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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 726-750 out of 854.

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Public Release: 5-May-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
How noise changes the way the brain gets information
In a study on mice, cells that relay information from the ear to the brain changed their behavior and structure in response to the noise level in the environment. Researchers think the adaptations could aid hearing in different conditions.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Dalai Lama Trust Fund

Contact: Charlotte Hsu
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 4-May-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New technique shows shale-drilling additives in drinking-water taps near leak
Substances commonly used for drilling or extracting Marcellus shale gas foamed from the drinking water taps of three Pennsylvania homes near a reported well-pad leak, according to new analysis from a team of scientists.
National Science Foundation, Restek Corporation, Leco Corporation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 4-May-2015
Nature Climate Change
New climate projections paint bleak future for tropical coral reefs
As greater atmospheric carbon dioxide boosts sea temperatures, tropical corals face a bleak future. New climate model projections show that conditions are likely to increase the frequency and severity of coral disease outbreaks, reports a team of researchers led by Cornell University scientists, published today in Nature Climate Change.
NOAA Climate Program Office and National Science Foundation

Contact: Syl Kacapyr
Cornell University

Public Release: 4-May-2015
2015 Adhesive and Sealant Council Annual Meeting
Puget Sound's clingfish could inspire better medical devices, whale tags
Researchers at the University of Washington's Friday Harbor Laboratories are looking at how the biomechanics of clingfish could be helpful in designing devices and instruments to be used in surgery and even to tag and track whales in the ocean.
National Science Foundation, The Seaver Foundation

Contact: Michelle Ma
University of Washington

Public Release: 4-May-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Pollen and clouds: April flowers bring May showers?
The main job of pollen is to help seed the next generation of trees and plants, but a new study from the University of Michigan and Texas A&M shows that the grains might also seed clouds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicole Casal Moore
University of Michigan

Public Release: 4-May-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Virginia Tech researcher shines light on origin of bioluminescence
Bioluminescence at least in one millipede may have evolved as a way to survive in a hot, dry environment, not as a means to ward off predators, according to scientists publishing in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society

Contact: Amy Loeffler
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 4-May-2015
Nature Nanotechnology
Defects in atomically thin semiconductor emit single photons
Researchers at the University of Rochester have shown that defects on an atomically thin semiconductor can produce light-emitting quantum dots. The quantum dots serve as a source of single photons and could be useful for the integration of quantum photonics with solid-state electronics -- a combination known as integrated photonics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leonor Sierra
University of Rochester

Public Release: 3-May-2015
Genes & Development
Study shows where damaged DNA goes for repair
New research sheds light on the process of DNA repair in the cell. Expanded repeats of the CAG/CTG trinucleotide in yeast shift to the periphery of the cell nucleus for repair. This shift is important for preventing repeat instability and genetic disease. Going out to the 'repair shop' at the nuclear periphery is a previously unrecognized yet important step to maintain repetitive DNA and to prevent damage to chromosomes.
National Institutes of Health, Tufts University, Swiss National Science Foundation, Human Frontiers Science Program

Contact: Kim Thurler
Tufts University

Public Release: 1-May-2015
Beetlejuice! Secrets of beetle sprays unlocked at the Advanced Photon Source
Researchers using the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy user facility at Argonne National Laboratory, have gotten the first-ever look inside the living beetle as it sprays. The results are published today in Science.
US Army Research Laboratory, US Army Research Office/MIT Institute of Soldier Nanotechnologies, National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense, US Department of Energy's Office of Science

Contact: Louise Lerner
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Public Release: 1-May-2015
Science Advances
Inanimate beads behave in lifelike ways
Synthetic microscopic beads sense changes in their environment and self-propel to migrate upstream, a step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.
National Science Foundation, US Army Research Office, NASA, Moore Foundation

Contact: Susan Brown
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 1-May-2015
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Citizen science helps predict spread of sudden oak death
Efforts to predict the emergence and spread of sudden oak death, an infectious tree-killing disease, have gotten a big boost from the work of grassroots volunteers. A joint study led by researchers at UC Berkeley and NC State reveals that years of data from SOD Blitz, a survey project in which volunteers are trained to identify symptoms of sudden oak death, led to better predictive models of the disease's spread.
National Science Foundation, US Forest Service, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, PG&E Foundation

Contact: Sarah Yang
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 1-May-2015
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Citizen science helps predict risk of emerging infectious disease
More than 1,600 trained citizen scientists boosted the reach and accuracy of a long-term geographic mapping project to predict the spread of sudden oak death, an infectious disease that's killed millions of trees in California and Oregon. Results showed that trained volunteers were just as reliable in collecting data as professionals, resulting in accurate computer models for predicting the plant disease's spread.
National Science Foundation, US Forest Service, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Ross Meentemeyer
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Applications in Plant Sciences
See flower cells in 3-D -- no electron microscopy required
High-resolution imaging of plant cells is important in many plant studies, and the most commonly used method is scanning electron microscopy (SEM). But SEM can have limitations, including damage to material during sample preparation and high equipment costs. Researchers at the University of Florida have developed an optical sectioning–3-D reconstruction method using a compound fluorescence light microscope. The new method (published in Applications in Plant Sciences) is simpler and more cost-effective than SEM.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Dull forest glow yields orbital tracking of photosynthesis
New research provides some crucial ground truth for a method of measuring plant photosynthesis on a global scale from orbit. The work shows that chlorophyll fluorescence, a faint glow produced by plant leaves as a byproduct of photosynthesis, is a strong proxy for photosynthetic activity in the canopy of a deciduous forest.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Long Term Ecological Research Network

