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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 76-100 out of 934.

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Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Nature Microbiology
Tiny alpaca-derived antibodies point to targets preventing viral infection
Using tiny, alpaca-derived, single-domain antibody fragments, Whitehead Institute scientists have developed a method to perturb cellular processes in mammalian cells, allowing them to tease apart the roles that individual proteins play in these pathways. With improved knowledge of protein activity, scientists can better understand not only basic biology but also how disease corrupts cellular function and identify potential therapeutics to rectify these aberrations.
National Institutes of Health, Fujifilm/MediVector, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicole Giese Rura
rura@wi.mit.edu
617-258-6851
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

Public Release: 18-Jun-2016
ASM Microbe 2016
Ongoing monitoring of Legionella in Flint in the wake of the drinking water crisis
Research presented at the ASM Microbe meeting suggests that microbial water quality issues of Flint drinking water are improving, based on recent testing in March 2016, but that continued vigilance is in order. The research, performed by the Flint Water Study team at Virginia Tech, found that levels of DNA markers for Legionella have decreased throughout Flint since October 2015 before the water change, but did confirm that pathogenic forms of the bacteria, including L. pneumophila, were culturable at some sampling points.
National Science Foundation, The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science

Contact: Aleea Khan
communications@asmusa.org
202-942-9365
American Society for Microbiology

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
2016 Symposium on VLSI Technology and Circuits
World's first 1,000-processor chip
A microchip containing 1,000 independent programmable processors has been designed by a team at the University of California, Davis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The energy-efficient 'KiloCore' chip has a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second and contains 621 million transistors.
US Department of Defense, National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
ahfell@ucdavis.edu
530-752-4533
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
American Naturalist
New lizard found in Dominican Republic
A University of Toronto-led team has reported the discovery of a new lizard in the Dominican Republic, strengthening a long-held theory that communities of lizards can evolve almost identically on separate islands. The chameleon-like lizard -- a Greater Antillean anole dubbed Anolis landestoyi for the naturalist who first spotted and photographed it -- is one of the first new anole species found in the Dominican Republic in decades.
National Science Foundation, Harvard University's David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies

Contact: Sean Bettam
s.bettam@utoronto.ca
416-946-7950
University of Toronto

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Breaking out: How black hole jets punch out of their galaxies
New simulations of the jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes in the cores of galaxies show how powerful ones force their way through surrounding gas and drill out of the galaxy, channeling hot gas into the interstellar medium. Weaker jets stall, dumping their hot gas inside and heating up the entire galaxy. Stalled jets may be part of the black hole feedback mechanism that periodically halts inflow of gas feeding the black hole.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Discovery of gold nanocluster 'double' hints at other shape-changing particles
Researchers discovered an entirely unexpected atomic arrangement of Gold-144, a molecule-sized nanogold cluster whose structure had been theoretically predicted but never confirmed.
Department of Energy Office of Science, National Science Foundation, Villum Foundation, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Colorado State University, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Ariana Tantillo
atantillo@bnl.gov
631-344-2347
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
RIT and UW-Madison study high-tech workforce, 21st century competencies
An NSF-funded study exploring how high-tech employees learn to develop competencies relevant to the workplace is the focus of a collaboration between Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. RIT researchers are investigating how and when students and employees learn transferable skills that are critical for success in school, life and work, and how educators and employers value and cultivate these skills.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Gawlowicz
smguns@rit.edu
585-475-5061
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
Researchers to study how microbes become 'fungi in ant's clothing'
A pair of grants worth more than $2 million will enable Penn State researchers to study how microbial parasites control the behaviors and characteristics of their animal hosts.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
Study of flowers' co-evolution with bees and hummingbirds earns professor major grants
With a pair of grants from the National Science Foundation together totaling $2.5 million, a researcher at the University of Kansas is investigating how natural selection has enabled flowers to shift strategies from bee-pollination to hummingbird pollination, contributing to this stunning diversity in flower form.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brendan Lynch
brendan@ku.edu
785-864-8855
University of Kansas

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
Cell Reports
Summer session fruit fly data leads to promising new target in colorectal cancer
University of Colorado Cancer Center study shows role of TIP60 (alongside previously known CDK8) in allowing human colorectal cancer cells to survive at the oxygen-poor centers of tumors.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Garth Sundem
garth.sundem@ucdenver.edu
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Journal of Experimental Biology
Video captures tadpole escape artists in Panama
Although red-eyed tree frog embryos appear helpless within their jelly-coated eggs, they can hatch up to two days ahead of schedule, reacting within seconds to attacks by egg thieves. At the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, scientists used high-speed video to uncover their rapid-hatching secret.
National Science Foundation, Boston University, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Contact: Beth King
kingb@si.edu
507-212-8216
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
American Journal of Botany
Functional traits of Giant Sequoia crown leaves respond to environmental threats
As many as 2 billion leaves on a sequoia vie for resources. Established leaves that live for up to 20 years draw water up the tree's trunk and send nutrients down, while the trunk amasses wood and survives for thousands of years. The giant sequoia's size is possible in part because its leaves are responsive to environmental changes. Under changing conditions, will giant sequoia groves and other old-growth conifer forests be at heightened risk of degradation?
The Kenneth L. Fisher Chair of Redwood Forest Ecology at Humboldt State University, Save the Redwoods League, National Science Foundation

