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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 726-750 out of 839.

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Public Release: 22-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
JILA study finds crowding has big effects on biomolecules
Crowding has notoriously negative effects at large size scales, blamed for everything from human disease and depression to community resource shortages. But relatively little is known about the influence of crowding at the cellular level. A new JILA study shows that a crowded environment has dramatic effects on individual biomolecules.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Contact: Laura Ost
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 22-May-2014
Screening for autism: There's an app for that
Researchers have developed software to help interpret videotaped behaviors of infants during autism screening tests. The program's accuracy proved equal to autism experts and better than both non-expert medical clinicians and students in training.
National Science Foundation, CAPES, FAPESP, US Department of Defense, Office of Naval Research, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Army Research Office, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 21-May-2014
IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
Carnegie Mellon, Microsoft Research automate privacy compliance for big data systems
Web services companies, such as Facebook, Google and Microsoft, all make promises about how they will use personal information they gather. A team from Carnegie Mellon University and Microsoft Research has automated the method to ensure that large codebases are operating in compliance with those promises and has deployed a prototype automated system on the data analytics pipeline of Bing, Microsoft's search engine.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Byron Spice
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 21-May-2014
Journal of American Chemical Society
A faster track to the tools that track disease
Researchers at Princeton University have developed a direct method to single enantiomer PET tracers. These radioactive small molecules are used in PET scans to help doctors visualize the progression of disease.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tien Nguyen
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-May-2014
Rhythmic bursts of electrical activity from cells in ear teach brain how to hear
A precise rhythm of electrical impulses transmitted from cells in the inner ear coaches the brain how to hear, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The ear generates spontaneous electrical activity to trigger a response in the brain before hearing actually begins, said senior investigator Karl Kandler, Ph.D., professor of otolaryngology and neurobiology at Pitt School of Medicine.
NIH/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Pennsylvania Lions Hearing Research Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Contact: Anita Srikameswaran
University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Biology Letters
Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesis makes species resilient
Deanna Soper, postdoctoral researcher in the University of Iowa Department of Biology and currently visiting assistant professor at Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., and her colleagues addressed whether a particular prediction of the Red Queen hypothesis was met -- that exposure to parasites increases multiple mating in New Zealand freshwater snails.
National Science Foundation, Royal Society, National Geographic Society

Contact: Gary Galluzzo
University of Iowa

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Shrub growth decreases as winter temperatures fluctuate up
Many have assumed that warmer winters as a result of climate change would increase the growth of trees and shrubs because the growing season would be longer. But shrubs achieve less yearly growth when cold winter temperatures are interrupted by temperatures warm enough to trigger growth.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Melanie Harsch
University of Washington

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
With climate changing, southern plants outperform northern
Can plants and animals evolve to keep pace with climate change? A new study shows that for at least one widely-studied plant, the European climate is changing fast enough that strains from Southern Europe already grow better in the north than established local varieties.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Journal of Biomechanics
Scientists study biomechanics behind amazing ant strength
A recent study into the biomechanics of the necks of ants -- a common insect that can amazingly lift objects many times heavier than its own body -- might unlock one of nature's little mysteries and, quite possibly, open the door to advancements in robotic engineering. Ohio State University engineers combined laboratory testing and computational modeling conducted at the Ohio Supercomputer Center to determine the relationship between mechanical function, structural design and material properties of ant necks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jamie Abel
Ohio Supercomputer Center

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Physics of Fluids
Professors' super waterproof surfaces cause water to bounce like a ball
Engineers like Julie Crockett and Dan Maynes have spent decades studying super-hydrophobic surfaces because of the plethora of real-life applications. And while some of this research has resulted in commercial products that keep shoes dry or prevent oil from building up on bolts, the duo of BYU professors are uncovering characteristics aimed at large-scale solutions for society.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Todd Hollingshead
Brigham Young University

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Humpback whale subspecies revealed by genetic study
A new genetic study has revealed that populations of humpback whales in the oceans of the North Pacific, North Atlantic and Southern Hemisphere are much more distinct from each other than previously thought, and should be recognized as separate subspecies. Understanding how connected these populations are has important implications for the recovery of these charismatic animals that were once devastated by hunting.
New Zealand Royal Society, Lenfest Ocean Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Rachel Law
British Antarctic Survey

