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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 651-675 out of 815.

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Public Release: 30-Apr-2014
Child Development
Out of sight but not out of mind: Babies transfer learning from pictures to real objects by 9 months
A new study has found that by nine months babies can learn about an object from a picture of it. The study, which included about 30 British, predominately White eight to nine month olds, also found that babies can learn about an object from a black and white or color photo of that object. These findings have implications for parents and caregivers; before their first birthdays, children are learning about the real world from pictures.
National Science Foundation, Economic and Social Research Council

Contact: Hannah Klein
hklein@srcd.org
202-289-0320
Society for Research in Child Development

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
Astrophysical Journal
The intergalactic medium unveiled: Caltech's Cosmic Web Imager
Caltech astronomers have taken unprecedented images of the intergalactic medium -- the diffuse gas that connects galaxies throughout the universe -- with the Cosmic Web Imager, an instrument designed and built at Caltech.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Bell
bpbell@caltech.edu
626-395-5832
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
USA Science & Engineering Festival
Researchers unveil wearable computational jewelry to monitor health
Researchers from Clemson University and Dartmouth College revealed their computational jewelry to support mobile health applications at the third USA Science & Engineering Festival in Washington, D.C.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kelly Caine
caine@clemson.edu
864-656-0631
Clemson University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
Environmental Engineering Science
Graphene not all good
In a first-of-its-kind study of how a material some think could transform the electronics industry moves in water, researchers at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering found graphene oxide nanoparticles are very mobile in lakes or streams and therefore likely to cause negative environmental impacts if released.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Sean Nealon
sean.nealon@ucr.edu
951-827-1287
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
Physical Review Letters
Experiment on Earth demonstrates effect observed in space
Streaming jets of high-speed matter produce some of the stunning objects seen in space. Astronomers have seen them shooting out of young stars just being formed, X-ray binary stars and supermassive black holes at the centers of large galaxies. Theoretical explanations for what causes those beam-like jets have been around for years, but now an experiment by French and American researchers using extremely high-powered lasers offers experimental verification of one proposed mechanism for creating them.
National Science Foundation, Grand Equipement National de Calcul Intensif Institute for Development and Resources in Intensive Scientific Computing

Contact: Leonor Sierra
lsierra@ur.rochester.edu
585-276-6264
University of Rochester

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems
Drug monitoring information improves regimen adherence, Carnegie Mellon researchers say
In a 10-month study in the homes of older adults with chronic health problems, Carnegie Mellon University researchers found that adherence to a medication regimen improved when people had ready access to a digital display of their medication-taking record. These people were more likely to take the correct medication promptly and at the same time of day than people who didn't receive the ongoing feedback.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Byron Spice
bspice@cs.cmu.edu
412-268-9068
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
Nature Communications
Graphene only as strong as weakest link
Labs at Rice University and Georgia Tech test the fracture toughness of graphene for the first time by making and measuring 'pre-cracks' under stress.
National Science Foundation, US Office of Naval Research, Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
Nature Communications
Graphene only as strong as weakest link
Labs at Rice University and Georgia Tech test the fracture toughness of graphene for the first time by making and measuring 'pre-cracks' under stress.
National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, Welch Foundation, Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2014
Biology Letters
The big bad wolf was right; among wasps, bigger eyes evolved the better to see social cues
Some paper wasps have variable facial patterns recognized by their sister wasps, marking either individuals or their strength, much like a karate belt. University of California Berkeley postdoctoral fellow Michael Sheehan showed that those wasps with variable facial patterns have developed bigger facets in their compound eyes, and thus better vision, in order to read these social cues. Social communication may also drive evolution of senses in other species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Nature Geoscience
Ozone levels drop 20 percent with switch from ethanol to gasoline
A Northwestern University study by an economist and a chemist reports that when fuel prices drove residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to mostly switch from ethanol to gasoline in their flexible-fuel vehicles, local ozone levels dropped 20 percent. At the same time, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations tended to go up. The four-year study is the first real-world trial looking at the effects of human behavior at the pump on urban air pollution.
National Science Foundation, Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern

Contact: Megan Fellman
fellman@northwestern.edu
847-491-3115
Northwestern University

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Ecology Letters
Studies affirm crabs killing Northeast saltmarshes
Two newly published studies by a team of Brown University researchers provide ample new evidence that the reason coastal saltmarshes are dying from Long Island to Cape Cod is that hungry crabs, left unchecked by a lack of predators, are eating the cordgrass.
National Science Foundation, Voss Environmental Fellowship Program

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Ecology
Urbanization, higher temperatures can influence butterfly emergence patterns
An international team of researchers has found that a subset of common butterfly species are emerging later than usual in urban areas located in warmer regions, raising questions about how the insects respond to significant increases in temperature.
Southeast Climate Science Center, US Geological Survey, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Limnology & Oceanography
R.I. nitrogen cycle differs in bay and sound
A new study reports that anammox, a key process in the nitrogen cycle, is barely present in Narragansett Bay even though it's a major factor just a little farther out into Rhode Island Sound. Scientists traced that to differences between bay and sound sediments, but that raises new questions about what's going on in the Bay to account for those.
National Science Foundation, Rhode Island Sea Grant

