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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 676-700 out of 854.

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Public Release: 9-Jul-2014
Nature
Human cells' protein factory has an alternate operating manual
Working with a gene involved in HIV infection, University of Maryland researchers discovered some human genes have an alternate set of operating instructions written into their protein-making machinery, which can quickly alter the proteins' contents, functions and ability to survive. The UMD study, published in Nature, is the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of programmed ribosomal frameshifting in a human gene. Frameshifting helps regulate the gene's immune response, the authors report.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Robinson
abbyr@umd.edu
301-405-5845
University of Maryland

Public Release: 8-Jul-2014
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Solar energy gets a boost
A perspective article published recently by UC Riverside chemists in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters reviews the chemists' work on 'singlet fission' in which a single photon generates a pair of excited states.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 8-Jul-2014
Molecular Microbiology
When faced with some sugars, bacteria can be picky eaters
Researchers have found for the first time that genetically identical strains of bacteria can respond very differently to the presence of sugars and other organic molecules in the environment, with some individual bacteria devouring the sugars and others ignoring it.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 8-Jul-2014
AAU launches STEM education initiative website, announces STEM network conference
The Association of American Universities (AAU), an association of leading public and private research universities, today launched the AAU STEM Initiative Hub, a website that will both support and widen the impact of the association's initiative to improve the quality of undergraduate teaching and learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields at its member institutions. AAU plans a reception/poster session on the initiative July 21.
Leona and Harry Helmsley Charitable Trust, National Science Foundation, Burroughs Wellcome Fund

Contact: Barry Toiv
barry.toiv@aau.edu
202-408-7500
Association of American Universities

Public Release: 8-Jul-2014
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas
New plant species from the heart of Texas
Collectors found two specimens of the prickly plant in 1974 and 1990 in Texas. Then, for two decades, the 14 plant was identified wrongly as one species, then another, then a third. Now -- after a long search turned up a 'pathetic, wilted' third specimen -- a University of Utah botanist and colleagues identified the spiny plant as a new, possibly endangered species and named it 'from the heart' in Latin because it was found in Valentine, Texas.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 8-Jul-2014
Astrophysical Journal Letters
A hotspot for powerful cosmic rays
An observatory run by the University of Utah found a 'hotspot' beneath the Big Dipper emitting a disproportionate number of the highest-energy cosmic rays. The discovery moves physics another step toward identifying the mysterious sources of the most energetic particles in the universe.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
SAR11, oceans' most abundant organism, has ability to create methane
The oxygen-rich surface waters of the world's major oceans are supersaturated with methane -- a powerful greenhouse gas that is roughly 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide -- yet little is known about the source of this methane. A new study demonstrates the ability of some strains of the oceans' most abundant organism -- SAR11 -- to generate methane as a byproduct of breaking down a compound for its phosphorus.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Angel White
awhite@coas.oregonstate.edu
541-737-6397
Oregon State University

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society
Small, but plentiful: How the faintest galaxies illuminated the early universe
Light from tiny galaxies over 13 billion years ago played a larger role than previously thought in creating the conditions in the universe as we know it today, a new study has found.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jason Maderer
maderer@gatech.edu
404-385-2966
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
European Journal of Neuroscience
Dodging dots helps explain brain circuitry
In a new study, Brown University neuroscientists looked cell-by-cell at the brain circuitry that tadpoles, and possibly other animals, use to avoid collisions. The study produced a model of how individual inhibitory and excitatory neurons can work together to control a simple behavior.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Fox Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Science Communication
Mind the gap: Socioeconomic status may influence understanding of science
When it comes to science, socioeconomic status may widen confidence gaps among the least and most educated groups in society, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Science, Media and the Public research group.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dietram Scheufele
scheufele@wisc.edu
608-262-1614
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Nature Communications
Study reveals strong links between Antarctic climate, food web
A long-term study of the links between climate and marine life along the rapidly warming West Antarctic Peninsula reveals how changes in physical factors such as wind speed and sea-ice cover send ripples up the food chain, with impacts on everything from single-celled algae to penguins.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Malmquist
davem@vims.edu
804-684-7011
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Nature Physics
Penn researchers: Consider the 'anticrystal'
Physicists at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Chicago have evidence that a new concept should undergird our understanding of most materials: the anticrystal, a theoretical solid that is completely disordered.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Ecosphere
Science and cookies: Researchers tap into citizen science to shed light on ant diversity
Scientists from North Carolina State University and the University of Florida have combined cookies, citizen science and robust research methods to track the diversity of ant species across the United States, and are now collaborating with international partners to get a global perspective on how ants are moving and surviving in the modern world.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
DNA of 'Evolution Canyon' fruit flies reveals drivers of evolutionary change
An international team of researchers led by scientists with the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has peered into the DNA of fruit flies that live hardly a puddle jump apart in a natural environment known as 'Evolution Canyon' in Mount Carmel, Israel, discovering how these animals have been able to adapt and survive in such close, but extremely different, environments.
United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation, Ancell Teicher Research Foundation

