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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 751-775 out of 822.

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Public Release: 11-Nov-2014
Supercomputing beyond genealogy reveals surprising European ancestors
Most Europeans today derive from three distinct populations, as evidenced by sequenced genomes of nine ancient remains and 2,345 contemporary humans. Genomic analysis of modern and ancient DNA, combined with archeological evidence is revealing new complexity in human history. Scientists used the NSF XSEDE Stampede supercomputer of the Texas Advanced Computing Center to model and compare genomic data of ancient and modern Europeans.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Faith Singer
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 11-Nov-2014
Journal of Ecology
Tree diseases can help forests
Plant diseases attack trees and crops and can hurt lumber and food production, but University of Utah biologists found that pathogens that kill tree seedlings actually can make forests more diverse.
Sigma Xi-The Scientific Research Society, Smithsonian Institution, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
21st ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
Wireless devices used by casual pilots vulnerable to hacking, computer scientists find
A new class of apps and wireless devices used by private pilots during flights for everything from GPS information to data about nearby aircraft is vulnerable to a wide range of security attacks, which in some scenarios could lead to catastrophic outcomes, according to computer scientists at the University of California, San Diego and Johns Hopkins University. They presented their findings Nov. 5 at the 21st ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security in Scottsdale, Ariz.
National Science Foundation, University of San Diego

Contact: Ioana Patringenaru
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study ties conflict risk in sub-Saharan Africa to climate change, economics, geography
A massive new University of Colorado Boulder study indicates there is a statistical link between hotter temperatures generated by climate change and the risk of armed conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John O'Loughlin
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Division of Planetary Science, American Astronomical Society
Astrophysical Journal
Baby photos of a scaled-up solar system
University of Arizona astronomers have discovered two dust belts surrounded by a large dust halo around young star HD 95086. The findings provide a look back at what our solar system may have resembled in its infancy.
NASA, National Science Foundation, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft -und Raumfahrt

Contact: Daniel Stolte
University of Arizona

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
SwRI-led team telescope effort reveals asteroid's size for the first time
When the double asteroid Patroclus-Menoetius passed directly in front of a star on the night of Oct. 20, a team of volunteer astronomers across the US was waiting.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joe Fohn
Southwest Research Institute

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
The cat's meow: Genome reveals clues to domestication
Cats and humans have shared the same households for at least 9,000 years, but we still know very little about how our feline friends became domesticated. An analysis of the cat genome by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis reveals some surprising clues. The research appears Nov. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.
NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute , National Science Foundation, Morris Animal Foundation, European Research Council, Government of Spain, National Center for Resarch Resources, Winn Feline Foundation

Contact: Diane Duke Williams
Washington University School of Medicine

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Nature Geoscience
Robotic ocean gliders aid study of melting polar ice
Caltech researchers use robotic ocean gliders to study how warm water is making its way to Antarctic ice sheets -- and how this warming ultimately leads to rising ocean levels.
National Science Foundation, NERC/Antarctic Funding Initiative, Caltech President's and Director's Fund

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Researcher sees laptop-cooling technology as way to less-thirsty power plants
With a new grant from the NSF, Theodore Bergman is looking at how power plants might be cooled with 'closed thermosyphons' used to keep laptop computers from overheating.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brendan M Lynch
University of Kansas

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
UT Arlington computer scientist wins NSF grant to help bolster online privacy
A National Science Foundation grant will help Matthew Wright, UTA associate professor of computer science and engineering, study smarter ways to protect online privacy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Marine Chemistry
New global maps detail human-caused ocean acidification
A team of scientists has published the most comprehensive picture yet of how acidity levels vary across the world's oceans, providing a benchmark for years to come as enormous amounts of human-caused carbon emissions continue to wind up at sea. The maps are published in the journal Marine Chemistry.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim Martineau
The Earth Institute at Columbia University

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Nature Materials
Heat transfer sets the noise floor for ultrasensitive electronics
A team of engineers and scientists has identified a source of electronic noise that could affect the functioning of instruments operating at very low temperatures, such as devices used in radio telescopes and advanced physics experiments. The findings could have implications for the future design of transistors and other electronic components.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Archaeologists discover remains of Ice Age infants in Alaska
The remains of two Ice Age infants, buried more than 11,000 years ago at a site in Alaska, represent the youngest human remains ever found in northern North America, according to a new paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Marmian Grimes
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Global warming not just a blanket -- in the long run, it's more like tanning oil
Instead of carbon dioxide being like a blanket that slowly warms the planet, after about a decade most warming comes from melting ice and snow and a more moist atmosphere, which both cause the Earth to absorb more shortwave radiation from the sun.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, James S. McDonnell Foundation