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Success really does breed success, unique online experiments find
Success really does breed success -- up to a point -- found researchers from University College London and Stony Brook University, following a series of unique online experiments.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cher Thornhill
c.thornhill@ucl.ac.uk
020-310-83846
University College London

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Brazilian agricultural policy could cut global greenhouse gas emissions
Brazil may be able to curb up to 26 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation by encouraging the intensification of its cattle production, according to a new study from researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and international collaborators.
European Union, National Science Foundation

Contact: Katherine Leitzell
leitzell@iiasa.ac.at
43-223-680-7316
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
How Brazilian cattle ranching policies can reduce deforestation
A new study led by UC Berkeley researchers finds that policies to support sustainable cattle ranching practices in Brazil could reduce deforestation and the industry's greenhouse gas impact.
National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
scyang@berkeley.edu
510-643-7741
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 28-Apr-2014
Nature Methods
The scent of a man
Scientists' inability to replicate research findings using mice and rats has contributed to mounting concern over the reliability of such studies. Now, an international team of pain researchers led by scientists at McGill University in Montreal may have uncovered one important factor behind this vexing problem: the gender of the experimenters has a big impact on the stress levels of rodents.
Louise and Alan Edwards Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeffrey Mogil
jeffrey.mogil@mcgill.ca
McGill University

Public Release: 25-Apr-2014
Biofabrication
3-D printing cancer tumors
Wei Sun, Ph.D., a mechanical engineering researcher at Drexel University, has devised a method for 3-D printing tumors that could soon be taking cancer research out of the petri dish.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Britt Faulstick
bef29@drexel.edu
215-895-2617
Drexel University

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Microscopic organism plays a big role in ocean carbon cycling, Scripps scientists discover
Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego have taken a leap forward in understanding the microscopic underpinnings of the ocean carbon cycle by pinpointing a bacterium that appears to play a dominant role in carbon consumption.
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Marine Microbiology Initiative, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mario Aguilera or Robert Monroe
scrippsnews@ucsd.edu
858-534-3624
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Plants send out signals attracting harmful bacteria, MU study finds
When bacteria attack plants, they often inject harmful proteins into the host plants' cells to weaken and suppress natural defenses. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have identified and replicated the process that allows the bacteria -- known mostly for attacking tomatoes -- to invade its host. This discovery could lead to natural anti-infective treatments that work with food-producing plants to enhance resistance to harmful bacteria in the field.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
sossamonj@missouri.edu
573-882-3346
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study: Altruistic adolescents less likely to become depressed
It is better to give than to receive -- at least if you're an adolescent and you enjoy giving, a new study suggests. The study found that 15- and 16-year-olds who find pleasure in pro-social activities, such as giving their money to family members, are less likely to become depressed than those who get a bigger thrill from taking risks or keeping the money for themselves.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Animals with bigger brains, broader diets have better self control
A new study representing the largest study of animal intelligence to-date finds that animals with bigger brains and broader diets have better self-control. Published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the results are part of a long history of research aimed at understanding why some species are able to do things like make and use tools, read social cues, or even understand basic math, and others aren't.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
rsmith@nescent.org
919-668-4544
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
LSUHSC awarded NSF grant for summer research experience for underrepresented undergrads
The National Science Foundation has awarded LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans a Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site grant in the amount of $295,635. The funding will support the training of undergraduates from diverse social and educational backgrounds, underrepresented in the sciences, especially from the New Orleans area. The project will provide students with training for 10 weeks during the summers of 2014-16.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leslie Capo
lcapo@lsuhsc.edu
504-568-4806
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
How a plant beckons the bacteria that will do it harm
A common plant puts out a welcome mat to bacteria seeking to invade, and scientists have discovered the mat's molecular mix. The team showed that the humble and oft-studied plant Arabidopsis puts out a molecular signal that invites an attack from a pathogen. The study reveals new targets during the battle between microbe, which often infects tomatoes, and host that researchers can exploit to protect plants.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Rickey
tom.rickey@pnnl.gov
509-375-3732
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Public Release: 24-Apr-2014
Science
Untangling Brazil's controversial new forest code
Brazil's new Forest Code has few admirers. A study, co-authored by Woods Hole Research Center scientists Michael Coe, Marcia Macedo and Brazilian colleagues, published this week in Science, seeks to clarify the new law.
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, NASA, National Science Foundation, Climate and Land Use Alliance

Contact: Eunice Youmans
eyoumans@whrc.org
508-524-2846
Woods Hole Research Center

Showing releases 651-675 out of 815.

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