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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 726-750 out of 818.

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Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Slow rate of croc mutation revealed in major Science study
In research led by Texas Tech Uni a team of researchers from the University of Sydney's Faculty of Veterinary Science has sequenced three crocodilians species and revealed that their rate of evolution is approximately four times slower than birds.'
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation grant, US National Science Foundation

Contact: Verity Leatherdale
61-403-067-342
University of Sydney

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Scientists reveal new family tree for birds, clear back to dinosaur parents
A large international group of scientists, including an Oregon Health & Science University neuroscientist, is publishing this week the results of a first-ever look at the genome of dozens of common birds. The scientists' research tells the story of how modern birds evolved after the mass extinction that wiped out dinosaurs and almost everything else on Earth 66 million years ago, and gives new details on how birds came to have feathers, flight and song.
National Genebank in China, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Lundbeck Foundation, Danish National Research Foundation

Contact: Todd Murphy
murphyt@ohsu.edu
503-494-8231
Oregon Health & Science University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Nanoshaping method points to future manufacturing technology
A new method that creates large-area patterns of 3-D nanoshapes from metal sheets represents a potential manufacturing system to inexpensively mass produce innovations such as 'plasmonic metamaterials' for advanced technologies.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institutes of Health, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Emil Venere
venere@purdue.edu
765-494-4709
Purdue University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Physical Review Letters
Penn research outlines basic rules for construction with a type of origami
Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper into a pretty paper crane, but the principles behind it can be applied to making a microfluidic device or for storing a satellite's solar panel in a rocket's cargo bay. A team of University of Pennsylvania researchers is turning kirigami, a related art form that allows the paper to be cut, into a technique that can be applied equally to structures on those vastly divergent length scales.
National Science Foundation, American Philosophical Society, Simons Foundation

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@upenn.edu
215-573-6604
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society
Interstellar mystery solved by supercomputer simulations
An interstellar mystery of why stars form has been solved thanks to the most realistic supercomputer simulations of galaxies yet made. Theoretical astrophysicist Philip Hopkins of the California Institute of Technology led research that found that stellar activity -- like supernova explosions or even just starlight -- plays a big part in the formation of other stars and the growth of galaxies.
National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship

Contact: Jorge Salazar
jorge@tacc.utexas.edu
512-475-9411
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Cell
3-D maps reveal the genome's origami code
In a triumph for cell biology, researchers have assembled the first high-resolution, 3-D maps of entire folded genomes and found a structural basis for gene regulation -- a kind of 'genomic origami' that allows the same genome to produce different types of cells. The research appears online today in Cell.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute, NVIDIA, IBM, Google, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, McNair Medical Institute

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics
Study: Invasive species can dramatically alter landscapes
Invasive plant and animal species can cause dramatic and enduring changes to the geography and ecology of landscapes, a study from Purdue University and the University of Kentucky shows.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Natalie van Hoose
nvanhoos@purdue.edu
765-496-2050
Purdue University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Nano Letters
Stacking 2-dimensional materials may lower cost of semiconductor devices
A team of researchers has found that stacking materials that are only one atom thick can create semiconductor junctions that transfer charge efficiently, regardless of whether the crystalline structure of the materials is mismatched -- lowering the manufacturing cost for a wide variety of semiconductor devices such as solar cells, lasers and LEDs.
US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Current Biology
The story of a bizarre deep-sea bone worm takes an unexpected twist
Marine biologist Greg Rouse at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego and his colleagues have discovered a new species of bizarre deep-sea worms that feast on the bones of dead animals. The new 'bone worm' was found to be an evolutionary reversal of size unseen in the animal kingdom.
David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, National Science Foundation, Faculty of Science at the University of Copenhagen.

Contact: Mario Aguilera or Robert Monroe
scrippsnews@ucsd.edu
858-534-3624
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Kent State researchers to study social media use during crises and disasters
The National Science Foundation has awarded Kent State University a $300,000 grant for three College of Arts and Sciences faculty members to study how human dynamics across social media and social networks can be modeled. The grant is part of a $999,887 collaboration with San Diego State University and the University of Arkansas.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Maxwell
jmaxwel2@kent.edu
330-672-8028
Kent State University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
New method helps map species' genetic heritage
Where did the songbird get its song? What branch of the bird family tree is closer to the flamingo -- the heron or the sparrow? These questions seem simple, but are actually difficult for geneticists to answer. A new, sophisticated technique called statistical binning developed by researchers at the University of Illinois and the University of Texas at Austin can help researchers construct more accurate species trees detailing the lineage of genes and the relationships between species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Liz Ahlberg
eahlberg@illinois.edu
217-244-1073
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Cell
Scientists map the human loop-ome, revealing a new form of genetic regulation
The ancient Japanese art of origami is based on the idea that nearly any design -- a crane, an insect, a samurai warrior -- can be made by taking the same blank sheet of paper and folding it in different ways. The human body faces a similar problem.
McNair Medical Institute, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, IBM, Google, NVIDA

