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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 676-700 out of 952.

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Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Journal of Ethnobiology
Production of butter from shea trees in West Africa pushed back 1,000 years
University of Oregon anthropologists have pushed back the history of harvesting shea trees in West Africa by more than 1,000 years earlier than previously believed. Oil from the trees' nuts is used for cooking by local populations and exported for use such things as skin moisturizers and soap.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Nature Chemical Biology
Survival of the hardest working
An engineering team at Washington University in St. Louis developed a cellular kill switch, a sensor that rewards hard working cells and eliminates their lazy counterparts. The high-tech engineering fix could help improve production of biofuels and pharmaceuticals.
Washington University in St. Louis, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation, Human Frontier Science Program, Washington University International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy and Sustainability

Contact: Erika Ebsworth-Goold
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Advanced Materials
Video: Morphing metal shapes future of soft robotics
Cornell University engineering professor Rob Shepherd and his group have created a hybrid material featuring stiff metal and soft, porous rubber foam that combines the best properties of both -- stiffness when it's called for, and elasticity when a change of shape is required. The material also has the ability to self-heal following damage.
US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Daryl Lovell
Cornell University

Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
York University astrophysicists detect ultra-fast winds near supermassive black hole
Researchers have found the fastest winds ever seen at ultraviolet wavelengths near a supermassive black hole. Some are reaching as fast as 200 million kilometers, equivalent to a category 77 hurricane, says Jesse Rogerson of Toronto's York University who led the research. And there may be even faster quasar winds. As matter spirals toward a black hole, some is blown away. These are the winds that we are detecting, says York U Professor Patrick Hall.
National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Government of Ontario, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sandra McLean
416-736-2100 x22097
York University

Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Developmental Cell
Technicolor zebrafish reveal how skin heals
Every cell on the surface of a transgenic 'Skinbow' zebrafish is genetically programmed to glow with a slightly different hue. But this fish wasn't bred to brighten up an aquarium; the colors effectively stamp each cell with a permanent barcode, letting scientists track its movements in a live animal for weeks at a time. The system is a powerful new tool for visualizing how hundreds of individual cells work together to regenerate skin tissue.
National Institutes of Health, Finalized Research and Founding for Investments in Basic Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kara Manke
Duke University

Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Nature Geoscience
Human carbon release rate is unprecedented in the past 66 million years of Earth's history
New research published today in Nature Geoscience by Richard Zeebe, professor at the University of Hawai'i - Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), and colleagues looks at changes of Earth's temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) since the end of the age of the dinosaurs. Their findings suggest humans are releasing carbon about 10 times faster than during any event in the past 66 million years.
National Science Foundation and European Union

Contact: Richard Zeebe
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Nature Materials
A new model for how twisted bundles take shape
In the current issue of Nature Materials, polymer scientists at the UMass Amherst and Virginia Tech identify for the first time the factors that govern the final morphology of self-assembling chiral filament bundles. They also report experimental results supporting their new model.
National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 18-Mar-2016
Scientists receive grant to sequence Cowpea genome
A team of University of California, Riverside scientists has received a nearly $1.6 million grant from the National Science Foundation to sequence the genome of the cowpea and further their research developing superior cowpea breeding lines.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sean Nealon
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 18-Mar-2016
Scientific Reports
Stanford scientists develop new technique for imaging cells and tissues under the skin
A team of Stanford Bio-X scientists developed the first technique for viewing cells and tissues in three dimensions under the skin. The work could improve diagnosis and treatment for some forms of cancer and blindness.
US Air Force, NIH/Directors Office, National Science Foundation, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, Mary Kay Foundation, Donald E. and Delia B. Baxter Foundation

Contact: Amy Adams
Stanford University

Public Release: 18-Mar-2016
Nature Communications
Study sheds light on patterns behind brain, heart systems; circadian rhythms
A Washington University in St. Louis engineer has found a new way to control chemical oscillation that could help regulate biorhythms involving the heart, brain and circadian cycles.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Erika Ebsworth-Goold
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 18-Mar-2016
Science Advances
China's forest recovery shows hope for mitigating global climate change
China's sweeping program to restore forests across the country is working. The vast destruction of China's forests, leveled after decades of logging, floods and conversion to farmland, has become a story of recovery, according to the first independent verification published in today's Science Advances by Michigan State University researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sue Nichols
Michigan State University

