab to map out the pulse pressure of the entire brain's cortex.
NIH/National Institute on Aging, National Science Foundation

Contact: August Cassens
acassens@illinois.edu
217-300-4181
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
ACM Special Interest Group on Accessible Computing
StopInfo for OneBusAway app makes buses more usable for blind riders
A University of Washington study found that StopInfo, a new hub for bus stop information in the OneBusAway app, is helpful for blind riders and can promote spontaneous and unfamiliar travel. A University of Washington research team launched the program recently in collaboration with King County Metro.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michelle Ma
mcma@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
Oregon team to study impacts of climate change on pesky forest insect
The mountain pine beetle is a pest, infesting and killing entire swaths of forest during outbreaks. Now, armed with National Science Foundation support, a University of Oregon-led team will study the impacts of climate change and forest-management practices with computing tools to help better forge responses to these epidemics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lewis Taylor
lewist@uoregon.edu
541-346-2816
University of Oregon

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
Nature Climate Change
No one-size-fits-all approach in a changing climate, changing land
As climate change alters habitats for birds and bees and everything in between, so too does the way humans decide to use land. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Aarhus University in Denmark have, for the first time, found a way to determine the potential combined impacts of both climate and land-use change on plants, animals and ecosystems across the country.
Bryson Climate, People and Environment Program, European Research Council, National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Jack Williams
jwwilliams1@wisc.edu
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
MU initiative receives $500,000 NSF grant to augment public science education and outreach
The National Science Foundation has awarded a $500,000 grant to fund a five-year, multi-institutional initiative designed to encourage education and outreach efforts that communicate the value of taxpayers' investment in federal scientific research. 'The Broader Impacts and Outreach Network for Institutional Collaboration' program, led by the University of Missouri, will bring together professionals who help scientists convey the importance of their research to society.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
sossamonj@missouri.edu
573-882-3346
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
Multimillion-dollar grant helps researchers shed light on ultrafast dynamics
Kansas State University physicists and computer scientists are involved in a multi-university project that has been funded with a $6 million grant from the National Science Foundation's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research, or EPSCoR.
National Science Foundation's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

Contact: Itzik Ben-Itzhak
itzik@k-state.edu
785-532-1636
Kansas State University

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
Psychological Science
Visual 'gist' helps us figure out where a crowd is looking
Have you ever seen a crowd of people looking off into the distance, perhaps toward a passing biker or up to the top of a building? You probably looked there, too, instantly, even without paying attention to the individuals in the group. Researchers have discovered that we rely on a specialized visual process known as 'ensemble coding' to perceive where a crowd is looking.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
amikulak@psychologicalscience.org
202-293-9300
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 18-Aug-2014
PLOS ONE
Older coral species more hardy, UT Arlington biologists say
An examination of disease patterns in 14 species of Caribbean corals facing stressors like climate change and pollution shows older species are faring better. The newly-published research could give clues about what coral reefs will look like in the future.
National Science Foundation, NOAA

Contact: Traci Peterson
tpeterso@uta.edu
817-521-5494
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 17-Aug-2014
Nature Methods
A shift in the code: New method reveals hidden genetic landscape
With three billion letters in the human genome, it seems hard to believe that adding or removing a base could have much of an effect on our health. Yet, such insertions and deletions can dramatically alter biological function. It is has been difficult to detect these mutations. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory scientists have devised a new way to analyze genome sequences that pinpoints insertions and deletions in people with diseases such as autism, obsessive compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Stanley Institute for Cognitive Genomics, Simons Foundation

Contact: Jaclyn Jansen
jjansen@cshl.edu
516-367-8455
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Public Release: 15-Aug-2014
Journal of Experimental Biology
Bats bolster brain hypothesis, maybe technology, too
Decades of research on how bats use echolocation to keep a focus on their targets not only lends support to a long debated neuroscience hypothesis about vision but also could lead to smarter sonar and radar technologies.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NASA, Brown Institute for Brain Science

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
American Journal of Botany
Make your mobile device live up to its true potential -- as a data collection tool
Researchers at the University of California, Davis, have developed Easy Leaf Area, a free software that calculates leaf surface area from digital images. Leaf measurements are often critical in plant physiological and ecological studies, but traditional methods have been time consuming and sometimes destructive to plant samples. Easy Leaf Area -- described in a recent issue of Applications in Plant Sciences -- allows users to accurately measure leaf area from digital images in seconds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
apps@botany.org
American Journal of Botany

