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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 701-725 out of 888.

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Public Release: 10-Dec-2015
Twin studies provide first explanations for boundary within Earth's mantle
Two new studies co-authored by University of Maryland geologists provide different, though not necessarily incompatible, explanations for a boundary in Earth's mantle at a depth of one megameter (1,000 kilometers). One study suggests that the mantle below this line is more viscous, while the other proposes that the lower section is denser, due to a shift in rock composition. The papers appear this week in the journals Science and Science Advances, respectively.
National Science Foundation, Natural Environment Research Council, David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 10-Dec-2015
International Conference on Multimodal Interaction
Lie-detecting software uses real court case data
By studying videos from high-stakes court cases, University of Michigan researchers are building unique lie-detecting software based on real-world data.
National Science Foundation, John Templeton Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: Nicole Casal Moore
University of Michigan

Public Release: 10-Dec-2015
Nature Communications
Cloudy with a chance of warming
Clouds can increase warming in the changing Arctic region more than scientists expected, by delivering an unexpected double-whammy to the climate system, according to a new study by researchers at NOAA, the University of Colorado Boulder and colleagues.
NOAA Climate Program Office Arctic Research Program, CIRES Visiting Fellows Program, National Science Foundation, Universidad de Santiago de Chile/FONDECYT/DICYT, DOE/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

Contact: Christopher Cox
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 10-Dec-2015
Some prairie vole brains are better wired for sexual fidelity
Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have found that natural selection drives some male prairie voles to be fully monogamous and others to seek more partners. The surprising contrasts in the animals' brains result from differences in their DNA. Just as people can be introverted or extroverted, prairie voles can be more or less prone to sexual fidelity because of these genetic differences.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Steve Franklin
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 10-Dec-2015
Stanford scientists reveal brain circuit mechanisms underlying arousal regulation
Adjusting a specific deep-brain circuit's firing frequency immediately and dramatically alters rats' forebrain activity and alertness levels, Stanford University School of Medicine investigators have shown.
National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Stanford Bio-X

Contact: Bruce Goldman
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 10-Dec-2015
Scientists teach machines to learn like humans
A team of scientists has developed an algorithm that captures our learning abilities, enabling computers to recognize and draw simple visual concepts that are mostly indistinguishable from those created by humans.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research, Moore-Sloan Data Science Environment

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 9-Dec-2015
Advanced Materials
New nanomanufacturing technique advances imaging, biosensing technology
Advances in nanolensing would make possible extremely high-resolution imaging or biological lensing.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Koppes
University of Chicago

Public Release: 9-Dec-2015
Advanced Materials
Nanostructured metal coatings let the light through for electronic devices
Light and electricity dance a complicated tango in devices like LEDs, solar cells and sensors. A new anti-reflection coating developed by engineers at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell, lets light through without hampering the flow of electricity, a step that could increase efficiency in such devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Liz Ahlberg
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 9-Dec-2015
NCAR to develop wildland fire prediction system for Colorado
Building on years of research with specialized computer models and satellite observations, NCAR will work with the state of Colorado to establish the nation's most advanced system for predicting wildland fire behavior, including where and how quickly the blazes will spread.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Federal Emergency Management Agency, State of Colorado

Contact: David Hosansky
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 9-Dec-2015
Experimental Biology and Medicine
Proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells is controlled by small RNA fragments
Uncontrolled proliferation of endothelial cells in small pulmonary arteries is a key feature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Now it has been shown that small RNA fragments (microRNAs) affect the expression of important cell cycle regulators and, as such, might control a proproliferative phenotype of vascular endothelial cells. The identified pathway appears to be cell type specific and offers novel insights in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Zurich Lung Foundation, EMDO Foundation, Theodor and Ida Herzog-Egli Foundation

Contact: Dr. Matthias Brock
Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine

Public Release: 9-Dec-2015
Triceratops gets a cousin: Researchers identify another horned dinosaur species
Researchers have described a new species of plant-eating dinosaur, Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis, that stood on its hind feet and was about the size of a spaniel. It is similar in age to the oldest-known member of the 'horned dinosaurs,' Yinlong downsi, although both are hornless.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic

Contact: Emily Grebenstein
George Washington University

Public Release: 9-Dec-2015
JAMA Psychiatry
Behavioral problems in youths are associated with differences in the brain
Young people with behavioral problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behavior, show reduced grey matter volume in a number of areas of the brain, according to a new study published in JAMA Psychiatry.
European Commission, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Luke Harrison
University of Birmingham