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Galapagos lakes reveal tropical Pacific climate since Biblical times
Sediments track 2,000 years of El Niņo and tropical rain band history, showing the strength can vary over centuries.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
Wrangler Supercomputer speeds through big data
A new kind of supercomputer called Wrangler is helping researchers speed through the bumpy terrain of big data and reach new discoveries, according to a special report at the Texas Advanced Computing Center. NSF-funded Wrangler is designed to be more user-friendly with a web-driven approach to high performance computing, including data analytics. The biologists, anthropologists, energy-efficiency experts, and astronomers profiled represent just a slice of the diverse community Wrangler supports.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Faith Singer-Villalobos
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
Researchers generate whole-genome map of fruit fly genetic recombination
For the first time, researchers at the Stowers Institute have mapped where recombination occurs across the whole genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster after a single round of meiosis.
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, American Cancer Society, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kim Bland
Stowers Institute for Medical Research

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
Astrophysical Journal Letters
VLA shows earliest stages of planet formation
VLA reveals details of the inner, thickest portion of a dusty disk surrounding a young star and provides new insight on the earliest stages of planet formation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
Ancient Denisovan DNA excavated in modern Pacific Islanders
Archaic Denisovan and Neanderthal DNA that persists in modern Pacific islanders of Melanesia, far from the Siberian cave where Denisovan fossils have been found, is a source of information about early human history. Equally informative are genome regions where DNA from extinct, human-like species has vanished and been replaced with sequences unique to people. These large regions have genes for brain development, language and brain cell signalling. Retained archaic DNA in human genomes may confer infection-fighting advantages.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgeminschaft, Presidential Fund of the Max Planck Society

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
Nature Communications
Future brain therapies for Parkinson's possible with stem cell bioengineering innovation
Scientists at Rutgers and Stanford universities have created a new technology that could someday help treat Parkinson's disease and other devastating brain-related conditions that affect millions of people. The technology -- a major innovation -- involves converting adult tissue-derived stem cells into human neurons on 3-D 'scaffolds,' or tiny islands, of fibers, said Prabhas V. Moghe, a distinguished professor at Rutgers.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology

Contact: Todd B. Bates
Rutgers University

Public Release: 17-Mar-2016
For first time, scientists use CRISPR-Cas9 to target RNA in live cells
Scientists have long sought an efficient method for targeting RNA -- intermediary genetic material that carries the genetic code from the cell's nucleus to protein-making machinery -- in living cells. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have now achieved this by applying the popular DNA-editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 to RNA. The study is published March 17, 2016 in Cell.
National Institutes of Health, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, Alfred P. Sloan Research

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 16-Mar-2016
Viruses 'piggyback' on host microbes' success
It has generally been assumed that in a growing population of microbes, viruses also multiply and kill their hosts, keeping the microbial population in check. A recent study of virus-host dynamics near coral reefs led by SDSU virologists suggests that, under certain conditions, viruses can change their infection strategy. As potential host microbes become more numerous, some viruses forego rapid replication and opt instead to reside peaceably inside their host, thereby reducing their the viruses' numbers.
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, National Science Foundation, Brazilian National Research Council, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Michael Price
San Diego State University

Public Release: 16-Mar-2016
Ecological Engineering
Wetland enhancement in Midwest could help reduce catastrophic floods of the future
Restoration of wetlands in the Midwest could significantly reduce peak river flows during floods -- not only now, but also in the future if heavy rains continue to increase in intensity, as climate models predict. New financial models and flood management policies may be needed to actually accomplish this.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency

Contact: Meghna Babbar-Sebens
Oregon State University

Public Release: 16-Mar-2016
PLOS Current Outbreaks
Potential Zika virus risk estimated for 50 US cities
Key factors that can combine to produce a Zika virus outbreak are expected to be present in a number of US cities during peak summer months, new research shows.
National Institutes of Health, NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Hosansky
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 15-Mar-2016
Physical Review Letters
Compressing turbulence to improve inertial confinement fusion experiments
Article describes possible new paradigm for inertial confinement fusion experiments.
DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Threat Reducation Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Greenwald
DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Public Release: 15-Mar-2016
Integrative Zoology
Adolescent female pandas not the demure homebodies once thought
In the furry animal world, it's the boys approaching adulthood who tend to start to wander to seek their fortune. Which usually means a mate. Girls tend to stay closer to the home range. But giant pandas, once again, buck a mammal trend.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Sue Nichols
Michigan State University

Public Release: 15-Mar-2016
Journal of Political Economy
Study: How more R&D funding can hasten green revolution
In a newly published paper, MIT Prof. Daron Acemoglu and three colleagues present a uniquely detailed model of the dynamics of innovation in the energy industry. In so doing, they indicate how supporting clean energy R&D, not just a carbon tax, might be the best way to help clean energy technologies compete with traditional forms of energy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-Mar-2016
CHI 2016
Smartwatches can now track your finger in mid-air using sonar
A new sonar technology developed by University of Washington computer scientists and electrical engineers allows you to interact with mobile devices and smartwatch screens by writing or gesturing on any nearby surface -- a tabletop, a sheet of paper or even in mid-air.
National Science Foundation, Google

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Showing releases 676-700 out of 952.

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