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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 701-725 out of 749.

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Public Release: 12-Feb-2014
Global Environmental Change
Dartmouth study shows US Southwest irrigation system facing decline after 4 centuries
Communal irrigation systems known as acequias that have sustained farming villages in the arid southwestern United States for centuries are struggling because of dwindling snowmelt runoff and social and economic factors that favor modernism over tradition, a Dartmouth College study finds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 12-Feb-2014
Penn geophysicist teams with mathematicians to describe how river rocks round
A new study by the University of Pennsylvania's Douglas Jerolmack, working with mathematicians at Budapest University of Technology and Economics, have found that rocks follow a distinct pattern as they become rounder, and then smaller, as they travel down riverbeds.
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 12-Feb-2014
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
How stellar death can lead to twin celestial jets
Astronomers know that while large stars can end their lives as violently cataclysmic supernovae, smaller stars end up as planetary nebulae -- colorful, glowing clouds of dust and gas. In recent decades these nebulae, once thought to be mostly spherical, have been observed to often emit powerful, bipolar jets of gas and dust. In a theoretical paper, a University of Rochester professor and his student conclude that only "strongly interacting" binary stars can feasibly give rise to these powerful jets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leonor Sierra
University of Rochester

Public Release: 12-Feb-2014
Advanced techniques yield new insights into ribosome self-assembly
Ribosomes, the cellular machines that build proteins, are themselves made up of dozens of proteins and a few looping strands of RNA. A new study, reported in the journal Nature, offers new clues about how the ribosome, the master assembler of proteins, also assembles itself.
National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 12-Feb-2014
Revision to rules for color in dinosaurs suggests connection between color and physiology
New research revising rules on deciphering color in dinosaurs may provide a tool for understanding the evolutionary emergence of flight and changes in dinosaur physiology. While surveying melanosome shape in fossil and extant specimens, a research team unexpectedly discovered that ancient maniraptoran dinosaurs, paravians, and living mammals and birds uniquely shared the evolutionary development of diverse melanosome shapes related to color. The similarity could relate to a key shift in dinosaurian physiology.
National Science Foundation, Human Frontiers Science Program, Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, and others

Contact: J.B. Bird
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 12-Feb-2014
New England Journal of Medicine
Worm infections in developing countries: Veterinary drugs improve the health of school children
A new study by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reveals that the health of millions of children with worm infections could be improved thanks to a veterinary drug. The study represents a vital contribution in the fight against worm infections -- still largely neglected -- in developing countries.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Medicor Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Keiser
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute

Public Release: 11-Feb-2014
New weather radar network in Dallas area to provide more frequent, precise storm data
The DFW area becomes first in the nation to host this next generation of small, near-surface, fine-scale, rapidly updating weather radar developed by researchers at the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere led by UMass Amherst with partners at Colorado State University and the University of Oklahoma.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 11-Feb-2014
OU next-generation radar deployed in DFW area
University of Oklahoma next generation radar was deployed in Addison, Texas, today as part of a new cutting-edge system designed to save lives and property by providing near-surface, fine-scale, rapidly updated information on severe weather. The Dallas-Fort Worth Urban Demonstration Network is a five-year, $10 million joint venture between OU, the University of Massachusetts and Colorado State University.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 11-Feb-2014
Journal of Neurophysiology
No clowning around: Juggling sheds light on how we run
Juggling may seem like mere entertainment, but engineers used this circus skill to gather critical clues about how vision and the sense of touch help control the way humans and animals move their limbs in a repetitive way, such as in running. The findings eventually may aid in the treatment of people with neurological diseases and could lead to prosthetic limbs and robots that move more efficiently.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Phil Sneiderman
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 11-Feb-2014
Source of 'moon curse' revealed by eclipse
Signals bounced off reflectors on the lunar surface return surprisingly faint echoes on full moon nights. Scientists think it's the result of uneven heating of the reflective lenses, which would alter their refractive index, dispersing the return beam, and they found compelling evidence for this explanation during an eclipse as Earth's shadow passed over each reflector in turn.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Susan Brown
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 11-Feb-2014
Population and Environment
Population bomb may be defused, but research reveals ticking household bomb
After decades of fretting about population explosion, scientists are pointing to a long-term hidden global menace. The household. More specifically, the household explosion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sue Nichols
Michigan State University

Public Release: 11-Feb-2014
Nature Communications
Researchers discover 'epic' new Burgess Shale site in Canada's Kootenay National Park
Yoho National Park's 505-million-year-old Burgess Shale -- home to some of the planet's earliest animals, including a very primitive human relative -- is one of the world's most important fossil sites. Now, more than a century after its discovery, a compelling sequel has been unearthed: 42 kilometers away in Kootenay National Park, a new Burgess Shale fossil site has been located that appears to equal the importance of the original discovery, and may one day even surpass it.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Science Foundation