Contact: Glenna Picton
picton@bcm.edu
713-798-4710
Baylor College of Medicine

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Genes tell story of birdsong and human speech
A massive international effort to sequence and compare the entire genomes of 48 species of birds, representing every major order of the bird family tree, reveals that vocal learning evolved twice or maybe three times among songbirds, parrots and hummingbirds. Even more striking, the set of genes employed in each of those song innovations is remarkably similar to the genes involved in human speaking ability.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Karl Leif Bates
karl.bates@duke.edu
919-681-8054
Duke University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
PLOS Computational Biology
Ebola virus may replicate in an exotic way
University of Utah researchers ran biochemical analysis and computer simulations of a livestock virus to discover a likely and exotic mechanism to explain the replication of related viruses such as Ebola, measles and rabies. The mechanism may be a possible target for new treatments within a decade.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Computer scientists at UT Austin crack code for redrawing bird family tree
A new computational technique developed at The University of Texas at Austin has enabled an international consortium to produce an avian tree of life that points to the origins of various bird species. A graduate student at the university is a leading author on papers describing the new technique and sharing the consortium's findings about bird evolution in the journal Science.
National Science Foundation and Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Marc Airhart
mairhart@austin.utexas.edu
512-232-1066
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Tooth loss in birds occurred about 116 million years ago
A question that has intrigued biologists is: Were teeth lost in the common ancestor of all living birds or convergently in two or more independent lineages of birds? A research team led by biologists at the University of California, Riverside and Montclair State University, NJ, used the degraded remnants of tooth genes in birds to determine that teeth were lost in the common ancestor of all living birds more than 100 million years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Scientists reconstruct genome of common ancestor of crocodiles, birds, dinosaurs
Crocodiles are the closest living relatives of birds, sharing a common ancestor that lived around 240 million years ago and also gave rise to the dinosaurs. A new study of crocodilian genomes reveals an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution in this group. The researchers used the crocodilian genomes, combined with newly published bird genomes, to reconstruct a partial genome of the common ancestor of crocodiles, birds, and dinosaurs.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
stephens@ucsc.edu
831-459-4352
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
Birds find their place in the avian tree of life
An international effort involving more than 100 researchers, nine supercomputers and about 400 years of CPU time has yielded the most reliable avian tree of life yet produced, researchers report in the journal Science. The tree reflects the evolutionary relationships of 48 species of birds.
National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Guggenheim Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates,
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 11-Dec-2014
Science
International team maps 'big bang' of bird evolution
The first findings of the Avian Phylogenomics Consortium are being reported nearly simultaneously in 29 papers -- eight papers in a Dec. 12 special issue of Science and 21 more in Genome Biology, GigaScience and other journals. The analyses suggest some remarkable new ideas about bird evolution, including insights into vocal learning and the brain, colored plumage, sex chromosomes and the birds' relationship to dinosaurs and crocodiles.
BGI and the China National GeneBank, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Lundbeck Foundation, Danish National Research Foundation, and others

Contact: Karl Bates
karl.bates@duke.edu
919-681-8054
Duke University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
eLife
Worms' mental GPS helps them find food
Salk scientists develop a theory to explain how animals gather information and switch attention.
National Science Foundation, University of California San Diego Institute, Rita Allen Foundation, National Institutes of Health, McKnight Endowment Fund, Ray Thomas Edwards Foundation

Contact: Salk Communications
press@salk.edu
Salk Institute

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
NSF funds Kent State study of human chromosome
A Kent State University scientist has received a $450,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to lead a study of the workings and dynamics of a structure inside the human chromosome.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cindy Weiss
lweiss4@kent.edu
330-672-0731
Kent State University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
Materials Research Letters
New 'high-entropy' alloy is as light as aluminum, as strong as titanium alloys
Researchers have developed a new 'high-entropy' metal alloy that has a higher strength-to-weight ratio than any other existing metal material.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
Nature Communications
Organic electronics could lead to cheap, wearable medical sensors
University of California Berkeley researchers have created a pulse oximeter, commonly used to measure heart rate and blood oxygen levels, using all organic materials instead of silicon. The advance could lead to cheap, flexible sensors that could be used like a Band-Aid.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
scyang@berkeley.edu
510-643-7741
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
Physical Review Letters
Theory details how 'hot' monomers affect thin-film formation
Researchers have devised a mathematical model to predict how 'hot' monomers on cold substrates affect the growth of thin films being developed for next-generation electronics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2014
Nature
No laughing matter: Nitrous oxide rose at end of last ice age
Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas that doesn't receive as much notoriety as carbon dioxide or methane, but a new study confirms that atmospheric levels of N2O rose significantly as the Earth came out of the last ice age and addresses the cause.
United States National Science Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Mark Floyd
mark.floyd@oregonstate.edu
541-737-0788
Oregon State University

Showing releases 726-750 out of 818.

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