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  News From the National Science Foundation
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NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 676-700 out of 828.

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Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Researchers engineer 'Cas9' animal models to study disease and inform drug discovery
Researchers from the Broad Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created a new mouse model to simplify application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for in vivo genome editing experiments. The researchers successfully used the new 'Cas9 mouse' model to edit multiple genes in a variety of cell types, and to model lung adenocarcinoma, one of the most lethal human cancers. A paper describing this new model and its initial applications appears this week in Cell.
National Science Foundation, The Damon Runyon Cancer Research Institute, MIT/Simons Center for the Social Brain, NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health

Contact: Haley Bridger
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Plant Cell
Researchers uncover structure of enzyme that makes plant cellulose
Purdue researchers have discovered the structure of the enzyme that makes cellulose, a finding that could lead to easier ways of breaking down plant materials to make biofuels and other products and materials.
Center for the Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Research Foundation of Korea

Contact: Natalie van Hoose
Purdue University

Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Water research tackles growing grassland threat: Trees
Two Kansas State University biologists are studying streams to prevent tallgrass prairies from turning into shrublands and forests.
National Science Foundation Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research Program, Kansas Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

Contact: Walter Dodds
Kansas State University

Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Genetic, developmental and anatomical basis of natural selection for sensory structures
Hoping to understand how the tremendous diversity of life on Earth evolved even as irreversible species and habitat loss rapidly proceeds, a research group of bat experts including biologist Elizabeth Dumont of the University of Massachusetts Amherst has received a five-year, $1.91 million grant from the National Science Foundation to study how bats sense their environment and other individuals, including potential mates, to ensure survival and reproduction.
NSF/Dimensions of Biodiversity Program

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Chemists recruit anthrax to deliver cancer drugs
Researchers from MIT have found that with some tinkering, a deadly protein becomes an efficient carrier for antibody drugs.
MIT Reed Fund, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Playing tag with sugars in the cornfield
Grasses and crops such as maize attach sugars to chemical defenses called benzoxazinoids to protect themselves from being poisoned by their own protective agents. Then, when an insect starts feeding, a plant enzyme removes the sugar to deploy the active toxin. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now discovered why this defensive strategy fails to work against Spodoptera larvae. Armyworms deactivate the maize chemical defense by reattaching the sugar in the opposite configuration.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society

Contact: Daniel Giddings Vassão
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology

Public Release: 25-Sep-2014
Current Biology
Dinosaur family tree gives fresh insight into rapid rise of birds
The most comprehensive family tree of meat-eating dinosaurs ever created is enabling scientists to discover key details of how birds evolved from them.
European Commission, National Science Foundation, University of Edinburgh, Columbia University, American Museum of Natural History, Swarthmore College/Research Fund, James Michener Faculty Fellowship

Contact: Corin Campbell
University of Edinburgh

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Syracuse's new cooling system heats up physics research
A physicist in Syracuse University's College of Arts and Sciences has received a major grant to support ongoing work in quantum information science. Britton Plourde, associate professor of physics, is the recipient of a $230,000 Defense University Research Instrumentation Program award from the Army Research Office. The award enables him to acquire a cryogen-free adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for the College's Department of Physics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Rob Enslin
Syracuse University

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Nature Communications
'Skin-like' device monitors cardiovascular and skin health
A new wearable medical device can quickly alert a person if they are having cardiovascular trouble or if it's simply time to put on some skin moisturizer, reports a Northwestern University and University of Illinois study. The small device can be placed directly on the skin and worn 24/7 for around-the-clock health monitoring. The technology uses thousands of tiny liquid crystals on a flexible substrate to sense heat. When the device turns color, the wearer knows something is awry.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Study: Biochar alters water flow to improve sand and clay
New research from Rice University and Colorado College could help settle questions about one of biochar's biggest benefits -- the seemingly contradictory ability to make clay soils drain faster and sandy soils drain slower. The research about the popular soil amendment appears this week in PLOS ONE.
City of Houston, National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Rice's Faculty Initiative Fund, Rice's Shell Center for Sustainability, Rice's Institute of Bioscience and Bioengineering.