Public Release: 20-May-2014
Nature Communications
Engineers build world's smallest, fastest nanomotor
Cockrell School of Engineering assistant professor Donglei 'Emma' Fan and her team have built the fastest, smallest and longest-running nanomotor to date. The UT Austin team's nanomotor is capable of drug delivery on a nanoscale. One day, nanomotors could lead to the development of tiny devices that seek out and treat cancer cells.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sandra Zaragoza
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 20-May-2014
CWRU student discovers new praying mantis species in Rwanda
A Case Western Reserve University student working with the Cleveland Museum of Natural History discovered the bush tiger mantis, a new species, in Nyungwe Forest National Park, Rwanda. The species is named for the female who hunts on the ground and undergrowth. The male flies.
Cleveland Museum of Natural History, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Astrophysical Journal
Analyzing sun-like stars that eat Earth-like planets
Vanderbilt astronomers have developed a model that estimates the effect that ingesting large amounts of the rocky material from which 'terrestrial' planets like Earth, Mars and Venus are made has on a star's chemical composition and has used the model to analyze a pair of twin stars which both have their own planets.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Brain steroids make good dads
Insights from a highly social fish can help understand how other androgenic steroids, like testosterone, can shape a male's parenting skills, according to a recent Georgia State University research study.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Science Foundation, Georgia State University

Contact: LaTina Emerson
Georgia State University

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Nature Photonics
New 'T-ray' tech converts light to sound for weapons detection, medical imaging
A device that essentially listens for light waves could help open up the last frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum -- the terahertz range.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Nicole Casal Moore
University of Michigan

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Having and raising offspring is costly phase of life for baboon moms
Observations made in Kenya as part of one of the world's longest-running studies of a wild primate show how having offspring influences the health of female baboons. These observations highlight that females are mostly injured on days when they are likely to conceive. In addition, injuries heal the slowest when they are suckling their young. The study is published in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Aging

Contact: Joan Robinson

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Nano Letters
Liberating devices from their power cords
A new type of supercapacitor that can hold a charge when it takes a lickin' has been developed by engineers at Vanderbilt University. It is the first 'multi-functional' energy storage device that can operate while subject to realistic static and dynamic loads -- advancing the day when everything from cell phones to electric vehicles will no longer need separate batteries.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: David Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists develop new approach for sampling gut bacteria
Scientists at Forsyth, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard School of Public Health have developed a new protocol for collecting saliva and stool samples for genomic and transcriptomic analyses. This method eliminates the need for specialized personnel and facilities while keeping the sample intact. It also provides critical insight into the genetic makeup of the microbiome of the digestive tract and the bacteria associated with celiac disease, oral cancer, perodontitis and obesity.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Kelly
Forsyth Institute

Public Release: 19-May-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Climate change, forest fires drove widespread surface melting of Greenland ice sheet
Rising temperatures and ash from Northern Hemisphere forest fires combined to cause large-scale surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet in 1889 and 2012, contradicting conventional thinking that the melt events were driven by warming alone, a Dartmouth College-led study finds.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: John Cramer
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 18-May-2014
Nature Methods
Illuminating neuron activity in 3-D
Researchers at MIT and the University of Vienna have created an imaging system that reveals neural activity throughout the brains of living animals.
Allen Institute for Brain Science, National Institutes of Health, MIT Synthetic Intelligence Project, IET Harvey Prize, National Science Foundation, New York Stem Cell Foundation, Google, and others

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 18-May-2014
Nature Geoscience
Cutoff switch may limit spread, duration of oxygen minimum zones
A new study examining the impact of iron released from continental margin sediments has documented a natural limiting switch that may keep these ocean systems from developing a runaway feedback loop that could lead to unchecked hypoxic areas, or persistent 'dead zones.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Florian Scholz
Oregon State University

Public Release: 16-May-2014
Watching HIV bud from cells
University of Utah researchers devised a way to watch newly forming AIDS virus particles emerging or 'budding' from infected human cells without interfering with the process. The method shows a protein named ALIX gets involved during the final stages of virus replication, not earlier, as was believed previously.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Geological Society of America Bulletin
On the shoulder of a giant: Precursor volcano to the island of O'ahu discovered
Researchers recently discovered that O'ahu, Hawai'i, actually consists of three major Hawaiian shield volcanoes, not two, as previously thought. Extending almost 100 km WNW from the western tip of the island of O'ahu is the submarine Ka'ena Ridge, a region that has now been recognized to represent a precursor volcano to the island of O'ahu, and on whose flanks the Wai'anae and Ko'olau Volcanoes later formed.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
University of Hawaii ‑ SOEST

Public Release: 15-May-2014
Tricking the uncertainty principle
Today, we can measure the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but the uncertainty principle places fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that results from of the quantum nature of the fields used to make measurements imposes what is called the 'standard quantum limit.' This background noise keeps us from knowing an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement.
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Bell
California Institute of Technology

Showing releases 726-750 out of 839.

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