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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 751-775 out of 897.

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Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Journal of Microengineering and Nanotechnology
New device uses carbon nanotubes to snag molecules
Engineers at MIT have devised a new technique for trapping hard-to-detect molecules, using forests of carbon nanotubes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New research shows same growth rate for farming, non-farming prehistoric people
Prehistoric human populations of hunter-gatherers in a region of North America grew at the same rate as farming societies in Europe, according to a new radiocarbon analysis. The findings challenge the commonly held view that the advent of agriculture 10,000-12,000 years ago accelerated human population growth.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Erick Robinson
erick.robinson@uwyo.edu
307-766-5136
University of Wyoming

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Psychological Science
Protecting a few students from negative stereotypes benefits entire classroom
Interventions targeted at individual students can improve the classroom environment and trigger a second wave of benefits for all classmates, new research shows. The findings, published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, indicate that sharing a classroom with greater numbers of students who participate in a brief intervention can boost all students' grades over and above the initial benefits of the intervention.
National Science Foundation, Spencer Foundation, William T. Grant Foundation, Russell Sage Foundation, Nellie Mae Education Foundation, Institute for Social and Policy Studies of Yale University

Contact: Anna Mikulak
amikulak@psychologicalscience.org
202-293-9300
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Aryeh Warmflash wins NSF CAREER Award
Rice bioscientist Aryeh Warmflash has won a National Science Foundation CAREER Award to advance his study of human embryonic development.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Nature Materials
Eyes turn into skin: How inflammation can change the fate of cells
EPFL scientists have found that chronic inflammation can cause regenerating cells to grow into new, aberrant types; this is called metaplasia, and is a disorder linked to prolonged inflammation. The study highlights a new concept of chronic inflammation and could lead to better treatments.
OptiStem, Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Cancer League, Marie Curie Foundation, EuroSystem, European Research Council

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Confidence counts: Accuracy of eyewitness IDs increases with degree of certainty
Field study of police lineups suggests courts must pay attention to initial witness confidence ratings and police departments should continue using traditional, simultaneous procedure.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Inga Kiderra
ikiderra@ucsd.edu
858-822-0661
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Melting sea ice increases Arctic precipitation, complicates climate predictions
The melting of sea ice will significantly increase Arctic precipitation, creating a climate feedback comparable to doubling global carbon dioxide, a Dartmouth College-led study finds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
john.cramer@dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Normal weather drives salt marsh erosion
Coastal wetlands are in retreat in many locations around the globe -- raising deep concerns about damage to the wildlife that the marshes nourish and the loss of their ability to protect against violent storms. The biggest cause of their erosion is waves driven by moderate storms, not occasional major events such as Hurricane Sandy, researchers from Boston University and the United States Geological Survey now have shown.
National Science Foundation, US Geological Survey

Contact: Kira Jastive
kjastive@bu.edu
617-358-1240
Boston University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Methane emissions in Arctic cold season higher than expected
The amount of methane gas escaping from the ground during the long cold period in the Arctic each year and entering Earth's atmosphere is likely much higher than estimated by current climate change models. Far more methane is escaping from Arctic tundra during the cold months -- when the soil surface is frozen -- as well as from upland tundra, than prevailing assumptions and climate modelers previously believed.
National Science Foundation, NASA, US Department of Energy

Contact: Beth Chee
bchee@mail.sdsu.edu
619-594-4563
San Diego State University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Nature Chemistry
Simple physical mechanism for assembly and disassembly of structures inside cells
For the first time, scientists have demonstrated a simple charge-based mechanism for regulating the formation and dissolution of liquid-like structures that lack outer membranes inside cells. The research is a first step in deciphering how these poorly-understood structures function in many kinds of reactions within cells, and also how they may have evolved.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Barbara Kennedy
science@psu.edu
814-863-4682
Penn State

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Nanoscale
Magnetic nanoparticle chains offer new technique for controlling soft robots
Researchers have developed a technique that uses chains of magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate elastic polymers in three dimensions, which could be used to remotely control new 'soft robots.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
919-515-6386
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
PLOS Genetics
Bacteria battle: How one changes appearance, moves away to resist the other
Two types of bacteria found in the soil have enabled scientists at Texas A&M AgriLife Research to get the dirt on how resistance to antibiotics develops along with a separate survival strategy. The study, published in the journal PLOS Genetics this month, identifies an atypical antibiotic molecule and the way in which the resistance to that molecule arises, including the identity of the genes that are responsible, according to Dr. Paul Straight, AgriLife Research biochemist.
National Science Foundation, Robert A. Welch Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Phillips
ka-phillips@tamu.edu
979-845-2872
Texas A&M AgriLife Communications

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Developmental Cell
Branching out: Engineers reveal mechanisms of complex organ structures
Princeton researchers have observed the artistry of developing lungs unfold in a petri dish and have arrived at a surprising conclusion about the forces that shape it.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, and Susan G. Komen for the Cure