Contact: Christine Elias
University of Toronto

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
Journal of Biomechanics
With their amazing necks, ants don't need 'high hopes' to do heavy lifting
The design of future space robots may take a cue from the neck joint of an unassuming American field ant.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
Nature Communications
Chips that listen to bacteria
Researchers led by Ken Shepard (electrical engineering and biomedical engineering professor, Columbia Engineering) and Lars Dietrich, biological sciences assistant professor, Columbia University) have shown integrated circuit technology can be used for a most unusual application -- the study of signaling in bacterial colonies. They have developed a chip based on CMOS technology that enables them to electrochemically image the signaling molecules from these colonies spatially and temporally -- they've developed chips that "listen" to bacteria.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
UCF researcher bringing 3-D TV back from the dead
One UCF researcher may be on the brink of bringing 3-D- TV back from the dead. Gone are the goofy glasses required of existing sets. Instead, assistant professor Jayan Thomas is working on creating the materials necessary to create a 3-D image that could be seen from 360 degrees with no extra equipment.
National Science Foundation Career Grant

Contact: Zenaida Kotala
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
BMC Genomics
Wasps use ancient aggression genes to create social groups
Aggression-causing genes appeared early in animal evolution and have maintained their roles for millions of years and across many species, even though animal aggression today varies widely from territorial fighting to setting up social hierarchies, according to researchers from Iowa State University, Penn State and Grand Valley State University.
US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
American Political Science Review
No strength in numbers
Urban legislators have long lamented that they do not get their fair share of bills passed in state governments, often blaming rural and suburban interests for blocking their efforts. Now a new study confirms one of those suspicions but surprisingly refutes the other. The analysis -- of 1,736 bills in 13 states over 120 years -- found that big-city legislation was passed at dramatically lower rates than bills for smaller places.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Hagen
University of Rochester

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
Nature Communications
The genetic origins of high-altitude adaptations in Tibetans
Genetic adaptations for life at high elevations found in residents of the Tibetan plateau likely originated around 30,000 years ago in peoples related to contemporary Sherpa. These genes were passed on to more recent migrants from lower elevations via population mixing, and then amplified by natural selection in the modern Tibetan gene pool, according to a new study by scientists from the University of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University, published in Nature Communications on Feb. 10.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Jiang
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers build nonflammable lithium ion battery
Researchers led by chemist Joseph DeSimone at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have created a nonflammable lithium-ion battery, a discovery that could renew consumer confidence in a technology that has attracted significant concern after recent lithium battery fires in Boeing 787 Dreamliners and Tesla Model S vehicles.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council

Contact: Thania Benios
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Public Release: 10-Feb-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Research reveals the give and take of urban temperature mitigating technologies
Greenhouse-gas induced warming and megapolitan expansion are both significant drivers of our warming planet. Researchers are now assessing adaptation technologies -- such as cool roofs, green roofs and hybrids of the two -- that could help us acclimate to these changing realities. Now a team of researchers, led by Matei Georgescu, of Arizona State University has begun exploring the relative effectiveness of some of the most common adaptation technologies aimed at reducing warming from urban expansion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Skip Derra
Arizona State University

Public Release: 9-Feb-2014
Nature Methods
Optogenetic toolkit goes multicolor
MIT researchers have found new light-sensitive proteins that allow scientists to study how multiple sets of neurons interact with each other.
National Institutes of Health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, National Science Foundation, Wallace H. Coulter Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, NARSAD Young Investigator Grant, Human Frontiers Science Program, and others

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 7-Feb-2014
Physics Review Letters
New application of physics tools used in biology
A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory physicist and his colleagues have found a new application for the tools and mathematics typically used in physics to help solve problems in biology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne Stark
DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Public Release: 7-Feb-2014
Video by UC Riverside lab receives honorable mention in international competition
A video produced by a UC Riverside lab has received an honorable mention in the highly acclaimed International Science & Engineering Visualization Challenge given by the National Science Foundation and the journal Science. The video, titled "Visualizing Leaf Cells from Within," received honorable mention in a three-way tie. The competition was conducted in 2013. The winning entries are included in five categories: photography, illustration, informational poster and graphics, games and apps, and video.
National Science Foundation, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 6-Feb-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Substance in photosynthesis was at work in ancient, methane-producing microbes
An international team of researchers led by scientists at Virginia Tech and the University of California, Berkeley has discovered that a process that turns on photosynthesis in plants likely developed on Earth in ancient microbes 2.5 billion years ago, long before oxygen became available. The research offers new perspective on evolutionary biology, microbiology, and the production of natural gas, and may shed light on climate change, agriculture, and human health.
National Science Foundation, NASA, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Zeke Barlow
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 6-Feb-2014
New insight into an emerging genome-editing tool
A collaboration led by Berkeley Lab's Jennifer Doudna and Eva Nogales has produced the first detailed look at the 3D structure of the Cas9 enzyme and how it partners with guide RNA to interact with target DNA. The results should enhance Cas9's value and versatility as a genome-editing tool.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Science Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Contact: Lynn Yarris
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Showing releases 701-725 out of 749.

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