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Of gods and men
New research finds that cultures living in harsher ecosystems with limited resources are more prone to a belief in moralizing, high gods. The results indicate that other cross-disciplinary factors, including as political complexity, also influence this belief.
National Science Foundation, National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, John Templeton Foundation, Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Grant

Contact: Nicole Duncan
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent)

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
How variable are ocean temperatures?
The earth's climate appears to have been more variable over the past 7,000 years than often thought. In a new study, scientists from the Potsdam-based Alfred Wegener Institute and Harvard University show that sea surface temperatures reconstructed from climate archives vary to a much greater extent on long time scales than simulated by climate models. The consequence: either the analysed climate archives supply inaccurate temperature signals, or the tested models underestimate the regional climate fluctuations in the Earth's recent history.
Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Daimler and Benz Foundation, Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association, National Science Foundation

Contact: Thomas Laepple
Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research

Public Release: 10-Nov-2014
Cancer Cell
Classification of gene mutations in a children's cancer may point to improved treatments
Oncology researchers studying gene mutations in the children's cancer neuroblastoma are refining their diagnostic tools to predict which patients are more likely to respond to drugs called ALK inhibitors that target such mutations.
National Institutes of Health, US Army Peer-Reviewed Medical Research Program, National Science Foundation

Contact: Rachel Salis-Silverman
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Public Release: 8-Nov-2014
74th Annual Meeting of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology
A/C came standard on armored dinosaur models
A new study shows that armor-plated dinosaurs (ankylosaurs) had the capacity to modify the temperature of the air they breathed in an exceptional way: by using their long, winding nasal passages as heat transfer devices.
National Science Foundation, Ohio University, Jurassic Foundation, Sigma Xi

Contact: Anthony Friscia
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

Public Release: 6-Nov-2014
Physical Review E
Researchers develop new model to study epidemics
For decades, scientists have been perfecting models of how contagions spread, but newly published research takes the first steps toward a model that includes the interaction between individual human behavior and the behavior of the epidemic itself. The highly complex model accounts for the speed of modern communication and travel, both of which change contagion probability. The team hopes the model will more accurately guide travel restrictions and who should be vaccinated and isolated.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering

Public Release: 6-Nov-2014
Konza Prairie research program receives $6.76 million NSF grant renewal
The National Science Foundation renewed Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research program with a $6.76 million grant.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Blair
Kansas State University

Public Release: 6-Nov-2014
IEEE Sensors 2014 conference
Cockroach cyborgs use microphones to detect, trace sounds
Researchers have developed technology that allows cyborg cockroaches, or biobots, to pick up sounds with small microphones and seek out the source of the sound. The technology is designed to help emergency personnel find and rescue survivors in the aftermath of a disaster.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 6-Nov-2014
Hungry bats compete for prey by jamming sonar
A study published today in Science shows that Mexican free-tailed bats jam the sonar of competitors to gain advantage in aerial foraging contests.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bonnie Davis
Wake Forest University

Public Release: 6-Nov-2014
Transitions between states of matter: It's more complicated, scientists find
The seemingly simple process of phase changes -- those transitions between states of matter -- is more complex than previously known, according to research based at Princeton University, Peking University, and NYU.
Office of Naval Research, Army Research Office, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation of China

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 6-Nov-2014
Rare 2.5-billion-year-old rocks reveal hot spot of sulfur-breathing bacteria
Biogeochemical signals in 2.5-billion-year-old carbonate rocks from Brazil reveal that sulfur-consuming bacteria were active at a time when ocean sulfur levels were low. Geology graduate student Iadviga Zhelezinskaia is the first researcher to focus on sulfur isotopes in ancient carbonate rocks. Her study sheds light on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry, and appears in the Nov. 7 issue of Science.
Fulbright Program, NASA Astrobiology Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Robinson
University of Maryland

Public Release: 5-Nov-2014
Evolutionary Applications
Mosquitofish genitalia change rapidly due to human impacts
Human environmental changes can markedly -- and rapidly -- affect fish shape, specifically the shape of mosquitofish genitalia in the Bahamas.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Langerhans
North Carolina State University

Showing releases 751-775 out of 822.

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