Contact: John Sullivan
js29@princeton.edu
609-439-2310
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Coastal marshes more resilient to sea-level rise than previously believed
Rising seas threaten coastal marshes worldwide. But a new Duke study finds marshes are more resilient than previously believed. Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 boost plant biomass production, allowing marshes to trap more sediment and generate more organic soil. This may elevate the threshold rate of relative sea-level rise at which marsh drowning is initiated by up to 60 percent and partially offset the effects of reduced sediment delivery and accelerating sea-level rise.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
tdlucas@duke.edu
919-613-8084
Duke University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Brain
Stroke recovery in mice improved by Ambien, Stanford study shows
Mice that had strokes rebounded significantly faster if they received low doses of a popular sleeping aid, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
National Institutes of Health, Bernard and Ronni Lacroute, Russell and Elizabeth Siegelman, National Science Foundation

Contact: Bruce Goldman
goldmanb@stanford.edu
650-725-9175
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Land Use Policy
Researchers test sustainable forestry policies on tropical deforestation, logging
New research by a Dartmouth scientist and her colleagues shows that policies aimed at protecting tropical forests in the Congo Basin may unexpectedly lead to increased deforestation and timber production.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
john.cramer@dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
eLife
Scientists manipulate consciousness in rats
Scientists showed that they could alter brain activity of rats and either wake them up or put them in an unconscious state by changing the firing rates of neurons in the central thalamus, a region known to regulate arousal. The study, published in eLIFE, was partially funded by the National Institutes of Health.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Okawa Foundation for Information and Telecommunications, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation/Mathers Charitable Foundation, Stanford Bio-X, James and Carrie Anderson Fund

Contact: Christopher G. Thomas
nindspressteam@ninds.nih.gov
301-496-5751
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Nature
Scientists peg Anthropocene to first farmers
A new analysis of the fossil record shows that a deep pattern in the structure of plant and animal communities remained the same for 300 million years. Then, 6,000 years ago, the pattern was disrupted--at about the same time that people started farming in North America and populations rose. The research suggests that humans were the cause of this profound change in nature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
joshua.e.brown@uvm.edu
802-656-3039
University of Vermont

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences
Study: Safety net fails grandmother caregivers living in severe poverty
The number of grandmothers raising their grandchildren spiked during the Great Recession, but those living in poverty often struggle with a public assistance system not designed to meet their unique needs.
National Science Foundation, Administration for Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services

Contact: Deborah Bach
bach2@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Zootaxa
First praying mantis survey of Rwanda uncovers rich diversity
A college student working at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History was lead author on the first formal survey of praying mantises in Rwanda, which revealed a 155 percent increase in praying mantis species diversity for the African country.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Glenda Bogar
gbogar@cmnh.org
216-231-2071
Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Agewandte Chemie
Turning rice farming waste to useful silica compounds
'DO NOT EAT.' That's what's marked on the innocuous little packets that contain the most widely known form of precipitated silica. They're used to absorb moisture that could damage new products, and most of us don't think much about them.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Gabe Cherry
gcherry@umich.edu
University of Michigan

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Journal of Experimental Biology
Snake bellies help scientists get a grip
An NSF-funded UC researcher sheds light on how snakes' sharp-edged belly keels improve climbing abilities, which could lead to bio-inspired robotic designs and new methods to prevent snake invasion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Robinette
tom.robinette@uc.edu
513-556-1825
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Science
A gene for new species is discovered
A University of Utah-led study identified a long-sought 'hybrid inviability gene' responsible for dead or infertile offspring when two species of fruit flies mate with each other. The discovery sheds light on the genetic and molecular process leading to formation of new species, and may provide clues to how cancer develops.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Life Sciences Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Mathers Foundation, and others

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Journal of Applied Ecology
Darwin's finches may face extinction
Mathematical simulations at the University of Utah show parasitic flies may spell extinction for Darwin's finches in the Galapagos Islands, but that pest-control efforts might save the birds that helped inspire the theory of evolution.
National Science Foundation, Sigma Xi, National Institutes of Health, Australian Research Council; University of Utah Global Change and Sustainability Center, American Museum of Natural History

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
lee.siegel@utah.edu
801-244-5399
University of Utah

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Current Biology
Despite poaching, elephants' social networks hold steady
While the demand for ivory has put elephants under incredible pressure from poachers, their rich social networks have remained remarkably steady. That's according to evidence on the grouping patterns among adult female elephants living in northern Kenya over a 16-year period, which show that daughters often step up to take the place of their fallen mothers. The findings are reported in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Dec. 17.
National Science Foundation, Save the Elephants

Contact: Joseph Caputo
jcaputo@cell.com
617-397-2802
Cell Press

Showing releases 751-775 out of 897.

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