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
IU researcher looks to Internet as new frontier in collecting data on the mind
With Apple's launch of new health tracking tools for the iPhone and medical researchers' forays into Facebook to recruit clinical trial volunteers, Web and mobile apps are increasingly seen as a new source for health data. But psychologists are also looking to the Internet as a new source of information about the mind -- and an Indiana University researcher is on the forefront of those developing the tools to make it happen.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Rehab robot HARMONY introduced by UT Austin engineers
Mechanical engineering researcher Ashish Deshpande and a team of graduate students from the Rehabilitation and Neuromuscular (ReNeu) Robotics Lab designed the exoskeleton, named HARMONY, to deliver full upper-body therapy with natural motion and tunable pressure and force, enabling the robot to feel weightless to patients. HARMONY's software will give therapists and doctors the ability to deliver precise therapy while tracking and analyzing data.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ashley Lindstrom
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Applications in Plant Sciences
MarkerMiner 1.0: An easy-to-use bioinformatics platform for DNA analysis in angiosperms
Researchers have developed MarkerMiner, a new software that simplifies analysis of next-generation sequencing data in angiosperms. MarkerMiner is an automated, open-source, bioinformatics workflow that aids plant researchers in the discovery of single-copy nuclear genes. The software (published in Applications in Plant Sciences) is easy to use, offers a multipurpose, configurable output, and is accessible to users with limited bioinformatics training or without access to computing resources.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Meet the beetle that packs a machine gun
An interdisciplinary collaboration including materials scientists, an imaging expert and an entomologist discovered how bombardier beetles manage to fire rapid bursts of a searing hot chemical mix at predators or other creatures that harass them.
US Department of Energy, MIT Institute of Soldier Nanotechnologies, MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering, National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship, National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel Stolte
University of Arizona

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Fossils inform marine conservation
Fossils help predict which animals are likely to go extinct. Scientists combine information from the fossil record with information about hotspots of human impact to pinpoint animal groups and geographic areas of highest concern for marine conservation.
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, National Science Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Panama's National Secretariat for Science, Technology and Innovation, Australian Research Council and others

Contact: Beth King
202-633-4700 x28216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Waking proteins up from deep sleep to study their motions
In order to carry out their functions, proteins need to move. Scientists at EPFL have developed a new technique to study motions in proteins with unprecedented accuracy. The method, which is based on NMR, freezes proteins down to immobility, then slowly heats them to 'wake them up' and restart motions individually and in sequence, providing a slow-motion image of real conditions.
Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Access to Research Infrastructures Activity in the Seventh Framework Program of the European Commission, Swiss National Science Foundation, European Union Independent Regulators Group, University of Warwick

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Fossils help identify marine life at high risk of extinction today
A study of marine animals that went extinct over the past 23 million years found commonalities that can tell biologists which taxa and ecosystems are most at risk of extinction today. When overlaid with human impacts of overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction and ocean acidification, these risk maps may help pinpoint hotspots of future extinction. The study, led by Seth Finnegan of UC Berkeley, found that mammals are 10 times more vulnerable to extinction than clams.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 30-Apr-2015
Quantum-mechanical monopoles discovered
Researchers at Aalto University and Amherst College have observed a point-like monopole in a quantum field itself for the first time. This discovery connects to important characteristics of the elusive monopole magnet. The researchers performed an experiment in which they manipulated a gas of rubidium atoms prepared in a nonmagnetic state near absolute zero temperature. Under these extreme conditions they were able to create a monopole in the quantum-mechanical field that describes the gas.
National Science Foundation, Academy of Finland, Finnish Doctoral Programme in Computational Sciences, Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation

Contact: Mikko Möttönen
Aalto University

Public Release: 29-Apr-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Can photosynthesis be measured over large areas? MBL, Brown U. scientists find a way
By mounting cameras and spectral sensors over a forest canopy in central Massachusetts, scientists have developed an innovative system to measure plant photosynthesis over large areas, such as acres of crops or trees, using information on solar-induced fluorescence in the leaves. The system, which can monitor plant growth and several other ecosystem changes, was developed by a team led by Marine Biological Laboratory and Brown University scientists. It is described in a recent paper in Geophysical Research Letters.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Kenney
Marine Biological Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Apr-2015
Food Microbiology
Research seeks alternatives for reducing bacteria in fresh produce using nanoengineering
Nearly half of foodborne illnesses in the US have been attributed to contaminated fresh produce. Prevention and control of bacterial contamination on fresh produce is critical to ensure food safety. The current strategy remains industrial washing of the product in water containing chlorine. Due to sanitizer ineffectiveness there is an urgent need to identify alternative, natural antimicrobials. Wayne State University researchers have been exploring alternative antimicrobials along with nanoengineering techniques to address this need.
Nell I Mondy Fellowship and National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie O'Connor
Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research

Public Release: 29-Apr-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Chromosome-folding theory shows promise
Rice University biophysicists are working toward an energy-landscape theory for chromosomes. The theory could help scientists understand the genomic roots of gene regulation, DNA replication and cell differentiation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Showing releases 726-750 out of 854.

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