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Angewandte Chemie
Scripps Research Institute chemists uncover powerful new click chemistry reactivity
Chemists led by Nobel laureate K. Barry Sharpless at The Scripps Research Institute have used his click chemistry to uncover unprecedented, powerful reactivity for making new drugs, diagnostics, plastics, smart materials and many other products.
Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, W.M. Keck Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mika Ono
mikaono@scripps.edu
858-784-2052
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Science
New Milky Way maps help solve stubborn interstellar material mystery
An international team of sky scholars has produced new maps of the material located between the stars in the Milky Way. The results should move astronomers closer to cracking a stardust puzzle that has vexed them for nearly a century.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Phil Sneiderman
prs@jhu.edu
443-997-9907
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Nature
Study of Chilean quake shows potential for future earthquake
Near real-time analysis of the April 1 earthquake in Iquique, Chile, showed that the 8.2 event occurred in a gap on the fault unruptured since 1877 and that the April event was not what the scientists had expected, according to an international team of geologists.
National Science Foundation, US Geological Survey

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Science
Molecular engineers record an electron's quantum behavior
A team of researchers led by the University of Chicago has developed a technique to record the quantum mechanical behavior of an individual electron contained within a nanoscale defect in diamond. Their technique uses ultrafast pulses of laser light both to control the defect's entire quantum state and observe how that single electron state changes over time. The work appears in this week's online Science Express.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Koppes
773-702-8366
University of Chicago

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting
Lionfish characteristics make them more 'terminator' than predator
New research on the predatory nature of red lionfish, the invasive species that is decimating native fish populations in parts of the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, seems to indicate that lionfish are not just a predator, but more like the 'terminator' of movie fame. In behavior that is called 'alarming,' it appears that in some cases lionfish will continue to hunt until the last fish of a local population is dead.
National Science Foundation, Cape Eleuthera Institute of the Bahamas

Contact: Kurt Ingeman
ingemank@science.oregonstate.edu
541-908-0805
Oregon State University

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Cell
Inside the cell, an ocean of buffeting waves
Harvard-led researchers put forth a new model of the cytoplasm as a gel, not a liquid, and demonstrate that ATP-driven processes are indirectly responsible for transport within the cell. A measurement of the spectrum of forces exerted on the cytoplasm at any given time can provide a snapshot of the metabolic state of the cell.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, Hannah's Hope Fund

Contact: Caroline Perry
cperry@seas.harvard.edu
617-496-1351
Harvard University

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Science
A self-organizing thousand-robot swarm
The first thousand-robot flash mob has assembled at Harvard University.
National Science Foundation, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering

Contact: Caroline Perry
cperry@seas.harvard.edu
617-496-1351
Harvard University

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Cell
Scientists use lasers to control mouse brain switchboard
Using mice and flashes of light, scientists show that just a few nerve cells in the brain may control the switch between internal thoughts and external distractions. The study may be a breakthrough in understanding how a critical part of the brain, called the thalamic reticular nucleus, influences consciousness.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, NIH/National Institute of General Medicine, National Science Foundation, Mathematical Biosciences Institute

Contact: Christopher G. Thomas
thomaschr@ninds.nih.gov
301-496-5751
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Journal of Heredity
Fukushima's legacy
Scientists began gathering biological information only a few months after the disastrous 2011 meltdown of the Fukushima power plant in Japan. Results of these studies are now beginning to reveal serious biological effects of the Fukushima radiation on non-human organisms ranging from plants to butterflies to birds. A series of articles summarizing these studies has been published in the Journal of Heredity describing impacts ranging from population declines to genetic damage.
Takahashi Industrial and Economic Research Foundation, Samuel Freeman Charitable Trusts, United States National Science Foundation, Fulbright Program, National Geographic Society, CRDF, NATO, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

Contact: Nancy Steinberg
nsteinberg@charter.net
541-961-3459
American Genetic Association

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Cell
Researchers identify a brain 'switchboard' important in attention and sleep
Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center and elsewhere, using a mouse model, have recorded the activity of individual nerve cells in a small part of the brain that works as a 'switchboard,' directing signals coming from the outside world or internal memories. Because human brain disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and post-traumatic stress disorder typically show disturbances in that switchboard, the investigators say the work suggests new strategies in understanding and treating them.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, National Science Foundation, Mathematical Biosciences Institute, NARSAD Young Investigators Grant

Contact: Lorinda Klein
lorindaann.klein@nyumc.org
212-404-3533
NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine

Public Release: 14-Aug-2014
Science
Plants may use newly discovered language to communicate, Virginia Tech scientist discovers
A Virginia Tech scientist has discovered a potentially new form of plant communication, one that allows them to share an extraordinary amount of genetic information with one another.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Zeke Barlow
bzeke@vt.edu
540-231-5417
Virginia Tech

Showing releases 626-650 out of 879.

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