Contact: Richard Hund
rhund@botany.org
314-577-9557
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Simulations describe HIV's 'diabolical delivery device'
University of Chicago scientists and their colleagues have developed an innovative computer model of HIV that gives real insight into how a virus 'matures' and becomes infective.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Koppes
skoppes@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366
University of Chicago

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Astrophysical Journal Letters
'Mosh pits' in star clusters a likely source of LIGO's first black holes
Northwestern University astrophysicists have predicted history. They show their theoretical predictions last year were correct: The merger of two massive black holes detected Sept. 14, 2015, could easily have formed through dynamic interactions in the star-dense core of a globular cluster. These binary black holes are born in the cluster's chaotic 'mosh pit,' kicked out of the cluster and then eventually merge into one black hole. LIGO's first detection of colliding black holes is perfectly consistent with the Northwestern model.
National Science Foundation and NASA

Contact: Megan Fellman
fellman@northwestern.edu
847-491-3115
Northwestern University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Physical Review Letters
Scientists detect second pair of colliding black holes
The new window onto the universe just opened a little bit wider. For the second time in history, an international team of scientists, including Northwestern University astrophysicists and a laser scientist, has detected gravitational waves and a pair of colliding black holes. This time, the gravitational waves resulted in a longer signal, or chirp, providing more data. The higher-frequency gravitational waves from the lower-mass black holes of the second pair better spread across the LIGO detectors' sweet spot of sensitivity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
fellman@northwestern.edu
847-491-3115
Northwestern University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Physical Review Letters
New gravitational wave observed from second pair of black holes
Gravitational waves from a second pair of colliding black holes has validated the landmark discovery from earlier this year that confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity. Rochester Institute of Technology scientists contributed to the initial breakthrough and to the second discovery announced today by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Gawlowicz
smguns@rit.edu
585-475-5061
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Work and Occupations
Study offers explanation for why women leave engineering
Women who go to college intending to become engineers stay in the profession less often than men. Why is this? While multiple reasons have been offered in the past, a new study co-authored by an MIT sociologist develops a novel explanation: The negative group dynamics women tend to experience during team-based work projects makes the profession less appealing.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Physical Review Letters
Did gravitational wave detector find dark matter?
When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had the experiment found the "dark matter" that makes up most of the mass of the universe?
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John Templeton Foundation, Simons Foundation

Contact: Arthur Hirsch
443-997-9909
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
ACM Sigmetrics 2016
New study highlights power of crowd to transmit news on Twitter
The tiny fraction of headlines that news editors push out on Twitter draw a large share of eyeballs, but it's the stories recommended by friends that trigger more clicks. In what may be the first independent study of news consumption on social media, researchers at Columbia University and Inria found that reader referrals drove 61 percent of the nearly 10 million clicks in a random sample of news stories posted on Twitter.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim Martineau
klm32@columbia.edu
646-717-0134
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Hormones and Behavior
When it comes to evolution, testes may play a key role, IU studies find
A pair of studies on dark-eyed juncos, led by Indiana University led by Kimberly Rosvall, assistant professor in the IU College of Arts and Sciences' Department of Biology, finds that the gonads play a larger role than previously thought in evolution. The research appears in the journals of Hormones and Behavior and of Integrative and Comparative Biology.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
kfryling@iu.edu
812-856-2988
Indiana University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
How the butterfly got its spots
By tweaking just one or two genes, Cornell University researchers have altered the patterns on a butterfly's wings. It's not just a new art form, but a major clue to understanding how the butterflies have evolved, and perhaps to how color patterns -- and other patterns and shapes -- have evolved in other species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Melissa Osgood
mmo59@cornell.edu
607-255-2059
Cornell University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Science China: Earth Sciences
Homologues temperature of olivine links deformation experiments and rheology of the upper mantle
The homologues temperature of a crystalline material is defined as the ratio between its temperature and the melting (solidus) temperature in Kelvin. The melting temperature of olivine decreases with increasing iron content and water content, and increases with pressure. Here the homologues temperature of olivine is used to compare the creep strength of the upper mantle in different tectonic settings, and to investigate fabric transitions of olivine in deformation experiments and natural samples.
National Science Foundation of China, Chinese Ministry of Land Resources

Contact: WANG Qin
qwang@nju.edu.cn
Science China Press

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Physical Review Letters
Gravitational waves detected for a second time
On Dec. 26, 2015 scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time. Both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors -- located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington -- detected the gravitational wave event, named GW151226. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) and the Virgo Collaboration used data from the twin LIGO detectors to make the discovery, which is accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters.
National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, Australian Research Council

Contact: Matthew Wright
mewright@umd.edu
301-405-9267
University of Maryland

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
For tropical mayflies, mountain passes are higher indeed
A study led by Colorado State University biologists shows that insect populations in the tropics exhibit a higher number of distinct species than in the Rockies. But the distinctions between those species consist of subtle, genetic differences that aren't readily visible. These are called cryptic species -- by the looks of things identical, but actually genetically distinct.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne Ju Manning
anne.manning@colostate.edu
970-491-7099
Colorado State University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Physical Review Letters
Gravitational waves detected from second pair of colliding black holes
On Dec. 26, 2015, at 03:38:53 UTC, scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time.
National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Australian Research Council

Contact: Kimberly Allen
allenkc@mit.edu
617-253-2702
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Showing releases 76-100 out of 934.

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