Contact: Tiffany Trent
ttrent@vt.edu
540-231-6822
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientist identifies world's biggest-ever flying bird
Scientists have identified the fossilized remains of an extinct giant bird that could be the biggest flying bird ever found. With an estimated 20- to 24-foot wingspan, the creature surpassed the previous record holder -- an extinct bird named Argentavis magnificens -- and was twice as big as the Royal albatross, the largest flying bird today. Computer simulations show that the bird's long slender wings helped it stay aloft despite its enormous size.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
rsmith@nescent.org
919-668-4544
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 7-Jul-2014
Current Biology
Why 'whispers' among bees sometimes evolve into 'shouts'
Let's say you're a bee and you've spotted a new and particularly lucrative source of nectar and pollen. What's the best way to communicate the location of this prize cache of food to the rest of your nestmates without revealing it to competitors, or 'eavesdropping' spies, outside of the colony?
National Science Foundation, Animal Behavior Society

Contact: Kim McDonald
kmcdonald@ucsd.edu
858-534-7572
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 6-Jul-2014
Nature Climate Change
Rewriting the history of volcanic forcing during the past 2,000 years
A team of scientists led by Michael Sigl and Joe McConnell of Nevada's Desert Research Institute have completed the most accurate and precise reconstruction to date of historic volcanic sulfate emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. The new record, described in the online edition of Nature Climate Change, is derived from a large number of individual ice cores collected at locations across Antarctica and is the first annually resolved record extending through the Common Era.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Justin Broglio
justin.broglio@dri.edu
775-762-8320
Desert Research Institute

Public Release: 6-Jul-2014
Nature
Discovery provides insights on how plants respond to elevated CO2 levels
Biologists at UC San Diego have solved a long-standing mystery concerning the way plants reduce the numbers of their breathing pores in response to rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Energy

Contact: Kim McDonald
kmcdonald@ucsd.edu
858-534-7572
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 3-Jul-2014
Science
Controversial clues of 2 'Goldilocks planets' that might support life are proven false
Mysteries about controversial signals from a star considered a prime target in the search for extraterrestrial life now have been solved. The research proves, for the first time, that some of the signals actually are from events inside the star itself, not from the two so-called 'Goldilocks planets,' which were suspected to be just-right for life and orbiting the star at a distance where liquid water potentially could exist. No planets there, just star burps.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Penn State University, Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
science@psu.edu
814-863-4682
Penn State

Public Release: 3-Jul-2014
Science
Columbia researchers observe tunable quantum behavior in bilayer graphene
Columbia researchers have observed the fractional quantum Hall effect in bilayer graphene and shown that this exotic state of matter can be tuned by an electric field.
Department of Defense, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, DARPA

Contact: Beth Kwon
byk2102@columbia.edu
212-854-6581
Columbia University

Public Release: 3-Jul-2014
Science
Discovery expands search for Earth-like planets
A newly discovered planet in a binary star system located 3,000 light-years from Earth is expanding astronomers' notions of where Earth-like -- and even potentially habitable -- planets can form, and how to find them.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
gorder.1@osu.edu
614-292-9475
Ohio State University

Public Release: 2-Jul-2014
NSF awards UT Arlington three-year $250,000 research grant on hazard mitigation
A three-year, $250,000 National Science Foundation grant will match six undergraduate students with a Spanish technical institute so they can learn how to prepare civil infrastructure for natural, manmade and accidental disasters and how to recover quickly from such events.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
hbooth@uta.edu
817-272-7075
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 2-Jul-2014
Nature
A million times better
Nonlinear optical materials are widely used in laser systems. However, high light intensity and long propagation are required to produce strong nonlinear optical effects. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin and the Technische Universitaet Muenchen created metamaterials with a million times stronger nonlinear optical response, compared to the traditional nonlinear materials, and demonstrated frequency conversion in films 100 times thinner than human hair using light intensity comparable to that of a laser pointer.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Naval Research, German Research Foundation

Contact: Dr. Andreas Battenberg
battenberg@zv.tum.de
49-892-891-0510
Technische Universitaet Muenchen

Public Release: 2-Jul-2014
Nature
Researchers invent 'meta mirror' to help advance nonlinear optical systems
A research team led by the University of Texas at Austin created a nonlinear mirror that could advance laser systems. The metamaterials were created with nonlinear optical response a million times as strong as traditional nonlinear materials.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Sandra Zaragoza
zaragoza@utexas.edu
512-471-2129
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 2-Jul-2014
Experimental Cell Research
Stem cell type resists chemotherapy drug
In lab tests, Brown University researchers have found that adipose-derived stem cells, which can generate bone tissue, appear resistant to the toxicity of the chemotherapy drug methotrexate, which degrades bone in patients such as kids suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The newly published findings are preliminary but more tests are planned.
National Insitutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Showing releases 676-700 out of 854.

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