Public Release: 8-Dec-2015
UMass Amherst chemist receives NSF grant to enhance 'grass to gas' biofuel technology
Auerbach is interested in converting biomass to biofuels for two reasons. First, because plant biomass is renewable via fuel crops, while petroleum requires much more time to make and second, the growth of fuel crops removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, providing a 'carbon neutral' process for making and using liquid transportation fuels. In contrast, he notes, our present petroleum-based energy economy is 'carbon positive' because burning petroleum-based fuels adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 8-Dec-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
NCAR develops method to predict sea ice changes years in advance
Climate scientists at NCAR present evidence in a new study that they can predict whether the Arctic sea ice that forms in the winter will grow, shrink, or hold its own over the next several years.
National Science Foundation, NOAA, US Department of Energy

Contact: David Hosansky
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 8-Dec-2015
Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth
The geography of Antarctica's underside
Scientists were able to deploy ruggidized seismometers that could withstand intense cold in Antarctica only recently. A line of seismometers strung across the West Antarctic Rift Valley and the Marie Byrd Land have given geologists their first good look at the mantle beneath the ice and rocks, revealing areas of hot rock that might affect the behavior of the overlying ice sheet.

Contact: Diana Lutz
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 8-Dec-2015
Nano Research
Researchers develop nanoscale probes for ssDNA sustainability under UV radiation
A team of researchers from Lehigh University, the University of Central Florida and the National Institute of Standards and Technology set out to understand the stability of DNA as a carrier of genetic information against potential damage by UV radiation. They have reported their findings in a paper recently accepted for publication in Nano Research.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lori Friedman
Lehigh University

Public Release: 8-Dec-2015
Researchers resolve structure of a key component of bacterial decision-making
For bacteria that swim, determining whether to stay the course or head in a new direction is vital to survival. A new study offers atomic-level details of the molecular machinery that allows swimming bacteria to sense their environment and change direction when needed.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 8-Dec-2015
Nature Physics
Scientists explain origin of heavy elements in the Universe
In a letter published in the prestigious journal Nature Physics, a team of scientists suggests a solution to the Galactic radioactive plutonium puzzle. They point to the rare mergers of binary neutron stars as the source of radioactive plutonium-244 in nature.
ISF I-Core Center for Excellence in Astrophysics, CNSF-ISF, ISA Grant

Contact: Dov Smith
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
Annals of the Entomological Society of America
A new genus of plant bug, plus 4 new species from Australia
A new genus of plant bug and four new species have been discovered in Australia. The newly discovered insects, which belong to the family Miridae and the subfamily Phylinae, are described in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Richard Levine
Entomological Society of America

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
ACS Nano
Seeing viruses in a new light
If researchers can understand how viruses assemble, they may be able to design drugs that prevent viruses from forming in the first place. Unfortunately, how exactly viruses self-assemble has long remained a mystery because it happens very quickly and at such small length-scales. Now, there is a system to track nanometer-sized viruses at sub-millisecond time scales. The method is the first step towards tracking individual proteins and genomic molecules at high speeds as they assemble to create a virus.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
Nature Climate Change
Climate change governs a crop pest, even when populations are far-flung
Research appearing today in Nature Climate Change shows how large-scale climatic changes drive a coordinated rise and fall of numbers of aphids across Great Britain, even when individual aphid populations in that nation are separated by great distance.
UK Natural Environment Research Council, National Science Foundation, University of Kansas

Contact: Brendan M. Lynch
University of Kansas

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
Nature Climate Change
Including plant acclimation to temperature change improves climate models
Including plants' acclimation to changes in temperature could significantly improve the accuracy of climate models, a Purdue University study shows.
National Science Foundation, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Natalie van Hoose
Purdue University

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
Nano Letters
Nanotube letters spell progress
Rice University researchers test the stiffness of individual nanotube junctions and find different characteristics based upon their 'letter' forms. Materials built with particular letters may be useful as building blocks in the construction of macroscale structures.
DOD/Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Sperm crane their neck to turn right
Spermatozoa need to crane their necks to turn right to counteract a left-turning drive caused by the rotation of their tails, new research has found. Led by Dr. Vasily Kantsler of the University of Warwick's Department of Physics, the researchers discovered that all sperm tails (flagella) rotate in a counter-clockwise motion as they beat to enable them to move through and against the motion of a fluid.
Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Frew
University of Warwick

Public Release: 7-Dec-2015
Advanced Materials
Stretchy hydrogel 'Band-Aid' senses, lights up, delivers medicine
MIT engineers have designed what may be the Band-Aid of the future: a sticky, stretchy, gel-like material that can incorporate temperature sensors, LED lights, and other electronics, as well as tiny, drug-delivering reservoirs and channels. The 'smart wound dressing' releases medicine in response to changes in skin temperature and can be designed to light up if, say, medicine is running low.
Office of Naval Research, MIT Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, and National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Showing releases 701-725 out of 888.

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