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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 676-700 out of 903.

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Public Release: 19-Jan-2016
$4 million NSF grant to help map changes in blood flow when specific neurons fire
Technologies once used to make corrections to space telescopes, along with new lasers, will help answer a fundamental question, according to Prakash Kara, Ph.D., a researcher at the Medical University of South Carolina: 'Is there a universal microcircuit that is repeated everywhere in the brain with regard to how neurons communicate with blood vessels?'
National Science Foundation's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

Contact: Dawn Brazell
Medical University of South Carolina

Public Release: 19-Jan-2016
Ecology Letters
New framework sheds light on how, not if, climate change affects cold-blooded animals
Cold-blooded animals like lizards, insects and fish have a preferred body temperature range at which they hunt, eat, move quickly and reproduce. Fear that a warming climate will constrict this temperature range underlies recent studies that warn of the detrimental effects of climate change on the activity and survival of cold-blooded animals. While not contradicting these warnings, a new paper published in the latest issue of Ecology Letters offers a revised framework that may better answer how activity is affected by temperature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Melody Kroll
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 19-Jan-2016
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
The reproductive and survival benefits of mothers and grandmothers in elephants
Only a few mammals and some birds are as long-lived as humans, and many of these species share interesting characteristics in how they age. A new paper in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology explores lifetime reproductive patterns in African elephants. Led by Phyllis Lee of the University of Stirling in the UK, the study analyzed data from 834 female elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya.
African Wildlife Foundation, Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Carnegie, International Fund for Animal Welfare, National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation, Downing College, Stirling University

Contact: Katrin Petermann

Public Release: 19-Jan-2016
First study of arthropods in US homes finds huge biodiversity
The first study to evaluate the biodiversity of arthropods in US homes finds that humans share their houses with any of more than 500 different kinds of arthropods -- at least on a short-term basis. Arthropods are invertebrate animals with exoskeletons, segmented bodies and jointed limbs, such as insects, spiders, mites and centipedes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 18-Jan-2016
Nature Nanotechnology
Scientists demonstrate basics of nucleic acid computing inside cells
Using strands of nucleic acid, scientists have demonstrated basic computing operations inside a living mammalian cell. The research could lead to an artificial sensing system that could control a cell's behavior in response to such stimuli as the presence of toxins or the development of cancer.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 18-Jan-2016
Nature Energy
Cheaper solar cells with 20.2 percent efficiency
EPFL scientists have developed a solar-panel material that can cut down on photovoltaic costs while achieving competitive power-conversion efficiency of 20.2 percent.
European Union Seventh Framework Programme (MESO; ENERGY; NANOMATCELL), Swiss National Science Foundation, Nanotera

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 18-Jan-2016
Nature Plants
Researchers uncover core set of genes for plant-fungal symbiosis
Researchers at the Boyce Thompson Institute identified a group of genes necessary for plants to form beneficial relationships with nutrient-bearing soil fungi. They compared the genomes of plants that form these symbiotic relationships to those that don't. A better understanding of the genetic basis of the symbiosis may one day yield better crop plants that require less fertilizer input.
National Science Foundation, Triad Foundation

Contact: Patricia Waldron
Boyce Thompson Institute

Public Release: 18-Jan-2016
Nature Materials
Light-activated nanoparticles prove effective against antibiotic-resistant 'superbugs'
In the ever-escalating evolutionary battle with drug-resistant bacteria, humans may soon have a leg up thanks to adaptive, light-activated nanotherapy developed by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder.
W.M. Keck Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Prashant Nagpal
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 15-Jan-2016
Science Advances
Sociable chimps harbor richer gut microbiomes
Spending time in close contact with others often means risking catching germs and getting sick. But being sociable may also help transmit beneficial microbes, finds a multi-institutional study of gut microbiomes in chimpanzees.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Franklin
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 15-Jan-2016
Science Advances
Gregarious chimps harbor richer gut microbiomes
Spending time in close contact with others means risking catching germs and getting sick. But being sociable may also help transmit 'good' microbes, finds a new study. Researchers monitored changes in the gut microbiomes and social behavior of chimpanzees over eight years in Tanzania. The number of bacterial species in a chimp's GI tract increased when the chimps were more gregarious. The results help scientists understand the factors that maintain a healthy gut microbiome.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Nature Nanotechnology
New particle can track chemo
Tracking the path of chemotherapy drugs in real time and at a cellular level could revolutionize cancer care and help doctors sort out why two patients might respond differently to the same treatment. Researchers at The Ohio State University have found a way to light up a common cancer drug so they can see where the chemo goes and how long it takes to get there.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mingjun Zhang
Ohio State University