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology
Alzheimer's patients can still feel the emotion long after the memories have vanished
A new University of Iowa study further supports an inescapable message: caregivers have a profound influence -- good or bad -- on the emotional state of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Patients may not remember a recent visit by a loved one or having been neglected by staff at a nursing home, but those actions can have a lasting impact on how they feel.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, Kiwanis International

Contact: John Riehl
University of Iowa Health Care

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Policies and Perspectives: Implications From the Religion Among Scientists in International Context
Indian scientists significantly more religious than UK scientists
Indian scientists are significantly more religious than United Kingdom scientists, according to the first cross-national study of religion and spirituality among scientists.
Templeton World Charity Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
The Astrophysical Journal
Most stars are born in clusters, some leave 'home'
New modeling studies demonstrate that most of the stars we see were formed when unstable clusters of newly formed protostars broke up. These protostars are born out of rotating clouds of dust and gas, which act as nurseries for star formation. Rare clusters of multiple protostars remain stable and mature into multi-star systems. The unstable ones will eject stars until they achieve stability and end up as single or binary stars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Alan Boss
Carnegie Institution

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Colorado's Front Range fire severity not much different than past, say CU study
The perception that Colorado's Front Range wildfires are becoming increasingly severe does not hold much water scientifically, according to a massive new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder and Humboldt State University in Arcata, Calif.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tania Schoennagel
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Nature Communications
2-D materials' crystalline defects key to new properties
Understanding how atoms 'glide' and 'climb' on the surface of 2-D crystals like tungsten disulphide may pave the way for researchers to develop materials with unusual or unique characteristics, according to an international team of researchers.
US Army Research Office, Robert Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Grant to help find why people reveal information online
Penn State researchers have received a $262,383 grant from the National Science Foundation to better understand why people disclose or withhold private information during online transactions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Sep-2014
Researchers aim to improve educational software through speech and emotion detection
North Carolina State University researchers have won a $1.2 million grant from the National Science Foundation to improve educational software by enabling it to assess facial expression, body language, speech and other cues to better respond to a student's emotional state during the learning process.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Case Western Reserve University on track to become No. 1 synchrotron lab in world
Case Western Reserve University's synchrotron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory is on its way to becoming the No. 1 beamline facility for biology in the world by early 2016, thanks to a jumpstart grant of $4.6 million from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, a component of the National Institutes of Health.
NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Jeannette Spalding
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Immune system is key ally in cyberwar against cancer
Research by Rice University scientists who are fighting a cyberwar against cancer finds that the immune system may be a clinician's most powerful ally.
Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, National Science Foundation, Tauber Family Funds

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Water Resources Research
Water-quality trading can reduce river pollution
Allowing polluters to buy, sell or trade water-quality credits will reduce pollution in rivers and estuaries faster and at lower cost than requiring them to meet compliance costs on their own, a Duke-led study finds. Establishing trading markets at a river-basin scale and allowing interstate trades will yield optimal results, but regulators shouldn't let uncertainties over details bog down a program's launch, since trading at any scale will yield gains over no trading at all.
National Science Foundation, Property and Environment Research Center

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Biology Letters
A step in the right direction to avoid falls
Researchers have developed a mathematical model that lends new insight to how humans walk.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Nature Climate Change
State policies are effective in reducing power plant emissions, CU-led study finds
A new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder found that different strategies used by states to reduce power plant emissions -- direct ones such as emission caps and indirect ones like encouraging renewable energy -- are both effective. The study is the first analysis of its kind.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Don Grant
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
BU receives NSF grant to develop 'smart city' cloud platform
Boston University's Rafik B. Hariri Institute for Computing and Computational Science & Engineering has received funding from the National Science Foundation to develop a 'smart-city' cloud platform designed to streamline and strengthen multiple municipal functions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kira Jastive
Boston University

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Nature Communications
Recreating the stripe patterns found in animals by engineering synthetic gene networks
Researchers at the CRG try to understand how networks of genes work together to create specific patterns like stripes. They have gone beyond studying individual networks and have created computational and synthetic mechanisms for a whole 'design space' of networks in the bacteria Escherichia coli. The system proves to be more efficient and powerful than building networks one-by-one, and its results have been published in the journal Nature Communications.
Swiss National Science Foundation Fellowship, Marie Curie Action, MINECO/Plan Nacional, Fundació La Marató de TV3, Institut Catalan de Recerca i Estudis Avancats

Contact: Juan Manuel Sarasua
Center for Genomic Regulation

Public Release: 23-Sep-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Could suburban sprawl be good for segregation?
Racially and economically mixed cities are more likely to stay integrated if the density of households stays low, finds a new analysis of a now-famous model of segregation. By simulating the movement of families between neighborhoods in a virtual 'city,' Duke University mathematicians show that cities are more likely to become segregated along racial, ethnic or other lines when the proportion of occupied sites rises above a certain critical threshold -- as low as 25 percent.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Showing releases 676-700 out of 828.

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