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Risk Analysis
Study of altruism during the Ebola outbreak suggests good intentions are in the details
A study of risk communication as it relates to altruistic behavior has found that portraying an event as a distant risk, despite highlighting its importance and potential progression, fails to prompt altruistic behavior intention among the US public.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bert Gambini
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Oh, snap! What snapping shrimp sound patterns may tell us about reef ecosystems
The tiny snapping shrimp's noisy habits could play a big role in reef ecology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tracey Peake
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Nature Materials
Flexible film may lead to phone-sized cancer detector
A thin, stretchable film that coils light waves like a Slinky could one day lead to more precise, less expensive monitoring for cancer survivors.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense

Contact: Gabe Cherry
University of Michigan

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Work on the mystery of the glass transition receives NSF CAREER grant
Why can some materials act like solids without crystallizing? This question - the central issue in the study of the 'glass transition' -- is one of the longest standing and most technologically important problems in materials science and soft matter physics. Dr. David S. Simmons, an assistant professor in the Department of Polymer Engineering at The University of Akron, has been awarded a prestigious National Science Foundation CAREER Award to study this problem.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lisa Craig
University of Akron

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Current Biology
IU study shows first evidence for independent working memory systems in animals
A new study from Indiana University is the first to confirm that animals possess multiple 'working memory' systems, or the ability to remember more information across two categories versus a single category.
NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, NIH/National Institute on Aging, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Trio of autism-linked molecules orchestrate neuron connections
Duke University researchers reveal how three proteins work in concert to wire up a specific area of the developing brain that is responsible for processing visual information. The findings, published in Cell, may also lend insight into brain disorders including autism, depression and addiction.
National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Ruth K. Broad Biomedical Research Foundation, Brumley Neonatal Perinatal Research Institute, and others

Contact: Karl Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
What is 10 miles across, but powers an explosion brighter than the Milky Way?
Astronomers have spotted what may be the brightest supernova ever seen -- and discovered a mysterious object at its center.
National Science Foundation, Center for Cosmology and Astro Particle Physics at The Ohio State University, Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund, and others

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
Remembering to the future: Researchers shed new light on how our memories guide attention
A team of researchers has discovered that differences in the types of memories we have influence the nature of our future encounters. Their findings show how distinct parts of the brain, underlying different kinds of memories, also influence our attention in new situations.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
Journal of the Roayl Society Interface
Shiny fish skin inspires nanoscale light reflectors
A nature-inspired method to model the reflection of light from the skin of silvery fish and other organisms may be possible, according to Penn State researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
Transportation Science
Cutting down runway queues
Engineers at MIT have developed a queuing model that predicts how long a plane will wait before takeoff, given weather conditions, runway traffic, and incoming and outgoing flight schedules. The model may help air traffic controllers direct departures more efficiently, minimizing runway congestion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
Nature Microbiology
How bacterial communication 'goes with the flow' in causing infection, blockage
Researchers from Princeton University have found that fluid flow and environment have important consequences for how bacterial cells talk to each other and act collectively to cause diseases or clog pipes. The findings, published in the journal Nature Microbiology, provide a better understanding of where and when in a system scientists can interfere with bacterial communication to help prevent infections and blockages.
National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health, and Princeton/Eric and Wendy Schmidt Transformative Technology Fund

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
Plague-riddled prairie dogs a model for infectious disease spread
Sporadic outbreaks of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is an ideal model for the study of infectious zoonotic disease, say Colorado State University biologists.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne Ju Manning
Colorado State University

Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
Nature Communications
Fires burning in Africa and Asia cause high ozone in tropical Pacific
A new study suggests that the burning of forests and vegetation may play a larger role in climate change than previously realized. Based on aircraft observations, satellite data and models, the findings indicate 'biomass burning' may need to be addressed with future regulations. Following closely after COP21, the results could suggest a need to look at other sources of greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to industrial activities and fossil fuel combustion in industrialized nations.
Natural Environment Research Council, National Science Foundation, NASA, NOAA

Contact: Abby Robinson
University of Maryland

Public Release: 12-Jan-2016
Microbots individually controlled using 'mini force fields'
Researchers are using a technology likened to 'mini force fields' to independently control individual microrobots operating within groups, an advance aimed at using the tiny machines in areas including manufacturing and medicine.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Emil Venere
Purdue University

Showing releases 676-700 out of 903.

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